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Theoretical and practical aspects of linear and nonlinear model order reduction techniques. Dmitry Vasilyev Thesis supervisor: Jacob K White. December 19, 2007. Outline. Motivation Overview of existing methods: Linear MOR Nonlinear MOR TBR-based trajectory piecewise-linear method

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Theoretical and practical aspects of linear and nonlinear model order reduction techniques

Theoretical and practical aspects of linear and nonlinear model order reduction techniques

Dmitry Vasilyev

Thesis supervisor: Jacob K White

December 19, 2007


Outline
Outline model order reduction techniques

  • Motivation

  • Overview of existing methods:

    • Linear MOR

    • Nonlinear MOR

  • TBR-based trajectory piecewise-linear method

  • Modified AISIAD linear reduction method

  • Graph-based model reduction for RC circuits

  • Case study: microfluidic channel

  • Conclusions

Nonlinear

Linear


Main motivation for mor system level simulation
Main motivation for MOR: system-level simulation model order reduction techniques

Q: How to reduce the cost of simulating the big system?

System to simulate

Device 2

Device 1

A: Reduce the complexity of each sub-system, i.e.

approximate input-output behavior of the system by a system of lower complexity.

Device 3

Device 10

The goal of MOR in a nutshell


Main motivation for mor system level simulation1
Main motivation for MOR: system-level simulation model order reduction techniques

Modern processor or

system-on-a chip

> Millions of transistors

> Kilometers of interconnects> Linear and nonlinear devices

Figures thanks to Mike Chou, Michał Rewienski


Model reduction problem
Model reduction problem model order reduction techniques

inputs

outputs

Many (> 104)

internal states

inputs

outputs

few (<100)

internal states

  • Reduction should be automatic

  • Must preserve input-output properties


Differential equation model
Differential equation model model order reduction techniques

  • Original complex model:

  • Model can represent:

    • Finite-difference spatial discretization of PDEs

    • Circuits with linear capacitors and inductors

Need accurate input-output behavior


Nonlinear model reduction problem
Nonlinear model reduction problem model order reduction techniques

  • Original complex model:

  • Requirements for reduced model

    • Want q << n (cost of simulation is q3)

    • f r should be fast to compute

    • Want yr(t) to be close to y(t)

  • Reduced model:


Linear model
Linear Model model order reduction techniques

- state

A – stable, n xn (large)

- vector of inputs

- vector of outputs

  • Model can represent:

    • Spatial discretization of linear PDEs

    • Circuits with linear elements


Transfer function of lti system
Transfer function of LTI system model order reduction techniques

Transfer function:

Laplace transform of the output

Laplace transform of the input

Matrix-valued rational function of s


Outline1
Outline model order reduction techniques

  • Motivation

  • Overview of existing methods:

    • Linear MOR

    • Nonlinear MOR

  • TBR-based trajectory piecewise-linear method

  • Modified AISIAD linear reduction method

  • Graph-based model reduction for RC circuits

  • Case study: microfluidic channel

  • Conclusions


Linear mor problem
Linear MOR problem model order reduction techniques

n – large

(thousands)!

q – small (tens)

Need the reduction to be automatic and preserve

input-output properties (transfer function)


Approximation error
Approximation error model order reduction techniques

  • Wide-band applications: model should have small worst-case error

maximal difference

over all frequencies

ω


Approximation error1
Approximation error model order reduction techniques

  • Narrow-band approximation: need good approximation only near particular frequency:

Elmore delay:

preserved if the first derivative at zero frequency is matched.

ω

frequency response


Linear mor methods roadmap
Linear MOR methods roadmap model order reduction techniques

Linear MOR

Projection-based

Non projection-based

Most widely used.

Will be the central topic of this work.


