A new narrative for child welfare promoting social and emotional well being for children of color
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A New Narrative for Child Welfare PROMOTING SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING FOR CHILDREN OF COLOR. Bryan Samuels, Commissioner Administration on Children, Youth and Families. What happened to the child welfare population in the last decade?.

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A new narrative for child welfare promoting social and emotional well being for children of color

A New Narrative for Child WelfarePROMOTING SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING FOR CHILDREN OF COLOR

Bryan Samuels, CommissionerAdministration on Children, Youth and Families


What happened to the child welfare population in the last decade?

Data Source: Adoption and Foster Care Reporting and Analysis System, Reports 10-18 (19998-2010). Children’s Bureau, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (USDHHS, ACF)

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Foster Care Entries and Exits, 2002-2010 decade?

Racial Makeup of Foster Care Population, 1998 and 2010

Exits from Foster Care among 2000-2005 Entrants

Age Distribution of Entries into Foster Care, 2010

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Changes in child welfare populations have been unevenly distributed
Changes in child welfare populations have been unevenly distributed

Data Source: Adoption and Foster Care Reporting and Analysis System, accessed via Child Welfare Outcomes Report Builder, http://cwoutcomes.acf.hhs.gov/

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Writing a new narrative
Writing a New Narrative distributed

REQUIRES ASKING KEY QUESTIONS:

  • Where and how does abuse happen within communities with different ethnic/racial compositions?

  • How does the experience of maltreatment impact the social and emotional well-being of children?

  • What works to promote healing and recovery among children who have experienced maltreatment and what does not?

  • What are the gaps? How do we fill them?

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


The impact of maltreatment
The Impact of Maltreatment distributed

  • The developmental stage of the child at the onset of traumatic exposure will influence the type and severity of the consequences.1

  • The experience of maltreatment is complex and not categorical. A child’s response is a function of environment, the nature of the traumatic experience, the neurochemical cascade following the event, and subsequent changes in functioning. These changes can be cognitive, emotional, physical, and/or behavioral.2

  • Heightened stress has been shown to impair the development of the prefrontal cortex, the brain region that, in humans, is critical for the emergence of executive functions—a cluster of abilities such as making, following, and altering plans; controlling and focusing attention; inhibiting impulsive behaviors; and developing the ability to hold and incorporate new information in decision-making.3

  • The effects of maltreatment can influence relationships across a person's lifetime,4 and they are particularly salient when a maltreated child attempts to form a new relationship with a primary caregiver or later romantic or marital partner.5

  • Frederico, MM; Jackson, AL; & Black, CM. (2005). Reflections on Complexity: The 2004 Summary Evaluation of Take Two. Bundoora, Victoria: School of Social Work and Social Policy, La Trobe University.

  • Wilson, KR; Hansen, DJ & Li, M. (2011). The traumatic stress response in child maltreatment and resultant neuropsychological effects. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 16:87.

  • National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (2010). Persistent Fear and Anxiety Can Affect Young Children’s Learning and Development: Working Paper No. 9. Retrieved from www.developingchild.harvard.edu

  • Mikulincer, Ml Shaver, PR. (2007). Attachment in Adulthood: Structure, Dynamics and Change. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

  • Cook, A, Blaustein; M, Spinazzola, J; & van derKolk, B. (Eds.). (2003). Complex Trauma in Children and Adolescents: White Paper from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Complex Trauma Task Force.

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Nscaw national survey of child and adolescent well being
NSCAW – National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being distributed

  • Nationally representative, longitudinal study of children and families reported to child protective services

  • Child-level data

  • N = 5,501

  • RESPONDENTS

  • Children

    • Assessments (younger children)

    • Interviews (older children)

  • Teachers

    • Survey completed via mail or web

  • Current Caregivers

    • Interviews

  • Caseworkers

    • Interviews

  • Agency Directors

    • Interviews

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Caseworkers perceptions of risk
Caseworkers’ Perceptions of Risk distributed

Data Source: National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


One third of reports are substantiated
One third of reports are substantiated distributed

Data Source: National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Neglect and physical abuse are the most common maltreatment types for all groups
Neglect and physical abuse are the most common maltreatment types for all groups

Data Source: National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Maltreatment impacts children s ability to form and maintain relationships
Maltreatment impacts children’s ability to form and maintain relationships

Total Sample: 34.3%

Data Source: National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being IIInstrument used was the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS; Gresham & Elliot, 1990).

