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CO 2 Capture and Storage. CCS. Case Scenario Sustainable development is conflict with our current cultural pattern.

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Litterature Illustration’s contributed by Vattenfall AB.

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Litterature illustration s contributed by vattenfall ab

CO2 Capture and Storage

CCS

Case Scenario

Sustainable development is conflict with our current cultural pattern.

The vision for a global sustainable development is to maintain and to spread a high living standard, while maintaining a sustainable climate. But with the current global climate changes caused by CO2 emissions, the visions seems quite unrealistic.

Conclusion

The usage of CCS is a temporary solution, and the only solution right now, to the CO2 emission, and acts a first generation in the development plan to a sustainable climate.

Furthermore it’s ability to be integrated in the areas depended on fossil fuels production, is essential for an eventual reduction of CO2 level worldwide.

  • Pros & Cons

  • This solution is not supposed to be a single solution. It has to interact with the other renewable resources.

  • CCS is an emergency solution. It is not meant to solve the problem, just to give scientists more time, to find a proper solution.

  • The efficiency of plants using CCS will decrease in the beginning but as the technology evolves, it will rise again.

  • CCS is able to be commercial within 11 years, which is in 2020.

  • There are already several pilot projects running, and demo projects are in progress.

  • CCS gets rid of CO2 from the atmosphere, which is the most urgent climate related problem the world is dealing with currently.

  • The overall CO2 content in the atmosphere can be reduced if we combine CCS with biomass.

  • One fourth of the energy produced, will be used to rinse the smoke from CO2; this will result in the demand to produce more energy to be able to supply the consumer with the same amount of energy as usual.

  • People are afraid, that the CO2 might escape from the underground. This is highly unlikely though, if the storage area is situated below impenetrable rock layers, such as clay or salt. It is only possible for the CO2 to escape, if the top layer has cracks in it like mountain formations might have, and even then, it is only hazardous if there is almost no wind present, so the CO2 will sink to the bottom of a nearby valley.

  • It is very expensive to extract CO2 from smoke; that is why power plants need financial support.

  • Alternative application to CCSIf CO2 is stored in underground pockets instead of porous rock layers, scientists might be able to convert it into methanol and use it for energy production in the future.

Introduction

It has become a worldwide fact that we are facing a critical climatic challenge. Five wedges, to solve this challenge, have been created by Princeton University. This case will examine one of them, Carbon Capture and Storage.

The concept of CO2 storage is simple. Capture the CO2, on the power plant, before it reaches the atmosphere, then compress it to a liquid form, and store it below the ground.

However, this method contains some consequences, on a socio-economical level and a public acceptance. Even though the social consequence is defined by a low risk, the economical consequence is still keeping the method on a “standby”. It’s a question of political influence, and global awareness with this method.

This method won’t be established without the governments agreement and contribution, in addition the public’s approval. That’s why we are raising awareness of this method’s qualities, and why it’s necessary to use this particular method as fast as possible.

Some of the largest contributors of CO2 emissions are facing a conflict. These countries will have difficulties in redirecting their energy sector from being depended on fossil fuels in a short time perspective. At this point the current renewable technologies are not efficient enough. There is a need of a temporary energy solution to maintain our cultural pattern as well as a sustainable climate.

CO2 emissions worldwide. Countries size determined by total amount of CO2 emissions in year 2006.

USA has a well developed infrastructure with 40 years of experience in transporting CO2 gasses by pipelines in context with oil pumping. It would be beneficial to use the CCS method, as the opportunities of storing CO2 in the ground in former oil reservoirs are good.

Method

The "post-combustion" is the most promising method for CCS.In power plants, fuel is burned and the smoke is cleaned for sulphur and particles - exactly as usual. The rest (water and carbon dioxide) is mixed with an amine, which binds the carbon dioxide. Steam is let through the chimney and up into the air. Then a process plant separates the carbon dioxide from the amine - the amine can be reused.Using very high pressure, carbon dioxide is liquefied. The liquid carbon dioxide is now able to be stored underground.Not all places are suitable for CCS. Therefore the underground is carefully analysed using seismic measuring. Saline aquifers (e.g. sandstone), with an impenetrable layer (e.g. clay) above, is the most promising storage solution.Liquid carbon dioxide is pumped underground and stored permanently.

Potential underground storage layers.

The present power production & the potentiel usage of CCS method.

Litterature

Illustration’s contributed by Vattenfall AB.

  • Regards to

  • Vattenfall AB, Denmark,

  • JoergenBroen , Vattenfall

  • Peter Johannesen

  • Henrik Wenzel, SDU

  • The Danish Climate Ministary

  • Soroe Academy

The present power production is defined by coal fired plants with CO2 emission. The potential CCS application will not only remove the CO2 from the produced smoke, but also remove it from the atmosphere layout. Because of the combination of coal and biomass, we will still be able to maintain the same energy efficiency, and the same energy output. While we store the CO2 below the ground.

This illustration shows power production with fossil fuels, combined with the CCS method. NB: the CCS application is on the right side of the line.

Made by: Mohammed Daoud, Joachim Johansen, Elombe Parfait, Casper Petersen, Louise Brand, Jakob Mosumgaard & Maria Karlsen.


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