Projection based linear mor
Projection-based linear MOR model order reduction techniques

  • Pick projection matrices V and U:

    such that VTU=I

x

Uzx

x

n

q

U

z

Ax

VTAUz


Projection based linear mor1
Projection-based linear MOR model order reduction techniques

  • Important: reduced system depends only on column spans of V and U

  • D = Dr, preserves response at infinite frequency


Linear mor methods roadmap1
Linear MOR methods roadmap model order reduction techniques

Linear MOR

Projection-based

Non projection-based

V, U =

eig{PQ, QP}

Balancing-based (TBR)

V, U =

K((si I-A)-1,B), K((si I-A)-T,CT)

Krylov-subspace

methods

Proper Orthogonal

Decomposition methods

V=U = {x(t1)… x(tq )}


Linear mor methods roadmap2
Linear MOR methods roadmap model order reduction techniques

Linear MOR

Projection-based

Non projection-based

Will describe

next.

Balancing-based (TBR)

V, U =

K((si I-A)-1,B), K((si I-A)-T,CT)

Krylov-subspace

methods

Proper Orthogonal

Decomposition methods

V=U = {x(t1)… x(tq )}


Tbr idea
TBR idea model order reduction techniques

u

y

LTI SYSTEM

t

t

input

output

P (controllability)

Which states are easier to reach?

Q (observability)

Which states produce more output?

X (state)

  • Reduced model retains most controllable and most observable states

  • Such states must be both very controllable and very observable


Balanced truncation reduction tbr
Balanced truncation reduction (TBR) model order reduction techniques

Compute controllability and observability gramians P and Q : (~n3)AP + PAT + BBT =0 ATQ + QA + CTC = 0

Reduced model keeps the dominant eigenspaces of PQ : (~n3)

PQui= λiuivTiPQ = λivTi

Reduced system: (VTAU, VTB, CU, D)

Very expensive. P and Q are dense even for sparse models


Tbr benefits
TBR benefits model order reduction techniques

  • Guaranteed stability

  • In practice provides more reduction than Krylov

  • H-infinity error bound => ideal for wide-band approximations

Hankel

singular values


Linear mor methods roadmap3
Linear MOR methods roadmap model order reduction techniques

Linear MOR

Projection-based

Non projection-based

Twice better error

bound than TBR

[Glover ’84]

Hankel-optimal MOR

Singular perturbation

approximation

Match at zero frequency

instead of infinity [Liu ‘89]

Transfer function

fitting methods

Promising topic

of ongoing research [Sou ‘05]


Outline2
Outline model order reduction techniques

  • Motivation

  • Overview of existing methods:

    • Linear MOR

    • Nonlinear MOR

  • TBR-based trajectory piecewise-linear method

  • Modified AISIAD linear reduction method

  • Graph-based model reduction for RC circuits

  • Case study: microfluidic channel

  • Conclusions


Nonlinear mor framework
Nonlinear MOR framework model order reduction techniques

  • Consider original (large) system:

  • Projection of the nonlinear operator f(x):

    substitute x ≈ Uz and project residual onto VT

Problem: evaluation of V Tf(Uz)is still expensive


Nonlinear mor framework1
Nonlinear MOR framework model order reduction techniques

Problem: evaluation of V Tf(Uz)is still expensive

Two solutions:

Use Taylor series off

Use TPWL approximation


Taylor series for nonlinear mor
Taylor series for nonlinear MOR model order reduction techniques

Problem: evaluation of V Tf(Uz)is still expensive

Two solutions:

Use Taylor series off

Use TPWL approximation

  • Accurate only near expansion point or weakly nonlinear systems

  • Storing of dense tensors is expensive; limits the series to orders no more than 3.


Nonlinear mor framework2
Nonlinear MOR framework model order reduction techniques

Problem: evaluation of V Tf(Uz)is still expensive

Two solutions:

Use Taylor series off

Use TPWL approximation

Will be discussed next


Trajectory piecewise linear tpwl approximation of f rewie ski 2001
Trajectory piecewise linear (TPWL) approximation of model order reduction techniquesf( ) [Rewieński, 2001]

Training trajectory

x0

x2

x1

wi(x)is zero outside circle

xs

Simulating trajectory


Projection and tpwl approximation yields efficient f r

V model order reduction techniquesT

Projection and TPWL approximation yields efficient f r( )

q x1

Air

Ai

q

U

=

Air

q

n

n

Evaluating fTPWLr( ) requires only O(sq2) operations


Tpwl approximation of f extraction algorithm
TPWL approximation of model order reduction techniquesf( ). Extraction algorithm