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


All groups of children known to child welfare have high rates of behavioral problems
All groups of children known to child welfare have high rates of behavioral problems

Comparable Norm: 8%

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Black children overlap of trauma and emotional behavioral health symptoms
Black Children: Overlap of Trauma and Emotional/Behavioral Health Symptoms

Data Source: Northwestern University, Illinois Department of Children and Family Services database of Integrated Assessments – Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths. N=13,897.

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


White children overlap of trauma and emotional behavioral health symptoms
White Children: Overlap of Trauma and Emotional/Behavioral Health Symptoms

Data Source: Northwestern University, Illinois Department of Children and Family Services database of Integrated Assessments – Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths. N=13,897.

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Hispanic children overlap of trauma and emotional behavioral health symptoms
Hispanic Children: Overlap of Trauma and Emotional/Behavioral Health Symptoms

Data Source: Northwestern University, Illinois Department of Children and Family Services database of Integrated Assessments – Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths. N=13,897.

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Other children overlap of trauma and emotional behavioral health symptoms
Other Children: Overlap of Trauma and Emotional/Behavioral Health Symptoms

Data Source: Northwestern University, Illinois Department of Children and Family Services database of Integrated Assessments – Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths. N=13,897.

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


White children are prescribed psychotropic medications at higher rates than other groups
White children are prescribed psychotropic medications at higher rates than other groups

Data Source: National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Most common risk factors among caregivers
Most common risk factors among caregivers higher rates than other groups

Data Source: National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II(1) Parents were deemed in need of mental health services if they met any one of four criteria spanning caseworker report of mental health disorder, caregiver score on screening instrument, or self-reported high need of services within past year. (2) Mothers were deemed in need of domestic violence services if they met three criteria spanning caseworker report of active domestic violence, mother’s score on screening instrument, or self-reported need for domestic violence services within past year. (3) Includes receipt of TANF, WIC, food stamps, SSI, or housing support.

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Groups show different patterns in lengths of stay
Groups show different patterns in lengths of stay higher rates than other groups

Wulczyn, F; Chen, L; & Hislop, KB. (2007). Foster Care Dynamics 2000-2005: A report from the Multistate Foster Care Data Archive. Chicago, IL: Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago.

Note: At the time of analysis, a median duration of placement could not be calculated for Black children entering in 2005, meaning that fewer than 50% of these children had exited when this report was published.

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Across groups most children exit care to reunification
Across groups, most children exit care to reunification higher rates than other groups

Wulczyn, F; Chen, L; & Hislop, KB. (2007). Foster Care Dynamics 2000-2005: A report from the Multistate Foster Care Data Archive. Chicago, IL: Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago..

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Most common diagnosis for maltreated children and youth and evidence of effective practice
Most Common Diagnosis for Maltreated Children and Youth and Evidence of Effective Practice

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Social and emotional well being what does it look like
Social and Emotional Well-Being: What does it look like? Evidence of Effective Practice

SELF-MANAGEMENT

Age-appropriate autonomy, emotional self-regulation, persistence, constructive time use

ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS & BEHAVIOR

Knowledge, positive behaviors

AGENCY

Planfulness, resourcefulness, positive risk-taking, realistic goal-setting, motivation

RISK MANAGEMENT SKILLS

Skills and knowledge to avoid drug and alcohol use and risky sex

SENSE OF PURPOSE

Believing one’s life is meaningfully connected to a larger picture

CRITICAL THINKING

Evaluation/analytical/problem-solving skills

CONFIDENCE

Positive identity and self-worth

KNOWLEDGE OF ESSENTIAL LIFE SKILLS

Financial management, decision-making skills, home maintenance, etc.

