The cardio respiratory system
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The Cardio-Respiratory System. Ch 42 AP Biology. What’s the Current Exchange Rate?. Multicellular, complex organisms require specialized structures to exchange with their environment internal transport systems circulate fluid connect the organs of exchange with the body cells

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The Cardio-Respiratory System

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The cardio respiratory system

The Cardio-Respiratory System

Ch 42

AP Biology


What s the current exchange rate

What’s the Current Exchange Rate?

  • Multicellular, complex organisms require specialized structures to exchange with their environment

    • internal transport systems circulate fluid

    • connect the organs of exchange with the body cells

      • More efficient with bulk transport


Open or closed

Open or Closed?

  • Both open and closed circulatory systems have:

    • A circulatory fluid (blood or hemolymph)

    • A set of tubes (blood vessels)

    • A muscular pump (the heart)


Come on in we re open

Come on in. We’re Open!

  • Arthropods and moluscs have open systems

  • Less costly from energy and pressure stance

  • hemolymph general body fluid of blood and interstitial fluid

    • Heart contracts; hemolymph out into sinuses

    • Heart relaxes; hem. back in through ostia

www1.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/7..


Sorry we re closed

Sorry. We’re Closed.

  • Vertebrates, squid, earthworms

  • more efficient at transporting circulatory fluids to tissues and cells to meet metabolic demands

  • Specialized blood vessels, chambered heart

http://dcharmedone.files.wordpress.com/2007/12/closed.jpg


The cardio respiratory system

LE 42-4

FISHES

AMPHIBIANS

REPTILES (EXCEPT BIRDS)

MAMMALS AND BIRDS

Gill capillaries

Lung and skin capillaries

Lung capillaries

Lung capillaries

Pulmocutaneous

circuit

Pulmonary

circuit

Gill

circulation

Pulmonary

circuit

Right

systemic

aorta

Artery

Heart:

Ventricle (V)

Left

systemic

aorta

A

A

A

A

A

A

Atrium (A)

V

V

V

V

V

Right

Left

Left

Right

Right

Left

Systemic

circulation

Systemic

circuit

Systemic

circuit

Vein

Systemic capillaries

Systemic capillaries

Systemic capillaries

Systemic capillaries

Systemic circuits include all body tissues except lungs. Note that circulatory systems are depicted as if the animal is facing you: with the right side of the heart shown at the left and vice-versa.


Hearts

Hearts

  • Insects: system of tracheal tubes, gas exchange throughout the length of the tubes

  • Amphibians: 3 chambered heart

  • Reptiles: double circulation

    • Pulmonary circuit + systemic circulation

    • NO mixing of oxygenated and deox blood


The human heart go with the flow

The Human Heart: go with the flow

  • Pulmonary Circuit

  • Systemic Circuit

www.williamsclass.com/.../CellsOrganization.htm


The cardiac cycle a perfect marriage

The Cardiac Cycle: a perfect marriage

Cardiac Circulation System

library.med.utah.edu/kw/ecg/mml/ecg_ccs.html


The cardio respiratory system

LE 42-8

Signals pass

to heart apex.

Signals are delayed

at AV node.

Pacemaker

generates wave of

signals to contract.

Signals spread

throughout

ventricles.

SA node

(pacemaker)

AV

node

Bundle

branches

Purkinje

fibers

Heart

apex

ECG


Cardiac output

Cardiac Output

  • the volume of blood pumped into the systemic circulation per minute

  • Cardiac output can increase about fivefold during heavy exercise.


Structural differences in vessels

Structural Differences in vessels

arteries

veins

  • Thicker walls

  • elasticity (elastic recoil) helps maintain blood pressure even when the heart relaxes

  • Pressure high during systole

  • thinner-walled

  • blood flows back to the heart mainly as a result of skeletal muscle action

  • one-way valves allow blood to flow only toward the heart


The cardio respiratory system

LE 42-9

Vein

Artery

100 µm

Endothelium

Valve

Basement

membrane

Endothelium

Endothelium

Smooth

muscle

Smooth

muscle

Capillary

Connective

tissue

Connective

tissue

Vein

Artery

Venule

Arteriole


Effects on blood pressure

Effects on Blood Pressure

  • 1. cardiac output and

  • 2. peripheral resistance due to constriction of arterioles

  • Contraction of smooth muscles increase peripheral resistance

  • nervous and hormonal responses constrict blood vessels in response to stress


Taking a blood pressure

LE 42-12_4

Taking a Blood Pressure

Blood pressure

reading: 120/70

Pressure

in cuff

below 120

Pressure

in cuff

below 70

Pressure

in cuff

above 120

Rubber cuff

inflated

with air

120

120

70

Sounds

audible in

stethoscope

Sounds

stop

Artery

closed

Artery


Circulatory system meets lymphatic system

Circulatory System meets Lymphatic System

  • What is Lymph?

  • How is the Circulatory System dependent on the Lymphatic System?


Blood more than meets the eye

Blood. More than meets the eye.

  • Blood is a suspension: lots of different stuff suspended in an aqueous solution.

    Formed Elements vs Plasma


What s the source

What’s the source?

  • Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets develop from a common source, pluripotent stem cells in the red marrow of bones

  • The average life span of a RBC is 120 days

    • It cannot divide and self-renew

  • RBCs are replaced by erythropoeisis

    • Circulatory meets Endocrine meets Renal meets skeletal


Erythro what

Erythro-what?