  • Compute A1

  • Obtain V1 and U1using linear reduction for A1

  • Simulate training input, collect and reduce linearizations Air = W1TAiV1f r (xi)=W1Tf(xi)

Initial system position

x0

x2

x1

xs

Training trajectory

Non-reduced state space


Outline3
Outline model order reduction techniques

  • Motivation

  • Overview of existing methods:

    • Linear MOR

    • Nonlinear MOR

  • TBR-based trajectory piecewise-linear method

  • Modified AISIAD linear reduction method

  • Graph-based model reduction for RC circuits

  • Case study: microfluidic channel

  • Conclusions


The matter of this contribution

Krylov-subspace methods model order reduction techniques

Balanced-truncation method

The matter of this contribution

What are projection options for TPWL?

Can we use it?

Used in the original work

[Rewienski ‘02]


Example problem
Example problem model order reduction techniques

RLC line

Linearized system has

non-symmetric, indefinite Jacobian


Numerical results nonlinear rlc transmission line
Numerical results model order reduction techniques– nonlinear RLC transmission line

System response for input current i(t) = (sin(2π/10)+1)/2

  • Input:

training

input

testing

input

Voltage at node 1 [V]

Time [s]


Numerical results rlc transmission line
Numerical results – model order reduction techniquesRLC transmission line

TBR-based TPWL beat

Krylov-based

4-th order TBR TPWL reaches the limit of TPWL representation

Error in transient

||yr – y||2

Order of the reduced model


Micromachined switch example
Micromachined switch example model order reduction techniques

Finite-difference

model of order 880

non-symmetric

indefinite Jacobian

Model description [Hung ‘97]


Tpwl tbr results mems switch example
TPWL-TBR results model order reduction techniques– MEMS switch example

Errors in transient

Unstable!

Odd order models unstable!

Even order models beat Krylov

||yr – y||2

Why???

Order of reduced system


Explanation of even odd effect problem statement
Explanation of even-odd effect – model order reduction techniquesProblem statement

Consider two LTI systems:

Perturbed:

Initial:

TBR reduction

TBR reduction

~

Projection basis V

Projection basis V

Define our problem:

How perturbation in the initial system

affects TBR projection matrices?


Perturbation behavior of tbr basis is similar to symmetric eigenvalue problem
Perturbation behavior of TBR basis is similar to symmetric eigenvalue problem

Eigenvectors ofM0 :

Eigenvectors ofM0 + Δ:

Mixing of eigenvectors (assuming small perturbations):

ciklarge when λi0 ≈ λk0


Hankel singular values mems beam example
Hankel singular values, eigenvalue problemMEMS beam example

This is the key to the problem.

Singular values are arranged in pairs!

# of the Hankel singular value


Explaining even odd behavior
Explaining even-odd behavior eigenvalue problem

The closer Hankel singular

values lie to each other, the

more corresponding eigenvectors

of V tend to intermix!

  • Analysis implies simple recipe for using TBR

    • Pick reduced order to ensure that

      • Remaining Hankel singular values are small enough

      • The last kept and the first removed Hankel singular values are well separated

Helps to ensure that linearizations are stable


Summary
Summary eigenvalue problem

  • We used TBR-based linear reduction procedure to generate TPWL reduced models

  • Order reduced 5 times while maintaining comparable accuracy with Krylov TPWL method (efficiency improved 125 times!)

  • Simple recipe found which helps to ensure stability.


Outline4
Outline eigenvalue problem

  • Motivation

  • Overview of existing methods:

    • Linear MOR

    • Nonlinear MOR

  • TBR-based trajectory piecewise-linear method

  • Modified AISIAD linear reduction method

  • Graph-based model reduction for RC circuits

  • Case study: microfluidic channel

  • Conclusions


Balanced truncation reduction tbr1
Balanced truncation reduction (TBR) eigenvalue problem

Compute controllability and observability gramians P and Q : (~n3)AP + PAT + BBT =0 ATQ + QA + CTC = 0

Reduced model keeps the dominant eigenspaces of PQ : (~n3)

PQui= λiuivTiPQ = λivTi

Reduced system: (VTAU, VTB, CU, D)

