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Special Education Branch, MOE

APSN Katong School

APSN Tanglin School

AWWA School

Grace Orchard School

Designing Lessons for Learners with Special Needs in Numeracy - 4 Jun 2014 -


Team composition

Special Education Schools

  • AWWA School

  • APSN Katong School

  • APSN Tanglin School

  • Grace Orchard School

TEAM COMPOSITION

Special Education Branch

  • Chong Suet Ling

  • Lee Yim Ping

  • Liu Shu Zhen

  • Yee Cai Ying

  • Yeo Xiuting, Valerie


Outline

Part 1 (10 min)

  • Background

  • Literature Review

  • Methodology

    Part 2 (40 min)

  • Findings

  • Conclusion

Outline



Numeracy project in brief

Numeracy Project in Brief


Literature review learning of maths

  • Manipulativeswere used to make learning concrete (Kennedy & Barblett, 2010)

  • A diverse profile of learners requires differentiated learning and customised learning aides (Fuchs, Fuchs, Compton, Powell & Seethaler, Capizzi, Schatschneider & Flectcher, 2006, 2006; Montague, 2007)

Literature Review: Learning of Maths


Literature review learning of maths1

Literature Review: Learning of Maths


Project questions

What are the role model the learning (pedagogical considerations that guided teachers’ planning and design of learning and teaching?

What are the supports that facilitated the prototyping efforts?

Project Questions


Methodology

Participants: role model the learning ( 5 schools

Approach

  • Training-cum-consultation: 6 workshops and 2 consultations

  • Opportunity for participants to Learn : Do : Share

    Project Outcomes

  • Teacher-constructed resources

  • Lesson try-out

Methodology


Part 2 what sped teachers do in a numeracy lesson findings
Part 2: What sped teachers do in a numeracy lesson? role model the learning ((findings)


Findings s t a r t

  • S role model the learning (tudents’ demonstration of learning, as part of assessment of and for learning

  • Teacher-directed instruction, has strong evidence in developing basic numeracy in children with special needs

  • Association learning activated through the use of multi-sensory manipulatives, songs, role play, etc.

  • Relationship to peers as part of a safe and predictable environment for learning together

  • Task differentiation to accommodate diverse learners’ profiles through resource development

Findings (S.T.A.R.T.)


Findings

  • Number sensibility as the foundation for functional and practical daily living by AWWA School

  • Designing lessons to teach grouping and place value in a sped classroom by Grace Orchard School

  • Igniting Counting in SPED students for 1 to 5 by APSN Katong School

  • Problem solving in Functional Contexts for SPED Students by APSN Tanglin School

Findings



Background
Background PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Professional Learning Team formation

    • Teachers from Numeracy Department

  • Team Composition

    • Ms Thain Lee Ping (Subject Head, Numeracy)

    • Ms Ong Zeng Zi(Teacher)

    • Ms Tan Li Siang (Teacher)


Objective student profile
Objective & Student Profile PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Team Objective:

  • To develop teachers’ pedagogical and content knowledge in teaching mathematical concepts and skills

    Student Profile:

  • 9 students (6 male, 3 female)with moderate to low support needs, with a range of disabilities including Global Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disabilities, William’s Syndrome

  • Ability level:2 groups (MS-Moderate Support; LS-Low Support)

  • Age: Between 9 and 11 years old


Why number sensibility
Why Number Sensibility? PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Necessary to prepare students for functional and practical daily living

  • Focus on two concepts of number sensibility:

    • Counting up to 9 in ones

    • Addition of single-digit numbers within 9


Sequencing the learning
Sequencing the Learning PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


Differentiating the learning
Differentiating the Learning PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Consistency in key vocabulary

  • More guided instructions for some students

  • Different materials used for different groups according to their needs

  • Different mode of expressing answers


Use of multimedia ict
Use of Multimedia / ICT PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Use of computer, visualiser and projector for teaching

  • Use of iPad for games as reinforcement

  • Use of camera to video lesson for evaluation (lesson study)


Project takeaways
Project Takeaways PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Professional Growth

