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Forerunner: The League of Nations. Established in 1920 under the Treaty of Versailles “to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security “ Direct response to the atrocities of the First World War Initiative of President Wilson of the USA (Fourteen Points plan for peace).

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Forerunner: The League of Nations

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Forerunner: The League of Nations

  • Established in 1920 under the Treaty of Versailles

    “to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security “

  • Direct response to the atrocities of the First World War

  • Initiative of President Wilson of the USA (Fourteen Points plan for peace)


New York City


The League of NationsUnited Nations

Encourage

co-operation

Stop Aggression

AIMS

Improve

Social Conditions

Disarmament


193


The Original United Nations

Yalta – San Francisco Conference --- April and June 1945

Five permanent members– victors in WWII

“BIG FIVE”


Structure of United Nations- “ SIX ORGANS”

Security Council

General Assembly

Secretariat

Secretary General

Economic and Social Council

International Court of Justice

Trusteeship Council


Security Council


  • Ten non-permanent members elected for two-year terms by the General Assembly (with end of term date):

    • Argentina (2014)

    • Azerbaijan (2013)

    • Australia (2014)

    • Guatemala (2013)

    • Luxembourg (2014)

    • Morocco (2013)

    • Pakistan (2013)

    • Republic of Korea (2014)

    • Rwanda (2014)

    • Togo (2013)


Power and Responsibility of Security Council

  • 5 permanent members given veto power, which means that decisions taken by the Security Council can be blocked by any of the five permanent members.

  • Keeps international peace

  • Monitors nuclear weapons

  • Decides what to do when a country threatens / goes to war

  • To make a decision : 9 members must agree--- of the 9 all 5 permanent members must pass the resolution.


General Assembly


How does the G.A. work?

September: opening new (annual) session: general

debate.

September- December: work divided over six main

committees and several special commissions

December: end annual session. Votes cast

over proposed resolutions.

December-September: work taken care of by the six

committees; special commissions. When necessary

emergency meetings of the G.A. take place.


The Secretary General

Ban Ki-Moon

South Korea

2008 appointment


Its job was to oversee territories such as those taken from

conquered nation during WWII


  • 15 judges elected by the General Assembly (with Security Council approval).


Funding

FUNDING

  • Funding for the U.N. comes from the member nations. The General Assembly is in charge of ratifying a budget and deciding how much money each nation will pay into the system. Money gets divided into three areas:

    • The normal U.N. operating budget

    • The peacekeeping budget

    • Voluntary contributions, mostly for humanitarian efforts


The UN Regular Budget

The current payment structure for UN Regular Budget dues sets maximum (22%) and minimum (.001%) rates for all nations based on their ability to pay.

The U.S. pays the maximum rate and has negotiated several reductions in this rate over time, most notably from 25% to 22%.

The assessment rate is primarily determined by gross national product (GNP), and since the U.S. has one of the highest in the world, its dues assessments are higher than those of other Member States.


The Peacekeeping Budget

The UN’s peacekeeping budget currently finances 15 peacekeeping missions with more than 120,000 military, police, and civilian personnel deployed in conflict zones throughout the world.

The UN funds its peacekeeping budget with assessments on member states similar to those made for the regular budget, but with greater discounts for poorer nations. The resulting funding deficit is compensated for by the 5 permanent members (P5) of the Security Council—the U.S., United Kingdom, France, Russia, and China.

Under this formula, the U.S. is assessed 27% of the UN’s peacekeeping budget


  • 2008- The US was delinquent $1.6 billion in UN dues. These debt accumulated during several years of non-payment for peacekeeping and regular budgets for which America had voted.

  • In the normal operating budget, the U.S. covered 22% of the budget. Other big contributors: Japan (16.6%), Germany (8.6%), France (6%), the U.K. (6.1%), Italy (4.8%), Canada (2.8%), Spain (2.5%), Mexico (1.8%),

  • Australia (1.6%), Brazil (1.5%), others (22.6%)


funding levels including the President’s request for FY 2013.


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