Very expensive. P and Q are dense even for sparse models


Most reduction algorithms effectively separately approximate dominant eigenspaces of p and q
Most reduction algorithms effectively eigenvalue problemseparately approximate dominant eigenspaces of Pand Q:

  • Arnoldi [Grimme ‘97]:U = colsp{A-1B, A-2B, …}, V=U, approx. Pdomonly

  • Padé via Lanczos [Feldman and Freund ‘95]colsp(U) = {A-1B, A-2B, …}, - approx. Pdomcolsp(V) = {A-TCT, (A-T )2CT, …},- approx. Qdom

  • Frequency domain POD [Willcox ‘02], Poor Man’s TBR [Phillips ‘04]

colsp(U) = {(jω1I-A)-1B, (jω2I-A)-1B, …}, - approx.Pdom

colsp(V) = {(jω1I-A)-TCT, (jω2I-A)-TCT, …},- approx.Qdom

However, what matters is the product PQ


Rc line symmetric circuit
RC line (symmetric circuit) eigenvalue problem

V(t) – input

i(t) - output

  • Symmetric Jacobian, B=CT,

    P=Qall controllable states are observable and vice versa


Rlc line nonsymmetric circuit
RLC line (nonsymmetric circuit) eigenvalue problem

Vector of states:

  • P and Q are no longer equal!

  • By keeping only mostly controllable and/or only mostly observable states, we may not find dominant eigenvectors of PQ


Lightly damped rlc circuit
Lightly damped RLC circuit eigenvalue problem

y(t) = i1

R = 0.008,

L = 10-5

C = 10-6

N=100

  • Exact low-rank approximations of P and Q of order < 50 leads to PQ≈ 0


Aisiad model reduction algorithm

X eigenvalue problemi= (PQ)Ui Ui+1= qr(Xi)

“iterate”

AISIAD model reduction algorithm

Idea of AISIAD approximation:

Approximate eigenvectors using power iterations:

Uiconverges to dominant eigenvectors ofPQ

Need to find the product (PQ)Ui

How?


Approximation of the product u i 1 qr pq u i aisiad algorithm
Approximation of the product eigenvalue problemUi+1=qr(PQUi), AISIAD algorithm

Vi≈ qr(QUi)

Ui+1≈ qr(PVi)

Approximate using solution of Sylvester equation

Approximate using solution of Sylvester equation


More detailed view of aisiad approximation
More detailed view of AISIAD approximation eigenvalue problem

Right-multiply by Vi

(original AISIAD)

X

H, qxq

X

M, nxq


Modified aisiad approximation
Modified AISIAD approximation eigenvalue problem

Right-multiply by Vi

^

X

H, qxq

X

Approximate!

M, nxq


Modified aisiad approximation1
Modified AISIAD approximation eigenvalue problem

Right-multiply by Vi

^

X

H, qxq

X

Approximate!

M, nxq

We can take advantage of various

methods, which approximate P and Q


Specialized sylvester equation
Specialized Sylvester equation eigenvalue problem

-M

X

X

A

=

+

H

qxq

nxq

nxn

Need only column span of X


Solving sylvester equation
Solving Sylvester equation eigenvalue problem

Schur decomposition of H :

-M

X

X

A

~

~

~

=

+

~

Solve for columns of X

X


Solving sylvester equation1
Solving Sylvester equation eigenvalue problem

  • Applicable to any stable A

  • Requires solving q times

Schur decomposition of H :

Solution can be accelerated via fast MVP

Original method suggests IRA, needs A>0 [Zhou ‘02]


Modified aisiad algorithm
Modified AISIAD algorithm eigenvalue problem

LR-sqrt

^

^

  • Obtain low-rank approximations of Pand Q

  • Solve AXi+XiH+ M = 0, => Xi≈ PVi where H=ViTATVi, M = P(I - ViViT)ATVi + BBTVi

  • Perform QR decomposition of Xi =UiR

  • Solve ATYi+YiF+ N = 0, => Yi≈ QUi where F=UiTAUi, N = Q(I - UiUiT)AUi + CTCUi

  • Perform QR decomposition of Yi =Vi+1 Rto get new iterate.

