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Objectives. PhysiologyDefinitionsEtiologiesEvaluationManagementMedical Surgical. Phases of Reproductive Cycle. Follicular phaseOvulationLuteal phaseMenses. Phases of Reproductive Cycle. Follicular phaseOnset of menses to LH surge14 days (varies)Dominant folliclegreatest number of granulosa cells and FSH receptorsOvulationLuteal phase.

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3. Phases of Reproductive Cycle Follicular phase Ovulation Luteal phase Menses

4. Phases of Reproductive Cycle Follicular phase Onset of menses to LH surge 14 days (varies) Dominant follicle greatest number of granulosa cells and FSH receptors Ovulation Luteal phase

5. Phases of Reproductive Cycle Follicular phase Ovulation 30-36 hours after LH surge Luteal phase LH surge to menses 14 days (constant)

6. Menses Involution of corpus luteum Decrease progesterone and estrogen 20-60 cc of dark blood and endometrial tissue

7. How does Ovulation happen? Positive feedback to pituitary from estradiol LH surge Ovulation triggered Granulosa and theca cells now produce progesterone Oocyte expelled from follicle Follicle converts to corpus luteum

8. Luteal Phase Predominance of progesterone Abdominal bloating Fluid retention Mood and appetite changes

9. Phases of Reproductive Cycle Endometrium Proliferative phase Secretory phase

10. Abnormal uterine bleeding Change in frequency, duration and amount of menstrual bleeding

11. Definitions Normal menses Every 28 days +/- 7 days Mean duration is 4 days. More than 7 days is abnormal.

12. Average blood loss with menstruation is 35-50cc. Normal Menses

13. Definitions Menorrhagia: Prolonged bleeding > 7 days or > 80 cc occurring at regular intervals.

14. Frequency of AUB Menorrhagia occurs in 9-14% of healthy women. Most common Gyn disorder of reproductive age women

15. Definitions Metrorrhagia: Uterine bleeding occurring at irregular but frequent intervals.

16. Definitions Menometrorrhagia: Prolonged uterine bleeding occurring at irregular intervals.

17. Definitions Oligomenorrhea: Reduction in frequency of menses Between 35 days and 6 months.

18. Definitions Primary amenorrhea Secondary amenorrhea No menses for 3-6 months

19. Primary amenorrhea No menses by age 13 No secondary sexual development No menses by age 15 Secondary sexual development present

20. Hypomenorrhea Reduction on number of days Reduction in amount of flow

21. Definitions Menarche average age 12.43 years Menopause average age 51.4 years Ovulatory cycles for 30 years

22. Menstrual bleeding stops IF: Prostaglandins cause contractions and expulsion Endometrial healing and cessation of bleeding with increasing estrogen

23. Categories of AUB (abnormal uterine bleeding) Associated with ovulatory cycles Usually an organic cause Associated with anovulatory cycles Diagnosis of exclusion No anatomic abnormality Based on patient history

24. Etiologies Organic Systemic Reproductive tract disease Iatrogenic Dysfunctional Ovulatory Anovulatory

25. Systemic Etiologies Coagulation defects Leukemia ITP Thyroid dysfunction

26. Routine screening for coagulation defects should be reserved for the young patient who has heavy flow with the onset of menstruation. Comprehensive Gynecology, 4th edition

27. von Willebrand’s Disease is the most common inherited bleeding disorder with a frequency of 1/800-1000. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th edition

28. Hypothyroidism can be associated with menorrhagia or metrorrhagia. Wilansky, et al., 1989

29. Most Common Causes of Reproductive Tract AUB Pre-menarchal Foreign body Reproductive age Gestational event Post-menopausal Atrophy

30. Reproductive Tract Causes Gestational events Malignancies Benign Atrophy Leiomyoma Polyps Cervical lesions Foreign body Infections

31. Reproductive Tract Causes Gestational events Abortions Ectopic pregnancies Trophoblastic disease IUP

32. Reproductive Tract Causes Malignancies Endometrial Ovarian Cervical Vaginal

33. Reproductive tract causes

34. 10% of women with postmenopausal bleeding will be diagnosed with endometrial cancer and an equal number with hyperplasia. Karlsson, et al., 1995

35. Incidence of Endometrial Cancer in Premenopausal Women 2.3/100,000 in 30-34 yr old 6.1/100,000 in 35-39 yr old 36/100,000 in 40-49 yr old ACOG Practice Bulletin #14, 2000

36. Reproductive Tract Causes of Benign Origin Uterine Vaginal or labial lesions Cervical lesions Urethral lesions GI

37. Reproductive Tract Causes of Benign Origin Uterine Pregnancy Leiomyomas Polyps Hyperplasia Carcinoma

38. Proposed Etiologies of Menorrhagia with Leiomyoma Increased vessel number Increased endometrial surface area Impeded uterine contraction with menstruation Clotting less efficient locally Wegienka, et al., 2003

39. Leiomyoma in any location is associated with increased risks of gushing or high pad/tampon use. Wegienka, et al., 2003

40. Reproductive Tract Causes of Benign Origin Uterine Vaginal or labial lesions Carcinoma Sarcoma Adenosis Lacerations Foreign body

41. Reproductive Tract Causes of Benign Origin Uterine Vaginal or labial lesions Cervical lesions Polyps Condyloma Cervicitis Neoplasia

42. Reproductive Tract Causes of Benign Origin Uterine Vaginal or labial lesions Cervical lesions Urethral Caruncle Infected diverticulum GI hemorrhoids

43. Iatrogenic Causes of AUB Intra-uterine device Oral and injectable steroids Psychotropic drugs

44. With anovulation a corpus luteum is NOT produced and the ovary thereby fails to secrete progesterone.

45. However, estrogen production continues, resulting in endometrial proliferation and subsequent AUB.

46. PGE2 ? vasodilationPGF2a ? vasoconstriction Progesterone is necessary to increase arachidonic acid, the precursor to PGF2a. With decreased progesterone there is a decreased PGF2a/PGE2 ratio.

