Patterns of Roma employment and the capacity of labour market policies to make a change. Messing Vera, Ph.D. Center for Policy Study, CEU, Budapest; Center for Social Sciences , HAS 2nd NEUJOBS Validation Even:
Messing Vera, Ph.D.
Center for Policy Study, CEU, Budapest;
Center forSocialSciences, HAS
2nd NEUJOBS Validation Even:
Employment 2025 - Ho will Multiple Transitions Affect the European Labour Market
9-11 April 2014, Bonn
1. Methodological decisions result in highly diverging employment rates within the same country – we do not know how low in fact the employment rate of Roma is;
2. It is definitely lower than that of non-Roma.
Low levels of education: although in Hungary and Slovakia have Roma the highest educational levels, in these two countries is the employment level the lowest. Why???
Source: FRA Roma survey 2011
Structures of the economy: the strength of economic sectors that are potential employers of low skilled (construction industry, tourism, agriculture);
Crisis: the crisis since 2008 hit the low skilled workforce, and among them Roma, hard. Exactly those economic branches were affected most, which are potential employers of low-skilled (construction ind., tourism)
Regional disadvantage: A vast part of Roma resides in economically marginalized regions, characterized by enduring long-term unemployment and lack of jobs.
Cost of formally employing low skilled workforce: regulations on minimum wage and contributions. Decision of multinational companies – major employers of low skilled – are driven by labour cost. Enormous differences among the 5 countries.
The significance of informal employment: According to UNDP regional survey 20-60% of Roma work informally in CEE countries.
Discrimination: is a substantial barrier to Roma employment, especially at its entry point in Central-East Europe. 40-70% of Roma declared such experiences in the LM.
Lack of willingness to work
UNDP survey as well as national surveys prove that there is a very high willingess to work among Roma.
Exploiting the social welfare system. Employment rates are highest in countries with a relatively generous social welfare safety net (Spain)
ALMP targeted explicitly to Roma are rare.
Instead : we looked at mainstream programs and their potentials to reach Roma unemployed.
ALMP „public sense” stereotypesexpenditurebytype of action and bymemberstate, 2010 (% of GDP)
Exclusive ethnic targeting of employment programmes is rarely a feasible and efficient way to reach out to Roma;
Instead, targeting according to a careful combination of factors behind vulnerability (low education; age; health situation; living in marginalized regions; having small children) may lead to reaching out to a significant number of Roma.
In addition, the identification of an ethnic target (about the share of Roma on an aggregate level) of otherwise mainstreaming ALMP is desirable.
Affirmative measures resulting in Roma presence in public offices is a strong need.
The involvement / participation of Roma in the distribution of (EU) funds assigned to integration!