  • Go to step 2 and iterate.

  • Bi-orthogonalize VandUand construct reduced model:

^

^

(VTAU, VTB, CU, D)


Rlc line example results
RLC line example results eigenvalue problem

H-infinity norm of reduction error

(worst-case discrepancy over all frequencies)

N = 1000,

1 input

2 outputs


Summary of the modified aisiad
Summary of the modified AISIAD eigenvalue problem

  • Fast approximation to TBR

  • Especially useful if gramians do not share common dominant eigenspace

  • Improved accuracy and extended applicability over AISIAD

  • Generalized to the systems in descriptor form


Outline5
Outline eigenvalue problem

  • Motivation

  • Overview of existing methods:

    • Linear MOR

    • Nonlinear MOR

  • TBR-based trajectory piecewise-linear method

  • Modified AISIAD linear reduction method

  • Graph-based model reduction for RC circuits

  • Case study: microfluidic channel

  • Conclusions


Features of the method
Features of the method eigenvalue problem

Reduction quality

Hankel-optimal

TBR

Krylov-subspace methods

Graph-based reduction:

manipulates RC network by removing nodes and inserting new elements

Cost of reduction


Linear rc network description
Linear RC network description eigenvalue problem

State-space model in the frequency domain:

vs

vm

Vector of node voltages (state):

Jm

vk

symmetric

Jk

External ports

Conductance matrix is analogous, ground node is excluded.


Low frequency approximation for reduced circuit
Low-frequency approximation for reduced circuit eigenvalue problem

  • Consider removing a single internal node (Nth), partition matrices and vectors:

  • Substitute vN in the system equations (one step of Gaussian elimination):

  • Where


Node elimination
Node elimination eigenvalue problem

  • Problem: last capacitance term is negative! Potentially inserting a negative capacitor???

  • The term was ignored in the TICER algorithm [Sheehan ‘99]. Leads to inconsistent diagonal update.

Added

conductance

Capacitance-like


Node elimination theorem 1
Node elimination – Theorem 1 eigenvalue problem

  • Claim: keeping the exact Taylor series is OK:

Gnew

Cnew

  • Proof: Define projection:

Congruence transform

Model is always

stable and passive


Node elimination criteria
Node elimination criteria eigenvalue problem

  • When is it safe to eliminate a node?

  • Denominator expansion:

(used in TICER)

  • Numerator term ~s2 (element-by-element)

(overlooked in TICER)

Using these criteria the reduced order will be chosen on-the-fly


Resulting algorithm
Resulting algorithm: eigenvalue problem

  • Given the initial circuit and maximal frequency of interest

  • Using lowest-degree ordering (minimize fill-ins)

  • Perform the elimination of the “qualified” nodes by inserting new capacitors and resistors:

(for every nodes i and j which were connected via the node N)

  • Until no nodes satisfy elimination conditions.


Results testing substitution rules
Results: testing substitution rules eigenvalue problem

Testing only substitution rules, 1-CDF of the reduction error

tested more than

30,000 circuits


Results testing elimination conditions
Results: testing elimination conditions eigenvalue problem

Same elimination rules, same average reduction

different elimination criteria:

Narrower distribution

Better worst-case accuracy


Summary of the new method
Summary of the new method eigenvalue problem

  • Improved accuracy and error control over TICER by using correct Taylor series and elimination criteria

  • Preserves stability and passivity

  • Generalized to parameter-dependent case

  • Fastest, though conservative


Outline6
Outline eigenvalue problem

  • Motivation

  • Overview of existing methods:

    • Linear MOR

    • Nonlinear MOR

  • TBR-based trajectory piecewise-linear method

  • Modified AISIAD linear reduction method

  • Graph-based model reduction for RC circuits

  • Case study: microfluidic channel

  • Conclusions


Electro osmotic flow in the 3d u shaped microchannel
Electro-osmotic flow in the 3D eigenvalue problemU-shaped microchannel

  • Inside the carrying fluid, marker fluid spreads governed by 3D convection-diffusion equation:

u(t) = Cin(t)

