PLEASE LISTEN CAREFULLY
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PLEASE LISTEN CAREFULLY. TUTORIAL INSTRUCTIONS: Carefully go through the tutorial, step by step. You may return to any section, as necessary.

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PLEASE LISTEN CAREFULLY

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Please listen carefully

PLEASE LISTEN CAREFULLY

TUTORIAL INSTRUCTIONS: Carefully go through the tutorial, step by step. You may return to any section, as necessary.

Once you are satisfied that you understand the concepts and procedures, click CLOSE to get out of the tutorial mode. You will then be taken to the post-quiz.

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ELEMENTS versus COMPOUNDS)

Element

(hydrogen): H2

Compound (carbon monoxide): CO

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (IONIC versus COVALENT BONDS)

Na· + Cl → Na+ + ·Cl-

H· + · Cl → H : Cl

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Please listen carefully

H : Cl

Na+Cl-

covalent

ionic

LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (IONIC versus COVALENT BONDS)

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (IONIC versus MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS)

HCl

H

Cl

Cl

H

H

Cl

Cl

Cl

H

H

Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+

Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+

Na+ Cl- Na+Cl-

Cl-Na+Cl-


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(IONIC versus MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS)

HHClClCl

HClCl

H

HHCl ClHCl

HCl

HCl

H H HClCl

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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (SINGLE COVALENT BOND)

HCl

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (DOUBLE COVALENT BOND)

O = O

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (TRIPLE COVALENT BOND)

C ΞN-

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (LEWIS THEORY OF BONDING)

IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA

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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (LEWIS THEORY OF BONDING)

Exception:

nonmetal


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(LEWIS THEORY OF BONDING)

. . . .

Na· + ·Cl: → [Na]+ + [:Cl:]-. . . .

sodiumchlorine sodium chlorine

atom atom cation anion

Group IA Group VIIA


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(LEWIS THEORY OF BONDING)

· ·· ·

H· + · Cl : → H :Cl :

· ·· · Group IA Group VIIA

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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (NONPOLAR versus POLAR BONDS)

. .

H : Cl : . .

δ+ δ-

. .. .

: Cl :Cl :

. .. .

H :H

nonpolar

nonpolar

polar

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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (NONPOLAR versus POLAR MOLECULES)

O: :O

:

O nonpolar

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.

.

F

. .

B

: :

FF

.

.

F

:

F

F

S

.

.

.

.

:

F

F

F

nonpolar

nonpolar

LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (NONPOLAR versus POLAR MOLECULES)

CLICK TO CONTINUE


Please listen carefully

Cl

δ-

O

: :

HHδ+

:

Cl

I

:

:

Cl

δ+ δ-

polar

polar

LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (NONPOLAR versus POLAR MOLECULES)

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (OCTET RULE DISOBEYED)

H

. .

B

::

HH

H:Be:H

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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (OCTET RULE DISOBEYED)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

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(OCTET RULE DISOBEYED)

I

:

I

Cl

Cl

. .

I

P

. .

Xe

:

I

. .

Cl

Cl

I

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (VALENCE BOND THEORY OF BONDING)

s orbitals, p orbitals

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H Be H

LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (HYBRID ORBITALS)

1 s orbital + 1 p orbital → 2 sphybrid orbitals

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(HYBRID ORBITALS)

F

B

F F

1 s orbital + 2 p orbitals → 3 sp2hybrid orbitals

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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(HYBRID ORBITALS)

H

C

H

HH

1 s orbital + 3 p orbitals → 4 sp3hybrid orbitals

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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(HYBRID ORBITALS)

I

I

I P

II

(P – Group 5)

  • d orbital + 1 s orbital + 3 p orbitals →

  • 5 dsp3hybrid orbitals

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(HYBRID ORBITALS)

F

F

F

S

F

F

(S – Group 6)

F

2 d orbitals + 1 s orbital + 3 p orbitals →

6 d2sp3hybrid orbitals

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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

region of high electron density  single bond or double bond or triple bond or pair of nonbonding electrons

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LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

H

Be

H

:

:

electronic geometry –linear

molecular geometry –linear

(Be – Group IIA)

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(ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

F

:

.