    • Peer observation and feedback

    • Mutual trust and close collaboration

    • Hands-on exploration & experimentation

    • Generate ideas for customisation/ modifications

    • ‘Multiplier’ effect on peers


Teacher constructed materials
Teacher-constructed Materials PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Self-check Template

Counting Bead Stairs

Connecting Cubes


DESIGNING LESSONS TO TEACH PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING GROUPING & PLACE VALUE IN A SPED CLASSROOM


PROFESSIONAL LEARNING TEAM OF PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

GRACE ORCHARD SCHOOL


OBJECTIVE & STUDENT PROFILE PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Team Objective:

  • To develop teachers’ pedagogical and content knowledge in teaching mathematical concepts and skills.

  • To teach students to solve two-digit addition and subtraction with regrouping and able to generalise it to real life situations.

  • To develop students’ independence in self-learning and assessment

    Student Profile:

  • 10 students (5 males, 5 females), behavioural issue (1 male), chronic eczema (1 female), physical disability which causes speech difficulty and mobility issue (1 female)

  • Diagnosis: Mild Intellectual Disability (8 students) & Down syndrome (2 students)

  • Ability level: 3 groups (HS- High Support, MS- Medium Support, LS-Low Support)

  • Age: 15 and 16yrs old


THE APIE APPROACH TO TEACH MATH PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


SEQUENCING THE LEARNING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


STAGE 1 PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Lesson Objective:

Students will be to

  • understand the concept of grouping and counting in twos, fives and tens

5 groups of fives is 25. Altogether 25


EXPLICIT DIRECT TEACHING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Self-checking template


STAGE 2 PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Prerequisites of students:

Students are able to

  • Understand value of 1 to 20

  • Recognize numerals 1 to 50

  • Count in groups of 10

    Lesson Objective:

    Students are able to

  • compose and decompose numbers (11 to 15) using place value - tens and ones


Explicit direct teaching
EXPLICIT DIRECT TEACHING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

We do (Guided Practice)

I do (Modelling)

Teacher selects student to do the task to check student’s understanding

Teacher gives every student the same resources and do the task together


EXPLICIT DIRECT TEACHING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

You do ( Independent Practice)

Task 1- Pair Work

Must be SAME type of problems as used in ‘We do’.


EXPLICIT DIRECT TEACHING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Task 2- Individual Work

To generalise it in real life situations



STAGE 3 PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Lesson Objective:

  • Students will be to

  • Perform two-digit addition and subtraction with regrouping tens and ones


EVALUATION PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Informal Assessment

  • Formal Assessment

  • Post-lesson reflection


PROJECT OUTCOME / LEARNING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Collective responsibility for changing pedagogical practices through post-lesson observation discussion and feedback

  • Sharing of good practices with other teacherswho are teaching the school’s Numeracy Curriculum

  • Development of broader mathematical skills in problem-solving, reasoning and generalizing to real life situation

  • Improvement in students’ ability in self-assessment


Designing lessons to teach grouping place value in a sped classroom

Designing Lessons to Teach Grouping PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING & Place Value in a SPED Classroom

Grace Orchard School


Professional learning team
Professional Learning Team PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Team Composition

    • Ms Chua Poh Keng (Programme Head: Mathematics Subject Group in charge)

    • Ms Shanice Liang (Mathematics Subject Group Team Leader)

    • Ms Tamil Selvi (Mathematics Subject Group member)

    • Ms Kho Chiew Peng (Mathematics Subject Group member)


Objectives
Objectives PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Team Objective:

  • To develop teachers’ pedagogical and content knowledge in teaching mathematical concepts and skills

  • To teach students to solve two-digit addition and subtract with regrouping and be able to generalise it to real life situations

  • To develop students’ independence in self-learning and assessment


Student profile
Student profile PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Student Profile:

  • 10 students (5 males, 5 females), behavioural issue (1 male), chronic eczema (1 female), physical disability which causes speech difficulty and mobility issue (1 female)

  • Diagnosis: Mild Intellectual Disability (8 students) & Down syndrome (2 students)

  • Ability level: 3 groups (High Support, Medium Support, Low Support)

