PSY 312: Brain and Behavior. Dr. Mark Prendergast Office: B449 BBSRB (on the corner of Virginia and Limestone St.) Office hours: by appointment Telephone: 257-6120 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tracy Butler, M.S. Office: 448-D BBSRB Office hours: by appointment
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PSY 312: Brain and Behavior
Dr. Mark Prendergast
Office: B449 BBSRB (on the corner of Virginia and Limestone St.)
Office hours: by appointment
Tracy Butler, M.S.
Office: 448-D BBSRB
Office hours: by appointment
Required Text: Basics of Biopsychology by John P.J. Pinel (2007)
Outline:This class provides an introduction to structural and functional characteristics of the nervous system. Topics range from simple brain structures and behaviors to more complex functions such as drug addiction and other psychiatric illnesses.
Attendance:Attendance is never a course requirement in my classes.
Cheating:Cheating is not tolerated. I define cheating as either giving or receiving help during exams or during the writing of a paper. This can be from a classmate or any other method, including copying from a WWW site. In addition, any written assignment for this class is to be done independently and working on written assignments together also constitutes as cheating. If you need further clarification of what the University defines as cheating, please read the description in your Students Rights and Responsibilities Handbook. Anyone caught cheating will at minimum receive a zero and likely fail the course.
Grading: Your grade will be based on the % correct on 3 exams, including the final (100 points each, a total of 300 points). Each exam will consist of multiple choice questions. If an emergency arises and you must miss class on an exam day, please let me know prior to class. Make-up exams should be scheduled as soon as possible. Final grades will be assigned on a curve based upon overall exam performance. Regardless of class performance, however, 90% is guaranteed an "A", 80% at least a "B", 70% at least a “C”, 60% at least a “D” and below 60% an E.
Extra Credit: All students will be allowed to complete 1 extra credit assignment worth up to the equivalent of 5 points on an exam. This assignment must be a 2 page (double spaced) summary of an article published in a scientific journal identified on www.pubmed.com. Extra credit assignments are due prior to the final exam.
Documented disability policy: if a disability exists and requires academic accommodations, please see me as soon as possible. To receive accommodations in the course, you must provide me with a Letter of Accommodation from the Disability Resource Center.
Anatomy of Brain Prendergast
Sept. 9th and 14th: NO CLASS
Neural Activity Prendergast
Development of the Nervous System Prendergast
Brain Damage and NeuroplasticityPrendergast
Learning, Memory, and Amnesia Butler/Prendergast
Hunger, Eating, and HealthButler
Hormones and SexPrendergast
Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian RhythmsPrendergast
Addiction, Emotion, and StressPrendergast
Guest Lecture, Dr. Bill Stoops: Studying Drug Abuse in Humans
Addiction, Emotion, and Stress, cont’dPrendergast
Mechanisms of PerceptionPrendergast
Behavioral Neuroscience of PsychiatricButler
Sensory Motor SystemsPrendergast
Special role that genes and heritability play in behaviorPrendergast
FINAL EXAM: 12/14 @ 1:00 p.m.
Lecture notes: available on-line before every class at
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Anatomy of the Brain (and spinal cord)
What you see is NOT what you get !
Legend for color coding:
Ventricle (cerebrospinal fluid)
Gyri (gyryus): folds of brain
Sulci (sulcus): gaps between gyri
The HOPES Brain Tutorial (Stanford University)
can vary tremendously in size and shape but all have 3 components
from other neurons and other types of cells
goal of every cell is to receive chemical signals from nearby cells and
to send chemical signals to nearby cells
Neurons can be:
Multipolar: many “processes” extend from
cell body (most neurons)
Unipolar: 1 process
Bipolar: 2 processes
* Core of cell body
* Contains almost all
2: Nearby cells called
wrap most axons with a
fatty substance called
“Schwann cell in periphery)
1. autonomic nervous system
-role in emotion and stress
controls smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and glands
two anatomically separate components
You don’t need to remember
times of rest
- lower heart rate, stimulates digestion of food, controls urination, etc.
You don’t need to remember
temperature. (but not vision or smell !)
Spinal column and spinal nerves:
Bridge from brain
to peripheral NS
Sections of Cord
A pair of nerves (31 pairs) emerges from each level
1 of each pair = sensory info. to spinal cord from body
1 of each pair = motor info. from spinal cord to body
Gray matter vs white matter ??
Dorsal root (incoming) vs ventral root (outgoing)
Brings info. INTO
the the brain
Sends info. OUT
of the brain
Courtesy, Marie-Luise Lehmann
3 membranes that “wrap” around the outside of brain
dura mater – “tough mold”, leather-like outer meninge
arachnoid – middle layer
pia mater- “little mold”, directly attached to brain
The Pia mater is too thin to see
(also, it usually tears off when the Arachnoid
mater is removed)
Protect brain by:
preventing it from touch skull
holding cerebrospinal fluid in
stabilizing blood supply to and from brain
Blood-brain barrier (BBB):protects brain by making it
difficult for substances to get in
Drugs, oxygen, nutrients, etc.… diffuse through capillary walls into tissue
Red blood cells
Lipid (fat) cells
Capillary in peripheral
drugs nutrients toxins
1. Things in blood diffuse into tissue relatively easily
Example of the importance of blood-brain barrier
This means that you can give a low
dose (small amount) of the drug to get a
But, if a drug doesn’t cross capillary membrane easily…?
