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Homework and Report Writing. Chapter 2 – pgs. 47-66 Freshman Engineering Clinic Dr. Hong Zhang *Adopted from Freshman Clinic Notes. Homework. Problem Analysis. Combination of art and science Science Knowledge of math, chemistry, physics and engineering principles

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homework and report writing

Homework andReport Writing

Chapter 2 – pgs. 47-66

Freshman Engineering Clinic

Dr. Hong Zhang

*Adopted from Freshman Clinic Notes

problem analysis
Problem Analysis
  • Combination of art and science
  • Science
    • Knowledge of math, chemistry, physics and engineering principles
    • Correctly apply to solve the problem
  • Art
    • Judgment, experience, common sense
    • Reduce real-world problem to a form that can be solved using science principles
engineering method
Engineering Method
  • Recognize and understand problem
  • Accumulate data and verify accuracy
  • Select appropriate theory or principle
  • Make necessary assumptions
  • Solve the problem
  • Verify and check results
problem presentation
Problem Presentation
  • Must solve and present problems in a logical and orderly way
  • Problem statement
  • Diagram
  • Theory
  • Assumptions
  • Solution steps
  • Identify results and check accuracy
standards to follow
Standards to Follow
  • Engineering paper
  • Heading – include name, date, sheet number
  • Use pencil
  • Write NEATLY
  • Check spelling
  • Clearly separate problems
standards to follow cont
Standards to Follow (cont.)
  • Diagrams should be clear and understandable
  • Include units on quantities (ex. Force in lb.)
  • See also Freshman Clinic Handbook pgs. 9 and 10
  • If use computer, make sure the format of your file is readable without special software.
type of reports
Type of Reports
  • Lab reports
  • Term reports
  • Project reports
  • Research articles
goal of reports
Goal of Reports
  • Present data
  • Explain results
  • Express ideas
  • Disseminate knowledge
  • Persuade people
typical components
Typical Components
  • Title Page
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods and Materials (or Equipment)
  • Experimental Procedure
  • Results and Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Appendices
title page
Title Page
  • Name of the experiment
    • Good: Effect on memory with caffeine and sleep deprivation
    • Bad: Lab #1
  • Full names of lab partners
  • Date and location
  • Submittal information (course name, number and instructor).
abstract
Abstract
  • Summarize
    • Purpose of the experiment
    • Key results
    • Significance
    • Major conclusions
  • Sometime includes a brief reference to theory or methodology.
  • One paragraph of 100-200 words
  • Often written last
introduction
Introduction
  • States the objective and scope
  • Provides background
  • Explain relevance and importance
  • Preview the content
  • The “WHY” part of the paper
theory
Theory
  • The scientific principles that applied to the experiment and are relevant to the analysis and interpretation of results.
  • Include equations used in calculating results.
  • “Theoretically HOW” Part
methods equipment procedure
Methods, Equipment, Procedure
  • Source (company name and location) of all materials used
  • Model and manufacturer for all specialized laboratory equipment
  • Methods of the experiment
  • Procedures of the experiment
  • “Practically HOW” part
results and discussion
Results and Discussion
  • Present the findings
  • Interprets the significance
  • All results should be explained, analyzed, and interpreted
  • DO NOT just show the raw data
analysis and interpretation
Analysis and Interpretation
  • What do the results indicate?
  • What is the significance of the results?
  • How does observed results compare with expected results?
  • How does your results compare with existing knowledge?
  • “WHAT” part
error analysis
Error Analysis
  • Is there any error?
  • Was it avoidable?
  • Was it a result of equipment, method or theory?
  • How to eliminate or reduce it?
graphs and tables
Graphs and Tables
  • Use graphs, figures, and tables to help explain methods and results
  • Always explain and analyze in the text
  • Put caption and reference number on each of graphs and tables
  • No “orphan” graphs and tables
verb tense
Verb Tense
  • Present tense: Theory and permanent equipment
    • “The purpose of this report is..."
    • “The acceleration of gravity is…”
    • “The thermometer measures…”
  • Past tense: Experiment
    • “The objective of the experiment was…”
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Summarize the significance and implications of the findings.
  • Be consistent with the stated objectives and with the results.
  • Discuss possible improvements and future works.
  • Future work should be positive, relevant, constructive, useful, and practical.
references
References
  • Included if information from outside sources is included in the report.
  • Any material or information taken from another source must be specifically cited (footnoted) in the text
  • appear at the end of the document in endnote format.
  • NOT a reading list of books and articles on the subject.
appendices
Appendices
  • Raw data, calculations, graphs, pictures or tables that have not been included in the report itself.
  • Put each kind of item in a separate appendix.
  • Each Appendix should have a letter designation (Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) and a descriptive title.
    • Title example: "Laboratory Data for Coffee Concentration as a Function of Grinding Time."
  • Each appendix should be referred to at least once in the body of the report
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