  • Age: 15 and 16yrs old


Sequencing the learning1
Sequencing the Learning PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Based on APIE approach, we planned and designed the content


Instructional method
Instructional Method PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


Stage 1
Stage 1 PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Lesson objective: Students will be able to understand the concept of grouping and counting in twos, fives and tens


Stage 2 lesson observed
Stage 2 (Lesson Observed) PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Lesson Objective:

  • Bythe end of the lesson, students will be able to compose and decompose numbers (11 to 15) using place value, tens and ones

    Competencies of pre-requisites of students:

    Students are able to:

  • Understand value of 1 to 20,

  • Recognise numerals 1 to 50, and

  • Count in groups of 10


Explicit direct teaching1
Explicit Direct Teaching PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


Explicit direct teaching2
Explicit Direct Teaching PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Task 1: Pair Work


Explicit direct teaching3
Explicit Direct Teaching PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Task 2: Individual Work



Stage 3
Stage 3 PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Lesson Objective: Students will be able to perform two-digit addition and subtraction with regrouping tens and ones


Project outcome learning
Project Outcome / Learning PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Takeaways

  • Collective responsibility for changing pedagogical practices through post-lesson observation discussion and feedback

  • Sharing of good practices with other teachers who are teaching the school’s Numeracy Curriculum

  • Development of broader mathematical skills in problem-solving, reasoning and generalising to real life situation

  • Improvement in students’ ability in self-assessment



Background1
BACKGROUND PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Professional Learning Team formation

    • Teachers from different levels and sessions

  • Team Composition

    • Mdm Choo Pee Ling (HOD, Math & Life Skills)

    • Mrs Stella Ho (Teacher)

    • Mr Jose Manuel (Teacher)

    • Ms Kharissa Seah Lay Keng (Teacher)

    • Ms Sheryll Gavino Eduria (Teacher)


Objective student profile1
OBJECTIVE & STUDENT PROFILE PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Team Objective:

  • To develop teachers’ pedagogical and content knowledge in teaching number sense and to create a teaching package for students with high support needs.

    Student Profile:

  • 10 students (7 male, 3 female)with mild intellectual disability (MID), as well as a range of disabilities including Kabuki Syndrome, Down Syndrome, etc.

  • Ability level: High support needs

  • Age: Between 9 and 10 years old (Primary level)


Development of number sense in mid students
DEVELOPMENT OF NUMBER SENSE IN MID STUDENTS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Pre-requisite for preparing students for functional and practical daily living.

  • Learning outcomes of project:

    • Counting numbers from 1 to 5

    • Representing, writing and comparing numbers from 1 to 5


SEQUENCING THE LEARNING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


ENHANCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Use of concrete materials and hands-on activities

Standardisedteaching strategies: UDL and Direct Instruction practices

Triple-D and Triple-T Approaches

Overview

Of

Lesson

Units

Number Sense

of Numbers 1 to 5


Use of Multimedia / ICT PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Powerpoint slides

  • (for attractive and focus presentation)

  • Interactive whiteboards (IWB)

  • (for lively engagement of learners in actions)

  • On-line educational activities e.g., YouTube videos

  • (for visual & audio engagement)


USING INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Lesson 9: More or Less


USING INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Lesson 9: More or Less


USING INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Lesson 9: More or Less


Sesame street 5 dogs 5 bones http www youtube com watch v yk702keoyzy

Useful Links PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Sesame Street : 5 Dogs, 5 Boneshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yk702keoYzY


Subtising http sites google com site numbersense11 subtizing

Useful Links PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Subtisinghttp://sites.google.com/site/numbersense11/subtizing


Teacher constructed worksheets
TEACHER-CONSTRUCTED WORKSHEETS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Lesson 9

Lesson 5


Project takeaways1
PROJECT TAKEAWAYS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Shared ownership of school improvement

  • Reflective teaching

  • Pride in professionalism


Learning points
LEARNING POINTS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Student-centric approach to be effective in developmentally equipping students to acquire more advanced math concepts [Following the natural developmental progression for math learning in children with special needs]

  • Common math vocabulary to name the thinking and actions for learners to hear, say and do.

