The principles of design
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The Principles of Design. The Structures Behind Improved Print Design . The elements and principles of design are the building blocks used to create The elements of design can be thought of as the things that make up a layout

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The Principles of Design

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The principles of design

The Principles of Design

The Structures Behind Improved Print Design


Elements of design

  • The elements and principles of design are the building blocks used to create

  • The elements of design can be thought of as the things that make up a layout

  • Good or bad - all layouts will contain most of if not all, the seven elements of design

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN


Elements of design the line

  • Line can be considered in two ways:

  • the linear marks made with a design toolor the edge created when two shapes meet

Elements of Design: the line


Elements of design shape

  • A shape is a self contained defined area of geometric or organic form

  • A positive shape in a design automatically creates a negative shape (aka white space)

Elements of design: SHAPE


Elements of design direction

  • All lines have direction - Horizontal, Vertical or Oblique.

  • Horizontal suggests calmness, stability and tranquillity.

  • Vertical gives a feeling of balance, formality and alertness

  • Oblique suggests movement and action

Elements of Design: Direction


Elements of design size

  • Size is simply the relationship of the area occupied by one shape to that of another

  • Size can denote importance

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN: SIZE


Elements of design texture

  • Texture is perceived surface quality

  • Print design largely uses implied texture (the surface of an object looks like it feels. The texture may look rough, fizzy, gritty, but cannot actually be felt)

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN: TEXTURE


Elements of design colour

  • aka swatches (in InDesign)

  • Considered to be the most expressive element

  • Can create illusionof depth

  • Can draw attention to a particular part

  • Increases visual appeal

  • Complementarycolours help create contrast

  • Monochromatic colours are tints and shades of the same colour

  • Warm colours: reds, yellows, oranges

  • Cool colours: blues, greens, and purples

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN: COLOUR


Primary colours

Primary colours


Secondary colours

Secondarycolours


Tertiary colours

TertiaryColours


Complimentary colours

ComplimentaryColours


Triad colours

TriadColours


Analogous colours

ANALOGOUSColours


Elements of design value

  • aka tone

  • Value is lightness or darkness of a colour

  • Add black to a pure colour to create a shade

  • Add white to a pure colour to create a tint

  • Value gives objects depth and perception

Elements of Design: Value


The 1 rule of print design

  • The 3fs (FFF)

  • Form Follows Function

  • (what it looks like is not as important as the job it is supposed to accomplish)

  • A layout should help NOT hinder the message

  • It should be transparent in nature (ie. your viewer should not be remarking on the layout, but rather focusing on the content)

THE #1 RULE OF PRINT DESIGN


Principles of design

  • The Principles of design can be thought of as what we do to the elements of design

  • How we apply the Principles of design determines how successful we are in creating layout

Principles of Design


Principles of design balance

  • Balance in design is similar to balance in physics

  • A large shape close to the center can be balanced by a small shape close to the edge

  • A large light toned shape will be balanced by a small dark toned shape (as the darker the shape the heavier it appears to be)

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN: BALANCE


Not using balance creatively

Not UsingBalanceCreatively


Using balance

UsingBalance


Principles of design gradation

  • Gradation of size and direction produce linear perspective.

  • Gradation of colour from warm to cool and tone from dark to light produce aerial perspective.

  • Gradation can add interest and movement to a shape. A gradation from dark to light will cause the eye to move along a shape.

Principles of Design: Gradation


Gradations

Gradations


Gradation example

Gradation example


A pause for gradation

  • Where else have you seen gradation used today to present information to you?

A Pause forGradation


Principles of design dominance

  • Dominance gives a layout interest, counteracting confusion and monotony

  • Dominance can be applied to one or more of the elements to give emphasis

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN: DOMINANCE


Not using dominance

Not UsingDOMINANCE


Using dominance

UsingDOMINANCE


Principles of design alignment

  • Nothing should be paced on the page arbitrarily

  • Every element should have some visual connection with another element on the page

  • Creates a sophisticated look

Principles of Design: ALIGNMENT


Not using alignment

Not UsingALIGNMENT


Using alignment

UsingALIGNMENT


Principles of design repetition

  • Repetition with variation is interesting

  • without variation repetition can become monotonous

Principles of design: Repetition


Not using repetition

Not UsingRepetition


Using repetition

UsingRepetition


Principles of design proximity

  • Items relating to each other should be grouped close together

  • Items in close proximity become one visual unit instead of several separate items

  • Helps organize information, reduce clutter, and give structure

Principles of Design: PROXIMITY


Not using proximity

Not UsingProximity


Using proximity

UsingProximity


Principles of design contrast

  • Contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing elements e.g.. opposite colours on the colour wheel - red / green, blue / orange etc. Contrast in tone or value - light / dark. Contrast in direction - horizontal / vertical

  • The major contrast in a layout should be located at the center of interest

  • Too much contrast scattered throughout a layout can destroy unity and make a work difficult to look at.

Principles of design: contrast


Not using contrast

Not UsingContrast


Using contrast

UsingContrast


Principles of design unity

  • Unity is staying on the story, telling only one thing at a time

  • Unity is staying in style throughout the design

  • It helps provide clear and complete communication

Principles of Design: Unity


A pause for unity

A PAUSE FOR UNITY

  • Where else have you seen unity used today to present information to you?


The end

TheEND

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