Forced oscillator
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FORCED OSCILLATOR. Chapter - 3. Mrs. Rama Arora Assoc. Professor Deptt . Of Physics PGGCG-11 Chandigarh. Free oscillations are the vibrations when a system oscillates under the action of forces inherent in the system itself.

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FORCED OSCILLATOR

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Forced oscillator

FORCED OSCILLATOR

Chapter - 3

Mrs. Rama Arora

Assoc. Professor

Deptt. Of Physics

PGGCG-11

Chandigarh


Forced oscillator

Free oscillations are the vibrations when a system oscillates under the action of forces inherent in the system itself.

Forced oscillations are those vibrations which take place under the excitation of external forces.

Resonant oscillations are the forced oscillations of a system such that the amplitude of the oscillations has the maximum possible value.

Free oscillations occur at a definite frequency called the natural frequency of the oscillator.

Resonant oscillations occur at a definite frequency called the resonant frequency of the oscillator.

Forced oscillations can occur at any frequency.


Forced oscillator

Forced oscillator is an oscillator to which continuous excitation is provided by some external agency.

Driving agency of mechanical system is the source of mechanical force and in case of electrical system is a source of electromotive force.

Driven system is generally a damped oscillator.


A mechanical forced oscillator

A Mechanical forced oscillator

A forced oscillator is driven continuously by an external periodic force to maintain its oscillation.


Forced oscillator

Transient State: The natural oscillations of the oscillator persist only in the beginning and the behavior of the oscillator during this short interval of time is the transient state.

Steady State: When the transient phase is over, the oscillator starts oscillating in the steady state with the frequency of external periodic force.


Solution of differential equation of a forced oscillator

Solution of differential equation of a forced oscillator

The solution is

Where Zm is the mechanical impedence of the oscillator. It is complex quantity with two parts.

Resistive part – r mechanical resistance

Reactive part (mw – s/m) is mechanical reactance


Behavior of displacement amplitude with driving the force frequency

Behavior of displacement amplitude with driving the force frequency

Amplitude of the oscillations

When ω is very small, ω -> 0, then the oscillator is stiffness controlled.

A = Fo/S

Amplitude is independent of frequency.

When ω is very very large, say ω->∞, then the oscillator is inertia controlled.

A = Fo/ω2m

Since ω->∞, therefore A->0


Forced oscillator

At resonance when the amplitude is maximum, ωZm to be minimum then the frequency of the oscillator is

where ω = √(s/m) = natural frequency of the undamped oscillator

The maximum displacement amplitude of the oscillations or resonance occurs at a frequency slightly less than the natural frequency of undamped oscillator.


Variation of phase difference between displacement and driving frequency

Variation of phase difference between displacement and driving frequency

The displacement of the oscillator at any time t

Driving Force

Phase difference between displacement and the force is


Displacement lags behind the driving force

Displacement lags behind the driving force

When ω -> 0: Phase difference is zero

When ω->∞: Phase difference is –πrad; displacement lags behind the force by π radians.

At resonating frequency: Phase diference between the displacement and the driving frequency is -π/2

Displacement x lags behind the force by π/2 radians.


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