  • Engaging and interesting lesson delivery with relevant and meaningful visual cues for joy in learning and reference for learning.


GOING FORWARD PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Continually review Math Curriculum to ensure the intended/designed curriculum is delivered effectively by teachers and successfully received by the learners

  • Ensuring assessment is valid and reliable through reviews on processes, item setting and student performance

  • Professional Learning Team to build ownership and sustain the drive to build pride in professionalism through reflective practices and collaborative learning culture


Problem solving in functional contexts for sped students

PROBLEM SOLVING IN FUNCTIONAL CONTEXTS FOR SPED STUDENTS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

APSN Tanglin School


About apsn tanglin school
ABOUT APSN TANGLIN SCHOOL PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Students

Age: 13 – 16 years

Mild Intellectual Disability

Vision

Leading Independent & Meaningful Lives;

Valued in the Community

To Equip Students with

Skills, Knowledge & Attitudes

through A Holistic Curriculum

Mission

Curriculum

Aims

(4 “C”s)

  • Build Competence - Academic, Vocational, Social

  • Shape Character

  • Foster Pro-social Connections

  • Make Positive Contributions to Self, Family, Community & Society


Background2
BACKGROUND PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Professional Learning Team formation

    • 4 lead teachers, a level head from each year level

  • Team Composition

    • Ms Ho Lai Mern (HOD/Numeracy; Sec 3 Level Head)

    • Mrs Fanny Ong (HOD/ICT; Sec 4 Level Head)

    • Ms Suhaini (Teacher; Sec 2 Level Head)

    • Mr Anthony Tan (Teacher; Sec 1 Level Head)


Objective student profile2
OBJECTIVE & STUDENT PROFILE PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Team’s Objective:

  • To design and develop a student-centric lesson package for teaching problem solving in functional contexts.

Student Profile:

  • 12 students (6 males, 6 females) with Mild Intellectual Disability (IQ level between 50 to 70); including two students with Down’s Syndrome

  • Age: 14 years old


Problem solving in functional contexts
PROBLEM SOLVING IN FUNCTIONAL CONTEXTS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Application of numerical concepts and skills to perform real-world tasks and solve problems encountered in everyday life;

  • Number sense (counting) is fundamental to numeracy learning.


Identified focus area
IDENTIFIED FOCUS AREA PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Counting Strategies: Skip Counting

  • Given up to 100 objects, the student will count by 2s, 5s and 10s


Project implementation
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

The class was divided into 3 groups according to their level of support needs:


Project implementation1
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

The class was divided into 3 groups according to their level of support needs:


MODIFIED LESSON STUDY APPROACH PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Professional Learning Cycle @ APSN Tanglin School


Sequencing the learning2
SEQUENCING THE LEARNING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


Sequencing the learning3
SEQUENCING THE LEARNING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Explicit instruction was used to deliver the lesson content.

  • There are four phases involved:

    • Introduction / Advance Organiser

    • Modelling / Demonstration

    • Guided Practice

    • Independent Practice


Sequencing the learning4
SEQUENCING THE LEARNING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • The Read, Understand, Needs, Imitate and Solve (RUNIS) approach was used.


Differentiating the learning1
DIFFERENTIATING THE LEARNING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • A ‘Teacher Observation Checklist’ was used in every lesson to track and monitor the student’s progress and performance.

  • There were differentiated activities to allow students to experience success as they complete tasks that catered to their level of support needs.

    • Content: Quantity of items to be counted

    • Process: Time allocated for the task

    • Product: Different Inventory Checklist


Supporting the learning
SUPPORTING THE LEARNING PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


Use of visual aids
USE OF VISUAL AIDS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

Guide for skip counting


Use of multimedia ict1
USE OF MULTIMEDIA / ICT PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • PowerPoint slides and videos were used to facilitate discussions and for demonstration purposes during instruction time.


Use of multimedia ict2
USE OF MULTIMEDIA / ICT PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • During lessons, some photographs and short videos of students performing the counting tasks were taken. Some of these photographs or videos were used, where appropriate, as anchors for discussions or instruction by the main teacher, in subsequent lessons.