You have to give a lot of the drug (high dose)
Much more likely to get nasty side effects
Most of the drugs used to treat HIV infection and AIDS
don’t cross the blood-brain barrier easily
2. Brain Damage:
Many “types” or “classes” of drug have a very, very
hard time getting past the blood brain barrier
So, if you are trying to treat a disease that affects the
brain (as well as the rest of the body), the brain is
especially likely to be damaged by the disease
Exception to the blood-brain barrier:
2. A gland in CNS that controls several hormones
Intro to Brain Development Terminology
5 divisions of brain during “embryologic” development (first 8 weeks)
1 = Telencephalon
2 = Diencephalon
3 = Mesencephalon
4 = Metencephalon
5 = Myelencephalon
72 hr old chick
Telencephalon (cerebral cortex, limbic system, basal ganglia): “thought”, emotion,
Diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus): sensory relay, homeostatic functions
Mesencephalon (midbrain): tectum (dorsal) and tegmentum (floor)
Metencephalon (pons and cerebellum): pons is fiber tracts, cerbellum is motor area
Myelencephalon (medulla): efferent and afferent fiber tracts, “reticular formation”
arousal, sleep, attention
The University of South Wales, Dr. Mark Hill
Evolutionarily: “Old” “younger” “youngest”
“Older” part of brain are more similar to lower animals than “young” ones
Much larger portion of the total brain weight than seen in almost all
- allows for more cognitive ability and emotional range
The Forebrain (telencephalon and diencephalon) largest part of the brain. Makes up 2/3 of entire organ.
left and right cerebral hemispheres are separated by the longitudinal fissure
Outermost covering = the cerebral cortex - gray matter: cell bodies and dendrites of neurons.
1. Cerebral cortex (outer portion) has four lobes with the following functions:
Frontal- Primary motor cortex - Voluntary control of skeletal muscles; controls personality, intelligence, emotional control and speech.
Temporal - Auditory cortex and olfactory cortex; Conscious perception of auditory, olfactory stimuli.
Parietal - Primary sensory cortex; Conscious perception of touch, pressure, vibration, pain, temperature, and taste - controls sensory input
Occipital - Visual cortex: Conscious control of visual stimuli.
Gyrus:raised ridge of
3 major functions and areas of cerebral cortex:
Sensory - motor - associative
Sensory areasreceive/interpret impulse for sense receptors: eyes, ears, taste buds, nose, touch, pain, pressure, heat, and cold receptors.
Motor areasof cortex start impulse responsible for all voluntary movement.
Associativeareas are responsible for memory, learning, and thought. These areas combine information from lower areas
and make sense of it to make decisions.
The Telencephalon, cont’d
Just below the cortex lies several structures that are
very important for emotion, learning, movement, language
and other behaviors.
Limbic system: large, interconnected network of nuclei
involved in emotion, learning, and sensory information
'basal ganglia' means: the caudate nucleus, putamen
and globus pallidus
importantforcontrolling voluntary movements
and establishing postures
= “lentiform nucleus”
The 2nd part of the forebrain is the “Diencephalon”
Comprised of several regions involved in:
- relaying sight, smell, sound, etc. info. to cortex
-regulating temperature, thirst, sexual behavior, eating…
- fibers tracts from eyes vision (optic chiasm)
- “Pituitary gland” = regulates many things using hormones
The Diencephalon sits right on top of the Midbrain
Basal gangliapituitary gland
Corpus collosumoptic chiasm
Midbrain1. Just above pons.
2. Largest part of brain in lower vertebrates.
3. Center for visual and auditory reflexes: pupil reflex, blinking, adjusting ear volume to sound
4. Neurons that influence basal
ganglia and movement are here
5. Neurons that influence pleasure
are here, project to limbic system
C. Hindbrain - (mylencephalon and metencephalon)
sensory/motor relay, movement, arousal, control of internal organs
NOTE: the Brain stem is composed of the Midbrain and the Hindbrain
Pons1. Serves as a relay system, linking spinal cord, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and cerebrum.
Medulla Oblongata1. Lowest portion of brain.
2. Controls internal organs: heart rate, peristalsis, respiration, secretions from glands, blood pressure, swallowing, coughing, and vomiting.
3. Connects spinal cord with other parts of brain.
Cerebellum1. motor learning
2. Motor reflexes
Reticular formation1. wake/sleep cycles
Pons reticular formation
Cranial nerves primarily serve head and face
How to remember the cranial nerves…
Spinal accessory nerve and