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Special Education Branch, MOE

APSN Katong School

APSN Tanglin School

AWWA School

Grace Orchard School

Designing Lessons for Learners with Special Needs in Numeracy - 4 Jun 2014 -


Special Education Schools

  • AWWA School

  • APSN Katong School

  • APSN Tanglin School

  • Grace Orchard School

TEAM COMPOSITION

Special Education Branch

  • Chong Suet Ling

  • Lee Yim Ping

  • Liu Shu Zhen

  • Yee Cai Ying

  • Yeo Xiuting, Valerie


Part 1 (10 min)

  • Background

  • Literature Review

  • Methodology

    Part 2 (40 min)

  • Findings

  • Conclusion

Outline


Part 1: Background, literature review & methodology


  • 2012: Launch of Curriculum Framework for SPED

  • 2013: Numeracy Prototyping Project

    • Participation through invitation

    • 5 schools

    • Spanned Feb–Sep 2013

    • Learning by doing approach

    • Structured as Professional Learning Teams

Numeracy Project in Brief


  • Manipulativeswere used to make learning concrete (Kennedy & Barblett, 2010)

  • A diverse profile of learners requires differentiated learning and customised learning aides (Fuchs, Fuchs, Compton, Powell & Seethaler, Capizzi, Schatschneider & Flectcher, 2006, 2006; Montague, 2007)

Literature Review: Learning of Maths


  • Teachers' direct instruction was an important approach to role model the learning (Kroesbergen & Van Luit, 2003)

  • A safe and inclusive learning environment was essential (Kavale & Forness, 2000)

  • Assessment activities encourage students' demonstration of learning (Vaughn, 2003).

Literature Review: Learning of Maths


What are the pedagogical considerations that guided teachers’ planning and design of learning and teaching?

What are the supports that facilitated the prototyping efforts?

Project Questions


Participants: 5 schools

Approach

  • Training-cum-consultation: 6 workshops and 2 consultations

  • Opportunity for participants to Learn : Do : Share

    Project Outcomes

  • Teacher-constructed resources

  • Lesson try-out

Methodology


Part 2: What sped teachers do in a numeracy lesson?(findings)


  • Students’ demonstration of learning, as part of assessment of and for learning

  • Teacher-directed instruction, has strong evidence in developing basic numeracy in children with special needs

  • Association learning activated through the use of multi-sensory manipulatives, songs, role play, etc.

  • Relationship to peers as part of a safe and predictable environment for learning together

  • Task differentiation to accommodate diverse learners’ profiles through resource development

Findings (S.T.A.R.T.)


  • Number sensibility as the foundation for functional and practical daily living by AWWA School

  • Designing lessons to teach grouping and place value in a sped classroom by Grace Orchard School

  • Igniting Counting in SPED students for 1 to 5 by APSN Katong School

  • Problem solving in Functional Contexts for SPED Students by APSN Tanglin School

Findings


NUMBER SENSIBILITY AS THE FOUNDATION FOR FUNCTIONAL AND PRACTICAL DAILY LIVING

AWWA School


Background

  • Professional Learning Team formation

    • Teachers from Numeracy Department

  • Team Composition

    • Ms Thain Lee Ping (Subject Head, Numeracy)

    • Ms Ong Zeng Zi(Teacher)

    • Ms Tan Li Siang (Teacher)


Objective & Student Profile

Team Objective:

  • To develop teachers’ pedagogical and content knowledge in teaching mathematical concepts and skills

    Student Profile:

  • 9 students (6 male, 3 female)with moderate to low support needs, with a range of disabilities including Global Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disabilities, William’s Syndrome

  • Ability level:2 groups (MS-Moderate Support; LS-Low Support)

  • Age: Between 9 and 11 years old


Why Number Sensibility?

  • Necessary to prepare students for functional and practical daily living

  • Focus on two concepts of number sensibility:

    • Counting up to 9 in ones

    • Addition of single-digit numbers within 9


Sequencing the Learning


Differentiating the Learning

  • Consistency in key vocabulary

  • More guided instructions for some students

  • Different materials used for different groups according to their needs

  • Different mode of expressing answers


Use of Multimedia / ICT

  • Use of computer, visualiser and projector for teaching

  • Use of iPad for games as reinforcement

  • Use of camera to video lesson for evaluation (lesson study)


Project Takeaways

  • Professional Growth

    • Peer observation and feedback

    • Mutual trust and close collaboration

    • Hands-on exploration & experimentation

    • Generate ideas for customisation/ modifications

    • ‘Multiplier’ effect on peers


Teacher-constructed Materials

Self-check Template

Counting Bead Stairs

Connecting Cubes


DESIGNING LESSONS TO TEACH GROUPING & PLACE VALUE IN A SPED CLASSROOM


PROFESSIONAL LEARNING TEAM OF

GRACE ORCHARD SCHOOL


OBJECTIVE & STUDENT PROFILE

Team Objective:

  • To develop teachers’ pedagogical and content knowledge in teaching mathematical concepts and skills.

  • To teach students to solve two-digit addition and subtraction with regrouping and able to generalise it to real life situations.