47. Evaluation and Work-up: Early Reproductive Years/Adolescent Thorough history Screen for eating disorder Labs: CBC, PT, PTT, bleeding time, hCG

48. Evaluation and Work-up: Women of Reproductive Age hCG, LH/FSH, CBC Cervical cultures U/S Hysteroscopy EMB

49. Evaluation and Work-up: Post-menopausal Women Transvaginal U/S EMB

50. 60% atrophy 10% polyps 10% hyperplasia Karlsson, et al., 1995

51. An endometrial cancer is diagnosed in approximately 10% of women with PMB.¹ ¹Karlsson, et al., 1995 ²Gull, et al., 2003

52. Not a single case of endometrial CA was missed when a <4mm cut-off for the endometrial stripe was used in their 10 yr follow-up study. Gull, et al., 2003

53. There was no increased risk of endometrial cancer or atypia in those women who did not experience recurrent PMB in their 10 year follow-up. Gull, et al., 2003

54. Further, no endometrial cancer was diagnosed in women with recurrent PMB who had an endometrial stripe width of <4mm on their initial scan. Gull, et al., 2003

55. However, 3 women with stripe width of 5-6mm developed recurrent PMB and were diagnosed with endometrial cancer within 3-5 years. Gull, et al., 2003

56. The stripe thickness measures between 4-8mm in women on cyclic HRT and about 5mm if they are receiving combined HRT. Good, 1997

57. EMB Complications rare. Rate of perforation 1-2/1,000. Infection and bleeding rarer. Comprehensive Gynecology, 4th ed.

58. EMB Sensitivity 90-95% Easy to perform Numerous sampling devices available

59. Incidence of Endometrial Cancer in Premenopausal Women 2.3/100,000 in 30-34 yr old 6.1/100,000 in 35-39 yr old 36/100,000 in 40-49 yr old ACOG Practice Bulletin #14, 2000

61. Endometrial Cancer Most common genital tract malignancy. Incidence 1 in 50! 4th most common malignancy after breast, bowel, and lung. 34,000 new cases annually > 6,000 deaths annually

62. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors Nulliparity: 2-3 times Diabetes: 2.8 times Unopposed estrogen: 4-8 times Weight gain 20 to 50 pounds: 3 times Greater than 50 lbs: 10 times!

63. Possible Path Reports with EMB: Simple or complex hyperplasia WITHOUT atypia Simple or complex hyperplasia WITH atypia Endometrial cancer

64. Management Prior to initiation of therapy: pregnancy and malignancy must be ruled out.

65. Management Options: Progestins Estrogen OCs NSAIDs Antifibrinolytics Surgical

66. Progestins: Mechanisms of Action Inhibit endometrial growth Inhibit synthesis of estrogen receptors Promote conversion of estradiol ? estrone Inhibit LH Organized slough to basalis layer Stimulate arachidonic acid formation

67. Management: ProgesteroneCyclooxygenase Pathway

68. Progestational Agents Cyclic medroxyprogesterone 2.5-10mg daily for 10-14 days Continuous medroxyprogesterone 2.5-5mg daily Progesterone in oil, 100mg every 4 weeks DepoProvera® 150mg IM every 3 months Levonorgestrel IUD (5 years)

69. Consider a progestational IUD as a viable option in the management of anovulatory/ovulatory AUB.Induced endometrial atrophy for more than 5 years.

70. Endometrial Hyperplasia It is reasonable for you to initiate a progestational agent if an EMB path report indicates simple hypersplasia WITHOUT atypia. Provera® 5-10 mg daily with a f/u plan for an EMB in 6 months. Referral is prudent if bleeding persists or worsens.

71. Management:Estrogen Conjugated estrogens given IV in 25mg doses every 6 hours should be effective in controlling heavy bleeding. This is followed by PO estrogen.

72. Management:Estrogen For less severe bleeding, PO Premarin® 1.25mg, 2 tabs QID until bleeding ceases.

73. Management: NSAIDsCyclooxygenase Pathway

74. Surgical Options: Ablation Resection Hysterectomy

75. Summary Think coagulation defect in the menarchal adolescent patient with severe menorrhagia Gestational events are the single most likely cause of AUB in reproductive age women 35 yrs and older with AUB ? EMB If Rx estrogen be sure to screen for contraindications Levonorgestrel IUD is excellent means to control AUB

76. Summary Most common cause of AUB in post-menopausal women is atrophy TVS is an excellent screening tool for the evaluation of PMB Women with recurrent PMB require definitive F/U Endometrial CA risk factors: age, obesity, unopposed estrogen, DM, and ?BP

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