The principles of design
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The Principles of Design. Sayre – Chapter 8 7 th edition. design. the process of organizing the visual/formal elements the product of that process. The Principles of Design. Balance Emphasis and Focal Point Scale and Proportion Repetition and Rhythm Unity and Variety

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The Principles of Design

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The principles of design

The Principles of Design

Sayre – Chapter 8

7th edition


Design

design

  • the process of organizing the visual/formal elements

  • the product of that process


The principles of design1

The Principles of Design

  • Balance

  • Emphasis and Focal Point

  • Scale and Proportion

  • Repetition and Rhythm

  • Unity and Variety

    ***any of the Visual/Formal Elements can be used to create any of the above


Balance

Balance

  • balance – achievement of equilibrium; acting influences are held in check by opposing forces; “even distribution of weight in a composition”

  • actual vs. visual

  • types of visual balance = symmetrical, asymmetrical and radial


Symmetrical balance

Symmetrical balance

  • Symmetrical (a.k.a. formal) balance – the near or exact matching of left and right sides of a 3D form or a 2D composition

    *What is absolute vs. bilateral symmetry?


Symmetry is visually inactive which makes the work of art seem motionless and stable

Symmetry is “visually inactive” which makes the work of art seem motionless and stable


Fig 183 8 3

Fig 183/8-3


Fig 184 8 4

Fig 184/8-4


Asymmetrical balance

Asymmetrical balance

  • Asymmetrical (a.k.a. informal balance) – the two halves are not the same; instead various visual phenomena are balanced, according to their visual and referential weights

    “referential weight” (a.k.a. psychological weight) – weight we think of when we see an object


Fig 186 8 6

Fig 186/8-6


Visual weight principles see p 154

Visual Weight Principles (see p. 154)


Radial balance

Radial Balance

  • “everything radiates outward from a central point”


Fig 189 8 9

Fig 189/8-9


Fig 420 14 9

Fig 420/14-9


Emphasis and focal point

Emphasis and Focal Point

  • Emphasis – an area that is stressed or to which our attention is drawn in a work of art

  • Subordination – neutral areas which do not draw our attention away from the emphasis/focal point

  • Focal point – area of emphasis narrowed to a specific spot or figure


Fig 192 8 12

Fig 192/8-12


How might emphasis be accomplished

How might emphasis be accomplished?

  • Contrast – juxtaposition of strongly dissimilar elements


Contrast with light fig 124 6 7

Contrast – with light (Fig 124/6-7)


Scale and proportion

Scale and Proportion

  • Scale – the size relationship of one thing to another (i.e. size in reference to the “normal” size of an object)

  • Proportion – the size relationship of parts to a whole


Fig 200 8 20

Fig 200/8-20


The principles of design

Fig 659/20-9

Death of Marat


Fig 160 7 2

Fig 160/7-2


Hierarchical scale proportion

Hierarchical scale/proportion

  • Use of unnatural scale/proportion to show the relative importance


Fig 652 17 9 palette of narmer

Fig 652/17-9 Palette of Narmer


Repetition and rhythm

Repetition and Rhythm

  • Repetition – gives a work of art continuity or “flow”

  • Rhythm – organization of repeating elements in regular intervals


Fig 207 8 27

Fig 207/8-27


Zapatistas by orozco

Zapatistas by Orozco


Unity and variety

Unity and Variety

  • Unity – appearance of oneness in a work of art

  • Variety – appearance of diversity in a work of art

    Both counterbalance or complement one another…


Fig 207 8 271

Fig 207/8-27


Fig 216 9 1

Fig 216/9-1


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