(input)

r1

(outputs)

y2(t)

w

  • Using mapped-domain finite-difference volume discretization, obtained model has 2842 unknowns (large)

y1(t) =<Cout>(t)

y3(t)

V


How the marker spreads
How the marker spreads eigenvalue problem


Linear case
Linear case eigenvalue problem

  • In case of constant mobility and diffusivity the model is linear:

Linear reduction techniques are extremely efficient for such models

[Vasilyev, Rewienski, White ‘06]



Tbr arnoldi and maisiad
TBR, Arnoldi and mAISIAD eigenvalue problem

Modified AISIAD

runtime:

73s

TBR runtime:

2207s

(Matlab implementation)



Nonlinear microchannel problem
Nonlinear microchannel problem eigenvalue problem

For arbitrary nonlinearity in convection and diffusion coefficients and TPWL, this problem is verychallenging!

[Vasilyev, Rewienski, White ‘06]

However, the problem becomes more tractable, if one considers a quadratic problem

This is the case for affine μand D:

μ(C) = μ0C+ μ1

D(C) = D0C+ D1


Quadratic model of microchannel system
Quadratic model of microchannel system eigenvalue problem

  • Affine mobility and diffusivity leads to quadratic model:

  • Use orthogonal projection V = U, V TV = I

Reduced quadratic system


Quadratic microchannel problem result
Quadratic microchannel problem - result eigenvalue problem

Projected reduced quadratic model of size 60 approximates original system of size 2842 quite well:

Krylov-subspace basis,

Quadratic reduction


Conclusions
Conclusions eigenvalue problem

  • Performed applicability analysis of TBR-based TPWL models based on matrix perturbation theory

  • Developed modified AISIAD method which is aimed at approximating TBR for the cases where gramians do not necessarily share common dominant eigenspaces

  • Developed graph-based parameterized RC reduction method and improved nominal reduction


I extend my sincere thanks to
I extend my sincere thanks to: eigenvalue problem

Prof. Jacob White – my supervisor,

Profs. Luca Daniel and Alexandre Megretski,

Profs. Karen Willcox, John Kassakian, John Wyatt, Dr. Yehuda Avniel, Dr. Joel Phillips, Dr. Mark Reichelt

My groupmates: Anne, Bo, Brad, Carlos, Dave, Jay, Jung Hoon, Homer, Kin, Laura, Lei, Michał, Shihhsien, Steve, Tarek, Tom, Xin, Zhenhai

My wife, Patrycja

Thank you! Спасибо!Grazie! Dziękuje!

Komapsumnida!Xie Xie! Dua Netjer en ek!


For systems in the descriptor form
For systems in the descriptor form eigenvalue problem

Generalized Lyapunov equations:

Lead to similar

approximate power iterations


Maisiad and low rank square root
mAISIAD and low-rank square root eigenvalue problem

Low-rank gramians

(cost varies)

mAISIAD

LR-square root

(inexpensive step)

(more expensive)

For the majority of non-symmetric cases,

mAISIAD works better than low-rank square root


Rlc line example results1
RLC line example results eigenvalue problem

H-infinity norm of reduction error

(worst-case discrepancy over all frequencies)

N = 1000,

1 input

2 outputs


Steel rail cooling profile benchmark
Steel rail cooling profile benchmark eigenvalue problem

Taken from Oberwolfach benchmark collection, N=1357 7 inputs, 6 outputs


Maisiad is useless for symmetric models
mAISIAD is useless for symmetric models eigenvalue problem

For symmetric systems (A = AT, B = CT) P=Q, therefore

mAISIAD is equivalent to LRSQRT for P,Q of order q

^

^

RC line example


Cost of the algorithm
Cost of the algorithm eigenvalue problem

  • Cost of the algorithm is directly proportional to the cost of solving a linear system:(where sjj is a complex number)

  • Cost does not depend on the number of inputs and outputs

(non-descriptor case)

(descriptor case)


Lightly damped rlc circuit1
Lightly damped RLC circuit eigenvalue problem

Top 5 eigenvectorsof Q

Top 5 eigenvectors of P

Union of eigenspaces of P and Q

does not necessarily approximate

dominant eigenspace of PQ .


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