  • To develop students’ independence in self-learning and assessment

    Student Profile:

  • 10 students (5 males, 5 females), behavioural issue (1 male), chronic eczema (1 female), physical disability which causes speech difficulty and mobility issue (1 female)

  • Diagnosis: Mild Intellectual Disability (8 students) & Down syndrome (2 students)

  • Ability level: 3 groups (HS- High Support, MS- Medium Support, LS-Low Support)

  • Age: 15 and 16yrs old


THE APIE APPROACH TO TEACH MATH


SEQUENCING THE LEARNING


INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD


STAGE 1

Lesson Objective:

Students will be to

  • understand the concept of grouping and counting in twos, fives and tens

5 groups of fives is 25. Altogether 25


EXPLICIT DIRECT TEACHING

Self-checking template


STAGE 2

Prerequisites of students:

Students are able to

  • Understand value of 1 to 20

  • Recognize numerals 1 to 50

  • Count in groups of 10

    Lesson Objective:

    Students are able to

  • compose and decompose numbers (11 to 15) using place value - tens and ones


EXPLICIT DIRECT TEACHING

We do (Guided Practice)

I do (Modelling)

Teacher selects student to do the task to check student’s understanding

Teacher gives every student the same resources and do the task together


EXPLICIT DIRECT TEACHING

You do ( Independent Practice)

Task 1- Pair Work

Must be SAME type of problems as used in ‘We do’.


EXPLICIT DIRECT TEACHING

Task 2- Individual Work

To generalise it in real life situations


TEMPLATES FOR STUDENTS TO PRACTISE AT HOME


STAGE 3

  • Lesson Objective:

  • Students will be to

  • Perform two-digit addition and subtraction with regrouping tens and ones


EVALUATION

  • Informal Assessment

  • Formal Assessment

  • Post-lesson reflection


PROJECT OUTCOME / LEARNING

  • Collective responsibility for changing pedagogical practices through post-lesson observation discussion and feedback

  • Sharing of good practices with other teacherswho are teaching the school’s Numeracy Curriculum

  • Development of broader mathematical skills in problem-solving, reasoning and generalizing to real life situation

  • Improvement in students’ ability in self-assessment


Designing Lessons to Teach Grouping & Place Value in a SPED Classroom

Grace Orchard School


Professional Learning Team

  • Team Composition

    • Ms Chua Poh Keng (Programme Head: Mathematics Subject Group in charge)

    • Ms Shanice Liang (Mathematics Subject Group Team Leader)

    • Ms Tamil Selvi (Mathematics Subject Group member)

    • Ms Kho Chiew Peng (Mathematics Subject Group member)


Objectives

Team Objective:

  • To develop teachers’ pedagogical and content knowledge in teaching mathematical concepts and skills

  • To teach students to solve two-digit addition and subtract with regrouping and be able to generalise it to real life situations

  • To develop students’ independence in self-learning and assessment


Student profile

Student Profile:

  • 10 students (5 males, 5 females), behavioural issue (1 male), chronic eczema (1 female), physical disability which causes speech difficulty and mobility issue (1 female)

  • Diagnosis: Mild Intellectual Disability (8 students) & Down syndrome (2 students)

  • Ability level: 3 groups (High Support, Medium Support, Low Support)

  • Age: 15 and 16yrs old


Sequencing the Learning

  • Based on APIE approach, we planned and designed the content


Instructional Method


Stage 1

  • Lesson objective: Students will be able to understand the concept of grouping and counting in twos, fives and tens


Stage 2 (Lesson Observed)

Lesson Objective:

  • Bythe end of the lesson, students will be able to compose and decompose numbers (11 to 15) using place value, tens and ones

    Competencies of pre-requisites of students:

    Students are able to:

  • Understand value of 1 to 20,

  • Recognise numerals 1 to 50, and

  • Count in groups of 10


Explicit Direct Teaching


Explicit Direct Teaching

Task 1: Pair Work


Explicit Direct Teaching

Task 2: Individual Work


Teacher-constructed Materials for students’ home practice


Stage 3

Lesson Objective: Students will be able to perform two-digit addition and subtraction with regrouping tens and ones


Project Outcome / Learning

Takeaways

  • Collective responsibility for changing pedagogical practices through post-lesson observation discussion and feedback

  • Sharing of good practices with other teachers who are teaching the school’s Numeracy Curriculum

  • Development of broader mathematical skills in problem-solving, reasoning and generalising to real life situation

  • Improvement in students’ ability in self-assessment


Igniting Counting in SPED Students for Numbers 1 to 5


BACKGROUND

  • Professional Learning Team formation

    • Teachers from different levels and sessions

  • Team Composition

    • Mdm Choo Pee Ling (HOD, Math & Life Skills)

    • Mrs Stella Ho (Teacher)

    • Mr Jose Manuel (Teacher)

    • Ms Kharissa Seah Lay Keng (Teacher)

    • Ms Sheryll Gavino Eduria (Teacher)


OBJECTIVE & STUDENT PROFILE

Team Objective:

  • To develop teachers’ pedagogical and content knowledge in teaching number sense and to create a teaching package for students with high support needs.

