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Cellular Biochemistry and Metabolism (CLS 331). Dr . Samah Kotb Nasr Eldeen. Chapter 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION. General Introduction :.

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Cellular biochemistry and metabolism cls 331

Cellular Biochemistry and Metabolism(CLS 331)

Dr. Samah Kotb Nasr Eldeen


Chapter 1

GENERAL INTRODUCTION


General introduction
General Introduction:

Metabolism is the study of the chemical reactions that occur inside living cells. Updates over 2000 such reactions have been documented. Although this is a large number, there is a high degree of organization and order that govern these reactions. Metabolic reactions do not occur at random inside cells but take the shape of chains or series known as Metabolic Pathways.

  • Some pathways are short made of 2 or 3 reactions or long made of 20, 30 or 40 reactions.


A metabolic pathway can be defined as a specific sequence of enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-


Shapes of metabolic pathways
Shapes of Metabolic Pathways: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

  • Linear

  • Branched

    C. Cyclic


Types of Pathways enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

There are 2 types of metabolic pathways that occur inside cells:-

1) Catabolic Pathways

These are made of reactions through which energy rich nutrient molecules are broken down by chemical reactions into simple end products. As a result of catabolic pathways energy is produced and released to the cell.


1) Catabolic enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-Pathways


2) Anabolic Pathways: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

These are pathways made of reactions that result in the synthesis of biomolecules using basic unit components. These biomolecules are either biologically or structurally important to the cells.

  • Anabolic reactions & pathways require an input of energy to take place.


2) Anabolic enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-Pathways


Link between catabolism anabolism
Link between Catabolism & Anabolism: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-


Home work
Home work enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

  • Define all of the following

  • Catabolic pathway ???????

  • Anabolic pathway ?? ????

  • What is the link between Catabolism & Anabolism?


Chapter enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-2

STAGES OF CATABOLISM


Stages of catabolism
Stages of Catabolism: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-


Stages of catabolism1
Stages of Catabolism: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

  • Stage1:Digestion.Hundreds of proteins and many kinds of polysaccharides & lipids are broken down chemically or enzymatically into their building block units.

  • Stage 2:Intracellular.The building block units arrive inside cells from the blood. They are degraded via Catabolic Pathways into a common product namely acetyl-CoA.

  • Stage 3:Intracellular. Acetyl-CoA is completely degraded into CO2 and H2O via reactions of the TCA cycle.


The energy of catabolism
The energy of Catabolism: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

The energy of catabolism is used by cells to drive various activities that require expenditure of energy. This energy maintains the lift of the cell.


Regulation of cellular metabolism
Regulation of Cellular Metabolism:- enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

Cells use 3 mechanisms to regulate (speed up or slow down) the rate of metabolic activity:-

  • Allosteric Enzymes.

  • Availability of Enzymes.

  • Hormonal Regulation.


1 allosteric regulation
1) Allosteric Regulation: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

This is done by the use of allosteric enzymes which are usually key enzymes of metabolic pathway.

  • Structure of enzymes:-

    Enzymes are globular proteins made of peptide chains that have folded on each other in a specific manner that results in the formation of a globular macro protein with an active site at the periphery of the protein molecule.


1 allosteric regulation1
1) Allosteric Regulation: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-


Allosteric regulation mechanism
Allosteric Regulation Mechanism: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

Allosteric modulators are of 2 types:-

  • An allosteric stimulator module of the enzyme.

  • An allosteric inhibitor molecule of the enzyme.


Allosteric regulation mechanism1
Allosteric Regulation Mechanism: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

  • As the pathway occurs at a fast rate there will be accumulation of the end product G. When the levels of G reach a certain high level within the cell it will act as an allosteric inhibitor of E1 by binding to the allosteric site of the enzyme. Thus the catalysis of the reaction A  B will be switched off thereby slowing down the whole pathway. Note that E1 is the key enzyme of the overall pathway.


Allosteric regulation mechanism2
Allosteric Regulation Mechanism: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

  • With time the levels of G will start dropping as it leaves the cell. Thus the allosteric inhibition of E1 is removed and the enzyme restores its catalytic activity.

  • In other cases of allosteric inhibition the end product is not involved. Instead a side product of the pathway acts as the allosteric modulator. In many cases this side product is the ATP/ADP level inside the cell.


Allosteric regulation mechanism3
Allosteric Regulation Mechanism: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-


2 availability of enzymes
2 enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-) Availability of Enzymes:

Upon consumption of a meal rich in carbohydrate and as digestion in the GIT occurs, large amounts of glucose will be absorbed into the blood. As a result there will be an influx of glucose into cells. Cells react by synthesizing larger than usual amounts of glucose degradative enzymes in order to increase the rate of its catabolism. The levels of amino acids (a.a.) catabolic enzymes or fatty acids (f.a.) catabolic enzymes stays normal. If the meal was rich in proteins, a.a. catabolic enzymes will be synthesized in large amounts.


3 hormonal regulation
3) Hormonal Regulation: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

Hormones are organic type molecule synthesized and secreted by special type tissues known as endocrine glands. The hormones pour from the gland directly in to the blood and are transported in the blood until they reach what is known as target tissue cells. The hormone is recognized by its target cells; by way of receptors present the outer surface of the cell membrane. As a result of the binding between the hormone and its receptor a series of chemical reactions inside the cell occurs that result in either an increase or a decrease in the rate of a certain biochemical pathway.


3 hormonal regulation1
3) Hormonal Regulation: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-


3 hormonal regulation2
3) Hormonal Regulation: enzymatically catalyzed reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate of the next reaction in the chain. The following is an example of a metabolic pathway made of six reactions:-

Example for the hormonal regulation:

Adrenaline is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the adrenal medullary cells. Adrenaline leaves the gland and is transported in the blood until it reaches its target cells which are liver and muscle cells. As the hormone binds to its target cells large amounts of an intracellular secondary messenger (Cyclic AMP) are synthesized. This will cause an increase in the catabolic pathway responsible for breaking down Glycogen into glucose (G).


The extra glucose leaves muscle and liver & is distributed to the various tissues. Adrenaline is released from the adrenal medulla under conditions of emotional or physical stress. The body under such conditions requires extra catabolism of G for extra energy production.


Other Hormones include:- to the various tissues. Adrenaline is released from the adrenal medulla under conditions of emotional or physical stress. The body under such conditions requires extra catabolism of G for extra energy production.

Insulin synthesized and secreted by the β cells of the pancreas. Its target cells include muscle & adipose tissue.

It acts to lower plasma glucose levels by:

  • Increase the rate of glycolysis.

  • Increase the rate of glycogenesis.

  • Increase the rate of entry of glucose into cells.


Home work1
Home work to the various tissues. Adrenaline is released from the adrenal medulla under conditions of emotional or physical stress. The body under such conditions requires extra catabolism of G for extra energy production.

  • Give an example of hormonal regulation of cellular metabolism???????

  • Define Allosteric enzymes ?


Thank you to the various tissues. Adrenaline is released from the adrenal medulla under conditions of emotional or physical stress. The body under such conditions requires extra catabolism of G for extra energy production.


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