Homework and Report Writing

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# Homework and Report Writing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Homework and Report Writing. Chapter 2 – pgs. 47-66 Freshman Engineering Clinic Dr. Hong Zhang *Adopted from Freshman Clinic Notes. Homework. Problem Analysis. Combination of art and science Science Knowledge of math, chemistry, physics and engineering principles

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### Homework andReport Writing

Chapter 2 – pgs. 47-66

Freshman Engineering Clinic

Dr. Hong Zhang

*Adopted from Freshman Clinic Notes

Problem Analysis
• Combination of art and science
• Science
• Knowledge of math, chemistry, physics and engineering principles
• Correctly apply to solve the problem
• Art
• Judgment, experience, common sense
• Reduce real-world problem to a form that can be solved using science principles
Engineering Method
• Recognize and understand problem
• Accumulate data and verify accuracy
• Select appropriate theory or principle
• Make necessary assumptions
• Solve the problem
• Verify and check results
Problem Presentation
• Must solve and present problems in a logical and orderly way
• Problem statement
• Diagram
• Theory
• Assumptions
• Solution steps
• Identify results and check accuracy
Standards to Follow
• Engineering paper
• Heading – include name, date, sheet number
• Use pencil
• Write NEATLY
• Check spelling
• Clearly separate problems
Standards to Follow (cont.)
• Diagrams should be clear and understandable
• Include units on quantities (ex. Force in lb.)
• See also Freshman Clinic Handbook pgs. 9 and 10
• If use computer, make sure the format of your file is readable without special software.
Type of Reports
• Lab reports
• Term reports
• Project reports
• Research articles
Goal of Reports
• Present data
• Explain results
• Express ideas
• Disseminate knowledge
Typical Components
• Title Page
• Abstract
• Introduction
• Methods and Materials (or Equipment)
• Experimental Procedure
• Results and Discussion
• Conclusion
• References
• Appendices
Title Page
• Name of the experiment
• Good: Effect on memory with caffeine and sleep deprivation
• Bad: Lab #1
• Full names of lab partners
• Date and location
• Submittal information (course name, number and instructor).
Abstract
• Summarize
• Purpose of the experiment
• Key results
• Significance
• Major conclusions
• Sometime includes a brief reference to theory or methodology.
• One paragraph of 100-200 words
• Often written last
Introduction
• States the objective and scope
• Provides background
• Explain relevance and importance
• Preview the content
• The “WHY” part of the paper
Theory
• The scientific principles that applied to the experiment and are relevant to the analysis and interpretation of results.
• Include equations used in calculating results.
• “Theoretically HOW” Part
Methods, Equipment, Procedure
• Source (company name and location) of all materials used
• Model and manufacturer for all specialized laboratory equipment
• Methods of the experiment
• Procedures of the experiment
• “Practically HOW” part
Results and Discussion
• Present the findings
• Interprets the significance
• All results should be explained, analyzed, and interpreted
• DO NOT just show the raw data
Analysis and Interpretation
• What do the results indicate?
• What is the significance of the results?
• How does observed results compare with expected results?
• How does your results compare with existing knowledge?
• “WHAT” part
Error Analysis
• Is there any error?
• Was it avoidable?
• Was it a result of equipment, method or theory?
• How to eliminate or reduce it?
Graphs and Tables
• Use graphs, figures, and tables to help explain methods and results
• Always explain and analyze in the text
• Put caption and reference number on each of graphs and tables
• No “orphan” graphs and tables
Verb Tense
• Present tense: Theory and permanent equipment
• “The purpose of this report is..."
• “The acceleration of gravity is…”
• “The thermometer measures…”
• Past tense: Experiment
• “The objective of the experiment was…”
Conclusions
• Summarize the significance and implications of the findings.
• Be consistent with the stated objectives and with the results.
• Discuss possible improvements and future works.
• Future work should be positive, relevant, constructive, useful, and practical.
References
• Included if information from outside sources is included in the report.
• Any material or information taken from another source must be specifically cited (footnoted) in the text
• appear at the end of the document in endnote format.
• NOT a reading list of books and articles on the subject.
Appendices
• Raw data, calculations, graphs, pictures or tables that have not been included in the report itself.
• Put each kind of item in a separate appendix.
• Each Appendix should have a letter designation (Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) and a descriptive title.
• Title example: "Laboratory Data for Coffee Concentration as a Function of Grinding Time."
• Each appendix should be referred to at least once in the body of the report