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Operant Conditioning – Chapter 8 Some Practical Applications…. Theories of Learning October 17, 2005 Class #24. Some “antismoking” ad campaigns invite children to smoke. Hook the child and you have a lifelong smoker….

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Operant conditioning chapter 8 some practical applications

Operant Conditioning – Chapter 8Some Practical Applications…

Theories of Learning

October 17, 2005

Class #24




Nicotine, heroin and alcohol addicts have the same relapse rate of about 80%J Clin Psychology 1971;27:455


Want to quit
Want To Quit rate of about 80%

  • Ask: smoking status is a vital sign

  • Advice: to quit in a clear, strong and personalized way

  • Assess: willingness to quit

  • Assist: the patient, set a quit day, anticipate challenges, remove tobacco products

  • Arrange follow-up or refer


Do not want to quit
Do Not Want To Quit rate of about 80%

  • Relevance: why quitting is important be clear, strong and relevant

  • Risks: explain short term and long term risk

  • Rewards: improve health, save money, feel better, look better, provide a good example

  • Roadblocks: withdrawal symptoms, weight gain, fear of failure

  • Repeat: every time patient returns to office


Quit recently
Quit recently rate of about 80%

  • Congratulate

  • Reinforce: use open ended questions such as “how has stopping helped you?”


How smokers try to quit american lung association survey 1998
How Smokers Try To Quit rate of about 80%American Lung Association survey 1998

  • 73% cold turkey

  • 44% gradual withdrawal

  • 39% confused about medicinal help

  • 70% believe nicotine replacement and behavior modification therapies help

  • 35% think they need a Rx for the patch

  • 20% think they need a Rx for the gum


Cold turkey
Cold Turkey rate of about 80%

  • Cold Turkey can be be effective for some…

    • Choose a symbolically important day for quitting

    • Tell everybody that you are quitting and ask for help

    • Have a non-smoking ceremony the day of quitting


Gradual withdrawal
Gradual withdrawal rate of about 80%

  • Aversive therapy

    • Curtis, 1976; Barske, 1977

      • Rapid puffing until side effects (nausea) success rate around 20%

  • Fading

    • Becona & Garcia (1993)

      • Identify and eliminate the cigarettes you can do without

      • 57% and 41% success rate in 6 and 12 months

  • Behavior Modification

    • Cinciripini (1994)


Behavioral therapies
Behavioral Therapies rate of about 80%


Behavior modification
Behavior Modification rate of about 80%

  • Behavior modification is more effective than group therapy, and relaxation training.

  • Successful programs follow the rules of operant conditioning developed by BF Skinner in the 1950s


Operant conditioning rules
Operant conditioning rules rate of about 80%

  • Contract with the patient regarding what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior.

  • Keep objective records

  • Develop a program of positive and negative reinforcements and positive and negative punishments to strengthen and weaken appropriate and inappropriate behaviors

  • Study results

  • Alter the program


Objective records
Objective records rate of about 80%

  • Food and smoking diary

  • Activity diary

  • Medical management diary


Diary
Diary rate of about 80%


Activity diary
Activity diary rate of about 80%


The behavioral chain
The behavioral chain rate of about 80%

Cut the weakest link, replace, reinforce

Buy

cigarettes

cigarettes

in

house

Watching

TV

Smoke

Smoke

Out with

Smoking

friends

Smoke

Snacking

Smoke


Positive reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement rate of about 80%

A method of reinforcing a behavior by rewarding such behavior

Examples

  • Deposit the money you saved by non-smoking in a vacation saving account

  • Praise your relative for not smoking


Negative reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement rate of about 80%

A method of reinforcing a behavior by removing an unpleasant stimulus

Examples

  • If you don’t smoke you give a good example to your children

  • If you don’t smoke you feel better


Positive punishment
Positive punishment rate of about 80%

A method to reduce a behavior by delivering an unpleasant stimulus such as: If you are going to smoke eat the butt or over-puff


Negative punishment
Negative punishment rate of about 80%

A method of reducing a behavior by removing a pleasant stimulus: If you cannot party without smoking don’t party


Reinforcements and support
Reinforcements and support rate of about 80%

  • Biological: Pharmacology

  • Social: intra-treatment (group therapy) extra-treatment (internet sites, support groups)

  • Family: other smokers in household  lower abstinence rates. Encourage significant others to quit along with patient

  • Personal: frequent follow-up visits, telephone calls, buddy system


Extinction
Extinction rate of about 80%

  • The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned behavior

  • Partial reinforcements produces behavior with greater resistance to extinction when the reinforcement is discontinued.


Example of behaviors that help to stop smoking
Example of behaviors that help to stop smoking rate of about 80%

  • Choose a goal: ExampleExercise 5 days a week, quit smoking in 2 weeks.

  • Keep a diary: Easier to achieve your goals if you keep a diary.

  • Ask friends and family to help.

  • Do not buy cigarettes.

  • Join a smoke cessation program.

  • Take your medications daily.


Example of behaviors that help to stop smoking1
Example of behaviors that help to stop smoking rate of about 80%

7. Avoid alcohol.

8. Ask for non-smoking tables and rooms

9. Open a no-smoking saving account.

10. Get involved in the no-smoking campaign.

11. Make a list of the benefits of smoking.

12. Make a list of the problems associated with smoking.


Be careful
Be careful… rate of about 80%


Behavior modification summary
Behavior modification summary rate of about 80%

  • Behavior and activity diary

  • Analysis of the behavioral chain

  • Action

  • Follow-up

  • Social and psychological rewards and support


Credits
Credits: rate of about 80%

  • http://www.vsrc.org/Smokingcessation.ppt


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