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Homework and Report Writing. Chapter 2 – pgs. 47-66 Freshman Engineering Clinic Dr. Hong Zhang *Adopted from Freshman Clinic Notes. Homework. Problem Analysis. Combination of art and science Science Knowledge of math, chemistry, physics and engineering principles

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Homework and Report Writing

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## Homework andReport Writing

Chapter 2 – pgs. 47-66

Freshman Engineering Clinic

Dr. Hong Zhang

### Problem Analysis

• Combination of art and science

• Science

• Knowledge of math, chemistry, physics and engineering principles

• Correctly apply to solve the problem

• Art

• Judgment, experience, common sense

• Reduce real-world problem to a form that can be solved using science principles

### Engineering Method

• Recognize and understand problem

• Accumulate data and verify accuracy

• Select appropriate theory or principle

• Make necessary assumptions

• Solve the problem

• Verify and check results

### Problem Presentation

• Must solve and present problems in a logical and orderly way

• Problem statement

• Diagram

• Theory

• Assumptions

• Solution steps

• Identify results and check accuracy

### Standards to Follow

• Engineering paper

• Heading – include name, date, sheet number

• Use pencil

• Write NEATLY

• Check spelling

• Clearly separate problems

• Diagrams should be clear and understandable

• Include units on quantities (ex. Force in lb.)

• If use computer, make sure the format of your file is readable without special software.

### Type of Reports

• Lab reports

• Term reports

• Project reports

• Research articles

### Goal of Reports

• Present data

• Explain results

• Express ideas

• Disseminate knowledge

### Typical Components

• Title Page

• Abstract

• Introduction

• Methods and Materials (or Equipment)

• Experimental Procedure

• Results and Discussion

• Conclusion

• References

• Appendices

### Title Page

• Name of the experiment

• Good: Effect on memory with caffeine and sleep deprivation

• Full names of lab partners

• Date and location

• Submittal information (course name, number and instructor).

### Abstract

• Summarize

• Purpose of the experiment

• Key results

• Significance

• Major conclusions

• Sometime includes a brief reference to theory or methodology.

• One paragraph of 100-200 words

• Often written last

### Introduction

• States the objective and scope

• Provides background

• Explain relevance and importance

• Preview the content

• The “WHY” part of the paper

### Theory

• The scientific principles that applied to the experiment and are relevant to the analysis and interpretation of results.

• Include equations used in calculating results.

• “Theoretically HOW” Part

### Methods, Equipment, Procedure

• Source (company name and location) of all materials used

• Model and manufacturer for all specialized laboratory equipment

• Methods of the experiment

• Procedures of the experiment

• “Practically HOW” part

### Results and Discussion

• Present the findings

• Interprets the significance

• All results should be explained, analyzed, and interpreted

• DO NOT just show the raw data

### Analysis and Interpretation

• What do the results indicate?

• What is the significance of the results?

• How does observed results compare with expected results?

• How does your results compare with existing knowledge?

• “WHAT” part

### Error Analysis

• Is there any error?

• Was it avoidable?

• Was it a result of equipment, method or theory?

• How to eliminate or reduce it?

### Graphs and Tables

• Use graphs, figures, and tables to help explain methods and results

• Always explain and analyze in the text

• Put caption and reference number on each of graphs and tables

• No “orphan” graphs and tables

### Verb Tense

• Present tense: Theory and permanent equipment

• “The purpose of this report is..."

• “The acceleration of gravity is…”

• “The thermometer measures…”

• Past tense: Experiment

• “The objective of the experiment was…”

### Conclusions

• Summarize the significance and implications of the findings.

• Be consistent with the stated objectives and with the results.

• Discuss possible improvements and future works.

• Future work should be positive, relevant, constructive, useful, and practical.

### References

• Included if information from outside sources is included in the report.

• Any material or information taken from another source must be specifically cited (footnoted) in the text

• appear at the end of the document in endnote format.

• NOT a reading list of books and articles on the subject.

### Appendices

• Raw data, calculations, graphs, pictures or tables that have not been included in the report itself.

• Put each kind of item in a separate appendix.

• Each Appendix should have a letter designation (Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) and a descriptive title.

• Title example: "Laboratory Data for Coffee Concentration as a Function of Grinding Time."

• Each appendix should be referred to at least once in the body of the report