Use of self checking template
USE OF SELF-CHECKING TEMPLATE PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


Use of task sheets
USE OF TASK SHEETS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


Learning points1
LEARNING POINTS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Observations from Pre-test:

  • Students were mostly counting in 1s.

  • Students could improve on their planning and organisational skills when counting.

  • To introduce different counting strategies (counting in 2s, 5s & 10s)

  • To show students how to organise their objects when counting


LEARNING POINTS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Observations from Classroom Lessons 1 to 5:

  • Students were able to use counting in 2s, 5s & 10s.

  • The MSN and LSN groups preferred to use ‘counting in 10s’.

  • Students were able to bundle their objects into groups of 2s, 5s or 10s on their table in a more organised manner.

To apply their counting skills by performing a simulated inventory check @ TS Mart using any of the counting strategies learnt.


Learning points2
LEARNING POINTS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Observations from Lesson 6 @ TS Mart:

  • Students were very engaged and the ‘inventory check’ task was authentic & meaningful to them.

  • Organisation of some objects was challenging for certain students (eg. bulky items, difficult

  • to stack up). Bigger work area could be

  • provided.

  • Students were given the choice to choose an appropriate counting strategy but it could be a difficult decision for them.

To provide more structure to guide students in their counting – by introducing a ‘10’ template.


Learning points3
LEARNING POINTS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Observations from Post-Test @ TS Mart:

  • Students were able to use the template provided to perform counting in 10s more confidently and accurately.

  • Students were able to organise the real objects more efficiently and neatly in groups of 2s & 5s on the bigger work area provided.

  • Students found it useful when the counting strategy was specified for them (eg. Trial #1: Count in 10s, Trial #2: Count in 5s, etc)


Summary of findings
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Important to provide a clear structure to help students perform their counting more accurately and with greater confidence (e.g. by using a template).

  • Students should be given enough time to learn and practise the use of visual support provided.

  • There must be systematic and scaffolded transition from classroom activities to simulated (authentic) contexts to promote students’ application and generalization of skills learnt within the classroom to simulated (authentic) environments.


Project takeaways2
PROJECT TAKEAWAYS PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

  • Peer Observation

    “… have benefited from the observations made during the lesson for each of the ability groups.”

  • Reflective Teaching & Peer Collaboration

    “… able to plan for the next lesson based on these observations, and we were more conscious in planning differentiated activities to cater to students with different levels of abilities.”


Conclusion
conclusion PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


Findings s t a r t1

  • S PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING tudents’ demonstration of learning, as part of assessment of and for learning

  • Teacher-directed instruction, has strong evidence in developing basic numeracy in children with special needs

  • Association learning activated through the use of multi-sensory manipulatives, songs, role play, etc.

  • Relationship to peers as part of a safe and predictable environment for learning together

  • Task differentiation to accommodate diverse learners’ profiles through resource development

Findings (S.T.A.R.T.)


Overall feedback
OVERALL FEEDBACK PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING


References

  • Fuchs PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING , L.S., Fuchs, D., Compton, D. L., Powell, R. S., Seethaler, P.M. Capizzi, A. M., Schatschneider, C. & Flectcher, J. M. (2006). The cognitive correlates of third-grade skill in arithmetic, algorithmic computation, and arithmetic word problems. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 29-43.

  • Kavale, K. A. & Forness, S. R. (2000). Policy decisions in special education: The role of meta-analysis. In R. Gersten, E. P. Schiller, & S. Vaughn (Eds.), Contemporary special education research (pp. 281-326). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum,

  • Kennedy A. & Barblett L.. (2010) Early Childhood Australia Research in Practice Series, “Learning and Teaching through Play”. Canberra: Early Childhood Australia Inc.

  • Kroesbergen, E. H. & Van Luit, J. E. H. (2003). Mathematics interventions for children with special needs: A meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 24, 97-114.

  • Montague, M. (2007). Self-regulation and mathematics instruction. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 22, 75-83.

  • Vaughn, S. (2003). What is special about special education for students with learning disabilities? The Journal of Special Education, 37(3), 140-147.

References


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