# The Principles of Design - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Principles of Design. Sayre – Chapter 8 7 th edition. design. the process of organizing the visual/formal elements the product of that process. The Principles of Design. Balance Emphasis and Focal Point Scale and Proportion Repetition and Rhythm Unity and Variety

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The Principles of Design

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## The Principles of Design

Sayre – Chapter 8

7th edition

### design

• the process of organizing the visual/formal elements

• the product of that process

### The Principles of Design

• Balance

• Emphasis and Focal Point

• Scale and Proportion

• Repetition and Rhythm

• Unity and Variety

***any of the Visual/Formal Elements can be used to create any of the above

### Balance

• balance – achievement of equilibrium; acting influences are held in check by opposing forces; “even distribution of weight in a composition”

• actual vs. visual

• types of visual balance = symmetrical, asymmetrical and radial

### Symmetrical balance

• Symmetrical (a.k.a. formal) balance – the near or exact matching of left and right sides of a 3D form or a 2D composition

*What is absolute vs. bilateral symmetry?

## Symmetry is “visually inactive” which makes the work of art seem motionless and stable

### Asymmetrical balance

• Asymmetrical (a.k.a. informal balance) – the two halves are not the same; instead various visual phenomena are balanced, according to their visual and referential weights

“referential weight” (a.k.a. psychological weight) – weight we think of when we see an object

## Visual Weight Principles (see p. 154)

• “everything radiates outward from a central point”

### Emphasis and Focal Point

• Emphasis – an area that is stressed or to which our attention is drawn in a work of art

• Subordination – neutral areas which do not draw our attention away from the emphasis/focal point

• Focal point – area of emphasis narrowed to a specific spot or figure

### How might emphasis be accomplished?

• Contrast – juxtaposition of strongly dissimilar elements

### Scale and Proportion

• Scale – the size relationship of one thing to another (i.e. size in reference to the “normal” size of an object)

• Proportion – the size relationship of parts to a whole

Fig 659/20-9

Death of Marat

### Hierarchical scale/proportion

• Use of unnatural scale/proportion to show the relative importance

### Repetition and Rhythm

• Repetition – gives a work of art continuity or “flow”

• Rhythm – organization of repeating elements in regular intervals

### Unity and Variety

• Unity – appearance of oneness in a work of art

• Variety – appearance of diversity in a work of art

Both counterbalance or complement one another…