Biochemistry. Introduction of Macromolecules. Biochemistry.
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Introduction of Macromolecules
Biochemistry is the study of chemical reactions in living systems. Biomolecules are organic compounds, meaning they are based on carbon chemistry. Remember that carbon is unique in that it can form 4 covalent bonds; thus it is able to form long, complex chains of atoms.
Organic substances, macromolecules, or biomolecules make up all living things.
The four groups of substances are
Polymers are formed from the linking together of many similar monomers.
Monomers are joined through a process known as dehydration synthesis, the removal of water.
monomer + monomer polymer + H2O
Hydrolysis is the breaking of the bonds between monomers in a polymer by adding water.
This process is necessary in digestion so that molecules can be small enough to be absorbed and transported into the cell.
polymer + H2O monomer + monomer
1). Carbohydrates- made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen usually in ratio of 1 : 2 : 1 (Pasta, Bread)
The main source of energy for living things.
Carbohydrates are STARCHES. Your body breaks down starches to make sugars that it can use for energy. This sugar is called glucose.
MonosaccharidEs-A single sugar molecule
A storage molecule found in animals. Animals store sugars in the form of glycogen in the liver for later use.
Benedict’s reagent is used to test for simple sugars (mono-
saccharides) like glucose and fructose. When heated,
Benedict’s reagent changes color from light blue to red/orange
if a simple sugar is present.
+ - +
Iodine solution is used to test for the presence of polysaccharides (starch). If starch is present, a color change from amber to purple/black occurs.
Starch No starch
Proteins are macromolecules comprised of chains of amino acids.
4). Proteins– contain Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen atoms. Polymers of amino acids
a). Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids (building blocks of proteins)
b). Found in meat, eggs, chicken
a). Controls the rate of reactions
b.) regulate cell processes
c.) form bones and muscles
d.) fight diseases
e.) transports materials into or out of cells
Biuret reagent is used to test for the presence of protein.
When protein is present, biuret reagent changes from light
blue to purple.
- + -
catalysts transport movement protection
Fatty Acid tails
Lipids– fats, oils, and waxes
Fatty Acid tails
Fatty Acid tails
Major Food Sources of Trans Fat for American Adults
Sudan III is a chemical test for the presence of lipids. If lipids are present,
this indicator will turn orange-pink.
Brown paper may also be used to test for the presence of lipids. Lipids
soak into the paper, causing it to have a translucent appearance.
Nucleic acids are the only macromolecules with the unique ability to REPRODUCE themselves and carry the code that directs all of the cell’s activities.
The subunits (monomers, building blocks) of nucleic acids are called
(Pentose- 5 Carbon)
The pentose (5 carbon) sugar in a nucleotide is either ribose (RNA) or deoxyribose (DNA).
The NITROGEN BASES fit into 2 families:
An individual nucleotide that functions in energy transfer (acts like a battery) in the cell.
DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid is made up of 2 polynucleotide chains twisted around a central axis. The nitrogen bases that make up DNA are A, G, C, and T.
RNA – Ribonucleic Acid is a single stranded chain made up of the nitrogen bases A, G, C, and U.
Organic Substances information
Direct cell processes