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The Principles of Design. The Structures Behind Improved Print Design . The elements and principles of design are the building blocks used to create The elements of design can be thought of as the things that make up a layout

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The principles of design

The Principles of Design

The Structures Behind Improved Print Design

Elements of design


Elements of design the line

  • Line blocks used to can be considered in two ways:

  • the linear marks made with a design toolor the edge created when two shapes meet

Elements of Design: the line

Elements of design shape

  • A blocks used to shape is a self contained defined area of geometric or organic form

  • A positive shape in a design automatically creates a negative shape (aka white space)

Elements of design: SHAPE

Elements of design direction

  • All blocks used to lines have direction - Horizontal, Vertical or Oblique.

  • Horizontal suggests calmness, stability and tranquillity.

  • Vertical gives a feeling of balance, formality and alertness

  • Oblique suggests movement and action

Elements of Design: Direction

Elements of design size

  • Size blocks used to is simply the relationship of the area occupied by one shape to that of another

  • Size can denote importance


Elements of design texture

  • Texture is perceived surface blocks used to quality

  • Print design largely uses implied texture (the surface of an object looks like it feels. The texture may look rough, fizzy, gritty, but cannot actually be felt)


Elements of design colour

  • aka swatches (in InDesign) blocks used to

  • Considered to be the most expressive element

  • Can create illusionof depth

  • Can draw attention to a particular part

  • Increases visual appeal

  • Complementarycolours help create contrast

  • Monochromatic colours are tints and shades of the same colour

  • Warm colours: reds, yellows, oranges

  • Cool colours: blues, greens, and purples


Primary colours
Primary blocks used to colours

Secondary colours
Secondary blocks used to colours

Tertiary colours
Tertiary blocks used to Colours

Complimentary colours
Complimentary blocks used to Colours

Triad colours
Triad blocks used to Colours

Analogous colours
ANALOGOUS blocks used to Colours

Elements of design value

  • aka tone blocks used to

  • Value is lightness or darkness of a colour

  • Add black to a pure colour to create a shade

  • Add white to a pure colour to create a tint

  • Value gives objects depth and perception

Elements of Design: Value

The 1 rule of print design

  • The 3fs (FFF) blocks used to

  • Form Follows Function

  • (what it looks like is not as important as the job it is supposed to accomplish)

  • A layout should help NOT hinder the message

  • It should be transparent in nature (ie. your viewer should not be remarking on the layout, but rather focusing on the content)


Principles of design

  • The blocks used to Principles of design can be thought of as what we do to the elements of design

  • How we apply the Principles of design determines how successful we are in creating layout

Principles of Design

Principles of design balance

  • Balance in design is similar to balance in blocks used to physics

  • A large shape close to the center can be balanced by a small shape close to the edge

  • A large light toned shape will be balanced by a small dark toned shape (as the darker the shape the heavier it appears to be)


Not using balance creatively
Not Using blocks used to BalanceCreatively

Using balance
Using blocks used to Balance

Principles of design gradation

  • Gradation blocks used to of size and direction produce linear perspective.

  • Gradation of colour from warm to cool and tone from dark to light produce aerial perspective.

  • Gradation can add interest and movement to a shape. A gradation from dark to light will cause the eye to move along a shape.

Principles of Design: Gradation

Gradations blocks used to

Gradation example
Gradation blocks used to example

A pause for gradation

A Pause forGradation

Principles of design dominance

  • Dominance information to you?gives a layout interest, counteracting confusion and monotony

  • Dominance can be applied to one or more of the elements to give emphasis


Not using dominance
Not Using information to you?DOMINANCE

Using dominance
Using information to you?DOMINANCE

Principles of design alignment

Principles of Design: ALIGNMENT

Not using alignment
Not Using information to you?ALIGNMENT

Using alignment
Using information to you?ALIGNMENT

Principles of design repetition

  • Repetition information to you?with variation is interesting

  • without variation repetition can become monotonous

Principles of design: Repetition

Not using repetition
Not Using information to you?Repetition

Using repetition
Using information to you?Repetition

Principles of design proximity

Principles of Design: PROXIMITY

Not using proximity
Not Using togetherProximity

Using proximity
Using togetherProximity

Principles of design contrast

  • Contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing elements togethere.g.. opposite colours on the colour wheel - red / green, blue / orange etc. Contrast in tone or value - light / dark. Contrast in direction - horizontal / vertical

  • The major contrast in a layout should be located at the center of interest

  • Too much contrast scattered throughout a layout can destroy unity and make a work difficult to look at.

Principles of design: contrast

Not using contrast
Not Using togetherContrast

Using contrast
Using togetherContrast

Principles of design unity

Principles of Design: Unity

A pause for unity

  • Where else have you seen unity used today to present information to you?