.

.

.

B

F

F

electronic geometry –trigonal planar molecular geometry –trigonal planar

(B – Group IIIA)

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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(ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

H

:

C

.

.

.

H

.

.

.

H

H

electronic geometry –tetrahedral molecular geometry – tetrahedral

(C – Group IVA)

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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(ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

I

:

.

I

.

.

.

P

I

.

.

I

:

I

electronic geometry –trigonal bipyramid molecular geometry –trigonal bipyramid

(P – Group VA)

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(ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

F

F

:

F

.

.

.

.

S

.

.

.

.

F

:

F

F

electronic geometry –octahedral

molecular geometry –octahedral

(S – Group VIA)

CLICK TO CONTINUE


Please listen carefully

..

O

O

O

LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

hybridization – sp2

electronic geometry – trigonal planar

molecular geometry – angular or bent

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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(ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

..

N

H

H

H

hybridization – sp3

electronic geometry – tetrahedral

molecular geometry – trigonal pyramid

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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(ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

:O:

H

H

hybridization – sp3

electronic geometry – tetrahedral

molecular geometry – angular or bent

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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(ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

. . -

:O:

H

hybridization – sp3

electronic geometry – tetrahedral

molecular geometry – linear

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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(ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

F

F

: S

F

F

hybridization – dsp3

electronic geometry – trigonal bipyramid molecular geometry – see-saw

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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(ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

Cl

::I

Cl

Cl

(I – Group VIIA)

hybridization – dsp3

electronic geometry – trigonal bipyramid molecular geometry – T-shaped

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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(ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

H

::Xe:

H

(Xe – Group VIIIA)

hybridization – dsp3

electronic geometry – trigonal bipyramid molecular geometry – linear

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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(ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

F

..

Br

F

F

F

F

hybridization – d2sp3

electronic geometry – octahedral

molecular geometry – square pyramid

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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(ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

Cl

Cl

:Xe:

Cl

Cl

hybridization – d2sp3

electronic geometry – octahedral

molecular geometry – square planar

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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VALENCE BOND THEORY SUMMARIZATION TABLE

No. of electron pairs

Hybrid-ization

Electronic geometry

No. of lone pairs

No. of bonds

Molecular geometry

Example and polarity

2

sp

linear

0

2

linear

BeH2 nonpolar

3

sp2

trigonal planar

0

1

3

2

trigonal planar

angular

BF3

nonpolar

O3 nonpolar

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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VALENCE BOND THEORY SUMMARIZATION TABLE (cont’d)

No. of electron pairs

Hybrid-ization

Electronic geometry

No. of lone pairs

No. of bonds

Molecular geometry

Example and polarity

4

sp3

tetrahedral

0

1

2

4

3

2

tetrahedral

trigonal

pyramid

angular or bent

CH4 nonpolar

NH3

polar

H2O

polar

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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VALENCE BOND THEORY SUMMARIZATION TABLE (cont’d)

No. of electron pairs

Hybridi-zation

Electronic geometry

No. of lone pairs

No. of bonds

Molecular geometry

Example and polarity

5

dsp3

trigonal bipyramid

0

1

2

3

5

4

3

2

trigonal bipyramid

see-saw

T-shaped

linear

PCl5

nonpolar

SF4

polar

ICl3

polar

XeF2 nonpolar

CLICK TO CONTINUE


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VALENCE BOND THEORY SUMMARIZATION TABLE (cont’d)

No. of electron pairs

Hybridi-zation

Electronic geometry

No. of lone pairs

No. of bonds

Molecular geometry

Example and polarity

6

d2sp3

octahedral

0

1

2

6

5

4

octahedral

square pyramid

square planar

SF6 polar

BrF3 nonpolar

XeF4 polar

END OF TUTORIAL

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RETURN TO TUTORIAL

OR

CLOSE and GO TO POST-QUIZ


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