Operant conditioning chapter 8 some practical applications
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Operant Conditioning – Chapter 8 Some Practical Applications…. Theories of Learning October 17, 2005 Class #24. Some “antismoking” ad campaigns invite children to smoke. Hook the child and you have a lifelong smoker….

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Operant conditioning chapter 8 some practical applications

Operant Conditioning – Chapter 8Some Practical Applications…

Theories of Learning

October 17, 2005

Class #24


Some antismoking ad campaigns invite children to smoke

Some “antismoking” ad campaigns invite children to smoke


Hook the child and you have a lifelong smoker

Hook the child and you have a lifelong smoker…


Operant conditioning chapter 8 some practical applications

Nicotine, heroin and alcohol addicts have the same relapse rate of about 80%J Clin Psychology 1971;27:455


Want to quit

Want To Quit

  • Ask: smoking status is a vital sign

  • Advice: to quit in a clear, strong and personalized way

  • Assess: willingness to quit

  • Assist: the patient, set a quit day, anticipate challenges, remove tobacco products

  • Arrange follow-up or refer


Do not want to quit

Do Not Want To Quit

  • Relevance: why quitting is important be clear, strong and relevant

  • Risks: explain short term and long term risk

  • Rewards: improve health, save money, feel better, look better, provide a good example

  • Roadblocks: withdrawal symptoms, weight gain, fear of failure

  • Repeat: every time patient returns to office


Quit recently

Quit recently

  • Congratulate

  • Reinforce: use open ended questions such as “how has stopping helped you?”


How smokers try to quit american lung association survey 1998

How Smokers Try To QuitAmerican Lung Association survey 1998

  • 73% cold turkey

  • 44% gradual withdrawal

  • 39% confused about medicinal help

  • 70% believe nicotine replacement and behavior modification therapies help

  • 35% think they need a Rx for the patch

  • 20% think they need a Rx for the gum


Cold turkey

Cold Turkey

  • Cold Turkey can be be effective for some…

    • Choose a symbolically important day for quitting

    • Tell everybody that you are quitting and ask for help

    • Have a non-smoking ceremony the day of quitting


Gradual withdrawal

Gradual withdrawal

  • Aversive therapy

    • Curtis, 1976; Barske, 1977

      • Rapid puffing until side effects (nausea) success rate around 20%

  • Fading

    • Becona & Garcia (1993)

      • Identify and eliminate the cigarettes you can do without

      • 57% and 41% success rate in 6 and 12 months

  • Behavior Modification

    • Cinciripini (1994)


Behavioral therapies

Behavioral Therapies


Behavior modification

Behavior Modification

  • Behavior modification is more effective than group therapy, and relaxation training.

  • Successful programs follow the rules of operant conditioning developed by BF Skinner in the 1950s


Operant conditioning rules

Operant conditioning rules

  • Contract with the patient regarding what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior.

  • Keep objective records

  • Develop a program of positive and negative reinforcements and positive and negative punishments to strengthen and weaken appropriate and inappropriate behaviors

  • Study results

  • Alter the program


Objective records

Objective records

  • Food and smoking diary

  • Activity diary

  • Medical management diary


Diary

Diary


Activity diary

Activity diary


The behavioral chain

The behavioral chain

Cut the weakest link, replace, reinforce

Buy

cigarettes

cigarettes

in

house

Watching

TV

Smoke

Smoke

Out with

Smoking

friends

Smoke

Snacking

Smoke


Positive reinforcement

Positive Reinforcement

A method of reinforcing a behavior by rewarding such behavior

Examples

  • Deposit the money you saved by non-smoking in a vacation saving account

  • Praise your relative for not smoking


Negative reinforcement

Negative Reinforcement

A method of reinforcing a behavior by removing an unpleasant stimulus

Examples

  • If you don’t smoke you give a good example to your children

  • If you don’t smoke you feel better


Positive punishment

Positive punishment

A method to reduce a behavior by delivering an unpleasant stimulus such as: If you are going to smoke eat the butt or over-puff


Negative punishment

Negative punishment

A method of reducing a behavior by removing a pleasant stimulus: If you cannot party without smoking don’t party


Reinforcements and support

Reinforcements and support

  • Biological: Pharmacology

  • Social: intra-treatment (group therapy) extra-treatment (internet sites, support groups)

  • Family: other smokers in household  lower abstinence rates. Encourage significant others to quit along with patient

  • Personal: frequent follow-up visits, telephone calls, buddy system


Extinction

Extinction

  • The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned behavior

  • Partial reinforcements produces behavior with greater resistance to extinction when the reinforcement is discontinued.


Example of behaviors that help to stop smoking

Example of behaviors that help to stop smoking

  • Choose a goal: ExampleExercise 5 days a week, quit smoking in 2 weeks.

  • Keep a diary: Easier to achieve your goals if you keep a diary.

  • Ask friends and family to help.

  • Do not buy cigarettes.

  • Join a smoke cessation program.

  • Take your medications daily.


Example of behaviors that help to stop smoking1

Example of behaviors that help to stop smoking

7. Avoid alcohol.

8. Ask for non-smoking tables and rooms

9. Open a no-smoking saving account.

10. Get involved in the no-smoking campaign.

11. Make a list of the benefits of smoking.

12. Make a list of the problems associated with smoking.


Be careful

Be careful…


Behavior modification summary

Behavior modification summary

  • Behavior and activity diary

  • Analysis of the behavioral chain

  • Action

  • Follow-up

  • Social and psychological rewards and support


Credits

Credits:

  • http://www.vsrc.org/Smokingcessation.ppt


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