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The Principles of Design. Sayre – Chapter 8 7 th edition. design. the process of organizing the visual/formal elements the product of that process. The Principles of Design. Balance Emphasis and Focal Point Scale and Proportion Repetition and Rhythm Unity and Variety

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The principles of design

The Principles of Design

Sayre – Chapter 8

7th edition


Design
design

  • the process of organizing the visual/formal elements

  • the product of that process


The principles of design1
The Principles of Design

  • Balance

  • Emphasis and Focal Point

  • Scale and Proportion

  • Repetition and Rhythm

  • Unity and Variety

    ***any of the Visual/Formal Elements can be used to create any of the above


Balance
Balance

  • balance – achievement of equilibrium; acting influences are held in check by opposing forces; “even distribution of weight in a composition”

  • actual vs. visual

  • types of visual balance = symmetrical, asymmetrical and radial


Symmetrical balance
Symmetrical balance

  • Symmetrical (a.k.a. formal) balance – the near or exact matching of left and right sides of a 3D form or a 2D composition

    *What is absolute vs. bilateral symmetry?



Fig 183 8 3
Fig 183/8-3 art seem motionless and stable


Fig 184 8 4
Fig 184/8-4 art seem motionless and stable


Asymmetrical balance
Asymmetrical balance art seem motionless and stable

  • Asymmetrical (a.k.a. informal balance) – the two halves are not the same; instead various visual phenomena are balanced, according to their visual and referential weights

    “referential weight” (a.k.a. psychological weight) – weight we think of when we see an object


Fig 186 8 6
Fig 186/8-6 art seem motionless and stable


Visual weight principles see p 154

Visual Weight Principles art seem motionless and stable(see p. 154)


Radial balance
Radial Balance art seem motionless and stable

  • “everything radiates outward from a central point”


Fig 189 8 9
Fig 189/8-9 art seem motionless and stable


Fig 420 14 9
Fig 420/14-9 art seem motionless and stable


Emphasis and focal point
Emphasis and Focal Point art seem motionless and stable

  • Emphasis – an area that is stressed or to which our attention is drawn in a work of art

  • Subordination – neutral areas which do not draw our attention away from the emphasis/focal point

  • Focal point – area of emphasis narrowed to a specific spot or figure


Fig 192 8 12
Fig 192/8-12 art seem motionless and stable


How might emphasis be accomplished
How might emphasis be accomplished? art seem motionless and stable

  • Contrast – juxtaposition of strongly dissimilar elements


Contrast with light fig 124 6 7
Contrast – with light art seem motionless and stable(Fig 124/6-7)


Scale and proportion
Scale and Proportion art seem motionless and stable

  • Scale – the size relationship of one thing to another (i.e. size in reference to the “normal” size of an object)

  • Proportion – the size relationship of parts to a whole


Fig 200 8 20
Fig 200/8-20 art seem motionless and stable


Fig 659/20-9 art seem motionless and stable

Death of Marat


Fig 160 7 2
Fig 160/7-2 art seem motionless and stable


Hierarchical scale proportion
Hierarchical scale/proportion art seem motionless and stable

  • Use of unnatural scale/proportion to show the relative importance


Fig 652 17 9 palette of narmer
Fig 652/17-9 art seem motionless and stablePalette of Narmer


Repetition and rhythm
Repetition and Rhythm art seem motionless and stable

  • Repetition – gives a work of art continuity or “flow”

  • Rhythm – organization of repeating elements in regular intervals


Fig 207 8 27
Fig 207/8-27 art seem motionless and stable


Zapatistas by orozco
Zapatistas art seem motionless and stable by Orozco


Unity and variety
Unity and Variety art seem motionless and stable

  • Unity – appearance of oneness in a work of art

  • Variety – appearance of diversity in a work of art

    Both counterbalance or complement one another…


Fig 207 8 271
Fig 207/8-27 art seem motionless and stable


Fig 216 9 1
Fig 216/9-1 art seem motionless and stable


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