POSITIVE RELATIONSHIPS WITH PEERS, SIBLINGS, FAMILY, ETC.

Warmth, closeness, communication, support, positive advice

SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE

Communication, cooperation, conflict-resolution skills, trust, intimacy

Adapted from: Lippman, LH; Moore, KA & McIntosh, H. (2011). Positive indicators of child well-being: A conceptual framework, measures, and methodological issues. Applied Research in Quality of Life. Accessed on August 16, 2011. http://www.springerlink.com.proxy.uchicago.edu/content/tr32721263478297/.

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Dimensions through which experiences of trauma and violence impact children in the short- and long-terms

Protective mechanisms can serve in multiple functions; what is important is how they contribute to healing and recovery

Protective Mechanisms

  • Understanding Experiences

  • Developmental Tasks

& RECOVERY

HEALING

Social and Emotional Well-Being

Facilitating Well-Being for Children and Youth in Child Welfare

  • Coping Strategies

  • Environmental Buffers

Protective Mechanisms

Locus of interventions to promote social and emotional functioning to facilitate healing and recovery

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Changing policy
Changing Policy impact children in the short- and long-terms

Child and Family Services Improvement and Innovation Act of 2011 (P.L. 112-34)

Reauthorization of Promoting Safe and Stable Families (PSSF) includes new language addressing trauma and vulnerable populations:

  • State plans shall include an outline of “how health needs identified through screenings will be monitored and treated, including emotional trauma associated with a child’s maltreatment and removal from home.”

    • Plans must include a description of “the oversight of prescription medicines, including protocols for the appropriate use and monitoring of psychotropic medications.”

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Aligning funding
Aligning Funding impact children in the short- and long-terms

  • Integrating Trauma-Informed and Trauma-Focused Practice in Child Protective Service Delivery($3.2 million, 5 grantees)

  • Child Welfare-Early Education Partnerships to Expand Protective Factors for Children with Child Welfare Involvement & Child Welfare-Education System Collaborations to Increase Educational Stability ($4.3 million, 18 grantees)

  • Improving Service Delivery to Youth in the Child Welfare System ($1.4 million, 4 grantees)

  • Family Connections Grants: Using Family Group Decision-Making to Build Protective Factors for Children and Families($3.4 million, 7 grantees)

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Aligning funding cont d
Aligning Funding, cont’d impact children in the short- and long-terms

  • Permanency Innovations Initiative, Year 2($15.3 million, 6 grantees)

    • AZ Dept. of Economic Security: Native American and African American Adolescents

    • CA Dept. of Social Services: African American Youth

    • IL Dept. of Children and Family Services: Youth 9-12 at High Risk of Long-Term Foster Care

    • LA Gay and Lesbian Community Services Center: LGBTQ Children and Youth

    • Univ. of KS Center for Research, Inc.: Children with Severe Emotional Disturbances

    • Washoe Co. (NV) Dept. of Social Services: Children with Serious Barriers to Permanency

  • President’s Budget Proposal ($250 million each year for 10 years)

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Communicating the new narrative
Communicating the New Narrative impact children in the short- and long-terms

  • IM 11-03: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth in Foster Care

  • IM 11-01: Child Welfare-Head Start Partnerships: Partnering with Families involved in Head Start and Early Head Start Programs; OCC IM (4-11): Child Welfare and Child Care Partnerships: Partnering with Families Involved in Child Care Subsidy Programs

  • Joint letter on educational provisions of Fostering Connections

  • Over 80 speaking engagements between October 2010 and October 2011

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


The new narrative
The New Narrative impact children in the short- and long-terms

Child welfare interventions will focus on the repair or establishment of protective, supportive, and emotionally responsive adult relationships.

Through these emotionally positive and strong, fundamental relationships, children and youth will thrive socially, emotionally, and developmentally in safe, permanent homes. They will have access to the physical health, mental health, and educational resources necessary for long-term well-being.

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI) impact children in the short- and long-terms


Variation in change african american children in foster care across states
Variation in Change African American Children in Foster Care across States

Fauri Memorial Lecture (MI)


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