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Biochemistry. Introduction of Macromolecules. Biochemistry.

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biochemistry

Biochemistry

Introduction of Macromolecules

biochemistry1

Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the study of chemical reactions in living systems. Biomolecules are organic compounds, meaning they are based on carbon chemistry. Remember that carbon is unique in that it can form 4 covalent bonds; thus it is able to form long, complex chains of atoms.

organic substances
Organic Substances

Organic substances, macromolecules, or biomolecules make up all living things.

The four groups of substances are

carbohydrates

lipids

proteins

nucleic acids

polymers

organic substances1
Organic Substances

Polymers are formed from the linking together of many similar monomers.

Monomers are joined through a process known as dehydration synthesis, the removal of water.

monomer + monomer polymer + H2O

organic substances2
Organic Substances

Hydrolysis is the breaking of the bonds between monomers in a polymer by adding water.

This process is necessary in digestion so that molecules can be small enough to be absorbed and transported into the cell.

polymer + H2O monomer + monomer

slide7

1). Carbohydrates- made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen usually in ratio of 1 : 2 : 1 (Pasta, Bread)

The main source of energy for living things.

Carbohydrates are STARCHES. Your body breaks down starches to make sugars that it can use for energy. This sugar is called glucose.

C6H12O6

slide8

Carbon ring

  • C6H12O 6

Carbohydrate

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Polysaccharides

http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objid=AP13104

slide9

Carbon ring

  • C6H12O 6
  • Fuel for
  • Respiration

MonosaccharidEs-A single sugar molecule

slide11

Carbon ring

  • C6H12O 6

Polysaccharides

slide12

Carbon ring

  • C6H12O 6

Polysaccharides

Glycogen

Glycogen

A storage molecule found in animals. Animals store sugars in the form of glycogen in the liver for later use.

Glycogen

Glycogen

slide13

Carbon ring

  • C6H12O 6

Chemical Tests

Benedict’s reagent is used to test for simple sugars (mono-

saccharides) like glucose and fructose. When heated,

Benedict’s reagent changes color from light blue to red/orange

if a simple sugar is present.

+ - +

Iodine solution is used to test for the presence of polysaccharides (starch). If starch is present, a color change from amber to purple/black occurs.

Starch No starch

slide14

Organic Substances

Glucose

Fructose

Cellulose

Glycogen

Starch

Benedict’s Reagent

Iodine

Monosaccharides

Polysaccharides

Quick Energy

Delayed energy

Cell components

slide15

A central carbon atom

  • Is bonded to:
  • Amino group
  • Hydrogen atom
  • Carboxyl group
  • R group (varies)

Proteins

Proteins are macromolecules comprised of chains of amino acids.

http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objid=AP13304

slide16

4). Proteins– contain Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen atoms. Polymers of amino acids

a). Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids (building blocks of proteins)

b). Found in meat, eggs, chicken

slide17

Function of proteins:

a). Controls the rate of reactions

b.) regulate cell processes

c.) form bones and muscles

d.) fight diseases

e.) transports materials into or out of cells

slide18

A central carbon atom

  • Is bonded to:
  • Amino group
  • Hydrogen atom
  • Carboxyl group
  • R group (varies)

Proteins

Carboyxl Group

R Group

Amino Group

slide19

A central carbon atom

  • Is bonded to:
  • Amino group
  • Hydrogen atom
  • Carboxyl group
  • R group (varies)

Chemical Tests

Biuret reagent is used to test for the presence of protein.

When protein is present, biuret reagent changes from light

blue to purple.

- + -

slide20

Meats

Hormones

Muscle

Hair

Nails

Enzymes

Blood Cells

catalysts transport movement protection

immune growth

Organic Substances

Many types

Biuret’s Reagent

slide21

Glycerol

+

Fatty Acid tails

Lipids

  • Made mostly of C and H, some O.
  • Lipids are insoluble in water(they do not dissolve).
  • Lipids include phospholipids, and fats (AKA triglycerides).

triglycerides

http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objid=AP13204

slide22

Lipids– fats, oils, and waxes

  • Store energy
  • Some are chemical messengers (ie. Steroids)
  • Ex.) oils on your skin keep you from soaking up water in the tub.
slide23

Glycerol

+

Fatty Acid tails

Lipids

Glycerol

Fatty Acid tails

slide25

Saturated

  • Animal fats
  • Solid at room temp
  • Lacks double bond in Carbon chain
  • Unsaturated
  • Plant fats
  • Remain liquid at room temp.
  • Has a double bond in Carbon chain

Lipids

lipids
LIPIDS

Cell Membrane

“PHOSPHO”LIPID

lipids1
LIPIDS

Major Food Sources of Trans Fat for American Adults

slide29

Tests for Lipids

Sudan III is a chemical test for the presence of lipids. If lipids are present,

this indicator will turn orange-pink.

+

Brown paper may also be used to test for the presence of lipids. Lipids

soak into the paper, causing it to have a translucent appearance.

+ -

slide30

Organic Substances

Glycerol +

Fatty acids

  • Cholesterol
  • Phospholipids
  • Fats:
  • Saturated
  • Unsaturated

Stored energy

Insulation

Cell Components

Fats

Oils

Waxes

Sudan III

Brown paper

nucleic acids1
NUCLEIC ACIDS

Nucleic acids are the only macromolecules with the unique ability to REPRODUCE themselves and carry the code that directs all of the cell’s activities.

nucleic acids2
NUCLEIC ACIDS

The subunits (monomers, building blocks) of nucleic acids are called

NUCLEOTIDES.

nitrogen base

phosphate

sugar

(Pentose- 5 Carbon)

nucleic acids3
NUCLEIC ACIDS

The pentose (5 carbon) sugar in a nucleotide is either ribose (RNA) or deoxyribose (DNA).

nucleic acids4
NUCLEIC ACIDS

PHOSPHATE GROUP

nucleic acids5
NUCLEIC ACIDS

The NITROGEN BASES fit into 2 families:

  • 6 membered rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms.
  • CYTOSINE (C)
  • THYMINE (T) – DNA
  • URACIL (U) - RNA
  • 5 membered ring attached to a pyrimadine ring.
  • ADENINE (A) & GUANINE (G)
nucleic acids6
NUCLEIC ACIDS

ATP

ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE

An individual nucleotide that functions in energy transfer (acts like a battery) in the cell.

adenine

triphosphate

ribose

nucleic acids7
NUCLEIC ACIDS

Polynucleotides:

DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid is made up of 2 polynucleotide chains twisted around a central axis. The nitrogen bases that make up DNA are A, G, C, and T.

RNA – Ribonucleic Acid is a single stranded chain made up of the nitrogen bases A, G, C, and U.

slide40

Organic Substances

DNA

RNA

ATP

DNA

RNA

ATP

Nucleotides

Direct cell processes

Protein Synthesis

Cellular energy

None 

who wants to be a biochemist2
Who wants to be a biochemist?
  • Carbohydrates and Lipids
who wants to be a biochemist7
Who wants to be a biochemist?
  • Lipids, protein and carbohydrates
who wants to be a biochemist8
Who wants to be a biochemist?
  • Carbohydrate, protein and lipids
who wants to be a biochemist12
Who wants to be a biochemist?
  • Carbohydrates and Lipid
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