The cardio respiratory system

a) Kidneys respond to a lower than normal oxygen concentration in the blood by releasing the hormone erythropoietin.

b) Erythropoietin travels to the red bone marrow and stimulates an increase in the production of red blood cells (RBCs).

c) The red bone marrow manufactures RBCs from stem cells that live inside the marrow.

d) RBCs squeeze through blood vessel membranes to enter the circulation.

e) The heart and lungs work to supply continuous movement and oxygenation of RBCs.

f) Damaged or old RBCs are destroyed primarily by the spleen


Respiratory

Respiratory


Surface area

Surface area

  • Rate of diffusion proportional to surface area

  • Protists: occurs over entire surface (cnid. Flats)

  • Earthworms and amphibs: across moist skin

  • Gills: warmer, saltier, less O2

  • Insects: tracheal tubes: branch out to do exchange with all body parts. Open circ. System NOT involved in transport: O2 CO2


Do fish drink water

Do fish drink water???

  • Animals require large, moist respiratory surfaces for adequate diffusion of gases between their cells and the respiratory medium, either air or water

  • Gills are outfoldings of the body surface specialized for gas exchange

  • Effectiveness of gas exchange in some gills, including those of fishes, is increased by ventilation and the countercurrent flow of blood and water


The cardio respiratory system

LE 42-21

Oxygen-poor

blood

Lamella

Oxygen-rich

blood

Gill

arch

Blood

vessel

Gill

arch

15%

40%

70%

Water

flow

5%

30%

Operculum

60%

100%

90%

Water flow

over lamellae

showing % O2

O2

Blood flow

through capillaries

in lamellae

showing % O2

Gill

filaments

Countercurrent exchange


Positive vs negative pressure

Positive vs. Negative Pressure

  • Positive Pressure Breathing-

  • Negative Pressure Breathing-

etc.usf.edu/.../16400/16428/sling-shot_16428.htm


Breathing

Breathing

  • Diaphragm: negative pressure

  • Tidal volume: air in and out with reg breath

  • Residual volume: air that remains in alveoli and tubes after you breath out.

  • Us: air travels down 1 way street.

  • Birds: better: air travels through… no dead ends


Lungs

Lungs

  • Lungs: only site of gas exchange: need circulatory system

  • Breath: negative pressure breathing

  • Partial pressure: gas diffuses from its own high partial press. To low (press. Just this 1 gas contributes to the press. Of air (a mix))


Control of breathing

Nervous System

Pons

Medulla

Cardio Vascular System

Sensors in Aorta

Respiratory System

Concentration of CO2

Control of Breathing


The cardio respiratory system

LE 42-27

Exhaled air

Inhaled air

120

27

160

0.2

Alveolar spaces

O2

CO2

CO2

O2

104

40

Alveolar

epithelial

cells

O2

CO2

CO2

O2

Blood

leaving

alveolar

capillaries

Blood

entering

alveolar

capillaries

CO2

O2

Alveolar

capillaries

of lung

40

45

104

40

O2

CO2

CO2

O2

Pulmonary

arteries

Pulmonary

veins

Systemic

veins

Systemic

arteries

Heart

Tissue

capillaries

O2

CO2

Blood

entering

tissue

capillaries

Blood

leaving

tissue

capillaries

O2

CO2

40

45

100

40

O2

CO2

CO2

O2

Tissue

cells

< 40

> 45

O2

CO2


The cardio respiratory system

LE 42-28

Heme group

Iron atom

O2 loaded

in lungs

O2 unloaded

in tissues

Polypeptide chain


Hemoglobin binding of oxygen

Hemoglobin binding of Oxygen

  • hemoglobin must reversibly bind O2, loading O2 in the lungs and unloading it in other parts of the body

  • Loading and unloading of O2 depend on cooperation between the subunits

    • binding of O2 to one subunit induces the other subunits to bind O2 with more affinity

  • A drop in pH lowers affinity of hemoglobin for O2

  • Bohr shift


Hemoglobin binding of co 2

Hemoglobin binding of CO2

  • Carbon from respiring cells diffuses into the blood plasma and then into erythrocytes and is ultimately released in the lungs

  • CO2 reacts with water to form carbonic acid

    • Lowers pH and induces release of O2 from Hgb

  • Carbonic acid dissociates

  • Hgb binds H+ to prevent acidifying blood

  • Bicarbonate diffuses into plasma and is carried to lungs

  • Carbonic acid is formed again in lungs

    • Then converted back to CO2 and water and expelled


The cardio respiratory system

LE 42-29b

100

pH 7.4

80

Bohr shift:

additional O2

released from

hemoglobin at

lower pH

(higher CO2

concentration)

O2 saturation of hemoglobin (%)

60

pH 7.2

40

20

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

P(mm Hg)

O2

pH and hemoglobin dissociation


Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

  • Red blood cells pick up CO quicker than they pick up oxygen.

  • If there is a lot of CO in the air, the body may replace oxygen in blood with CO.

  • This blocks oxygen from getting into the body, which can damage tissues and result in death.


Diving reflex

http://www.mammalian.ca/template.php?content=about

Diving Reflex

  • first line of defense against hypoxia

  • self-preservation technique triggered in extreme situations

    • suddenly submerged

    • water or caught in a freezing environment

  • all of the major systems slow almost to a halt

    • minimizing the need for oxygen

www.ohusc.k12.in.us/.../Page347.htm


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