    Student Profile:

  • 10 students (7 male, 3 female)with mild intellectual disability (MID), as well as a range of disabilities including Kabuki Syndrome, Down Syndrome, etc.

  • Ability level: High support needs

  • Age: Between 9 and 10 years old (Primary level)


DEVELOPMENT OF NUMBER SENSE IN MID STUDENTS

  • Pre-requisite for preparing students for functional and practical daily living.

  • Learning outcomes of project:

    • Counting numbers from 1 to 5

    • Representing, writing and comparing numbers from 1 to 5


SEQUENCING THE LEARNING


ENHANCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING

Use of concrete materials and hands-on activities

Standardisedteaching strategies: UDL and Direct Instruction practices

Triple-D and Triple-T Approaches

Overview

Of

Lesson

Units

Number Sense

of Numbers 1 to 5


Use of Multimedia / ICT

  • Powerpoint slides

  • (for attractive and focus presentation)

  • Interactive whiteboards (IWB)

  • (for lively engagement of learners in actions)

  • On-line educational activities e.g., YouTube videos

  • (for visual & audio engagement)


USING INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD

Lesson 9: More or Less


USING INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD

Lesson 9: More or Less


USING INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD

Lesson 9: More or Less


Useful Links

Sesame Street : 5 Dogs, 5 Boneshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yk702keoYzY


Useful Links

Subtisinghttp://sites.google.com/site/numbersense11/subtizing


TEACHER-CONSTRUCTED WORKSHEETS

Lesson 9

Lesson 5


PROJECT TAKEAWAYS

  • Shared ownership of school improvement

  • Reflective teaching

  • Pride in professionalism


LEARNING POINTS

  • Student-centric approach to be effective in developmentally equipping students to acquire more advanced math concepts [Following the natural developmental progression for math learning in children with special needs]

  • Common math vocabulary to name the thinking and actions for learners to hear, say and do.

  • Engaging and interesting lesson delivery with relevant and meaningful visual cues for joy in learning and reference for learning.


GOING FORWARD

  • Continually review Math Curriculum to ensure the intended/designed curriculum is delivered effectively by teachers and successfully received by the learners

  • Ensuring assessment is valid and reliable through reviews on processes, item setting and student performance

  • Professional Learning Team to build ownership and sustain the drive to build pride in professionalism through reflective practices and collaborative learning culture


PROBLEM SOLVING IN FUNCTIONAL CONTEXTS FOR SPED STUDENTS

APSN Tanglin School


ABOUT APSN TANGLIN SCHOOL

Students

Age: 13 – 16 years

Mild Intellectual Disability

Vision

Leading Independent & Meaningful Lives;

Valued in the Community

To Equip Students with

Skills, Knowledge & Attitudes

through A Holistic Curriculum

Mission

Curriculum

Aims

(4 “C”s)

  • Build Competence - Academic, Vocational, Social

  • Shape Character

  • Foster Pro-social Connections

  • Make Positive Contributions to Self, Family, Community & Society


BACKGROUND

  • Professional Learning Team formation

    • 4 lead teachers, a level head from each year level

  • Team Composition

    • Ms Ho Lai Mern (HOD/Numeracy; Sec 3 Level Head)

    • Mrs Fanny Ong (HOD/ICT; Sec 4 Level Head)

    • Ms Suhaini (Teacher; Sec 2 Level Head)

    • Mr Anthony Tan (Teacher; Sec 1 Level Head)


OBJECTIVE & STUDENT PROFILE

Team’s Objective:

  • To design and develop a student-centric lesson package for teaching problem solving in functional contexts.

Student Profile:

  • 12 students (6 males, 6 females) with Mild Intellectual Disability (IQ level between 50 to 70); including two students with Down’s Syndrome

  • Age: 14 years old


PROBLEM SOLVING IN FUNCTIONAL CONTEXTS

  • Application of numerical concepts and skills to perform real-world tasks and solve problems encountered in everyday life;

  • Number sense (counting) is fundamental to numeracy learning.


IDENTIFIED FOCUS AREA

  • Counting Strategies: Skip Counting

  • Given up to 100 objects, the student will count by 2s, 5s and 10s


PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION

The class was divided into 3 groups according to their level of support needs:


PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION

The class was divided into 3 groups according to their level of support needs:


MODIFIED LESSON STUDY APPROACH

Professional Learning Cycle @ APSN Tanglin School


SEQUENCING THE LEARNING


SEQUENCING THE LEARNING

  • Explicit instruction was used to deliver the lesson content.

  • There are four phases involved:

    • Introduction / Advance Organiser

    • Modelling / Demonstration

    • Guided Practice

    • Independent Practice


SEQUENCING THE LEARNING

  • The Read, Understand, Needs, Imitate and Solve (RUNIS) approach was used.


DIFFERENTIATING THE LEARNING

  • A ‘Teacher Observation Checklist’ was used in every lesson to track and monitor the student’s progress and performance.

  • There were differentiated activities to allow students to experience success as they complete tasks that catered to their level of support needs.

    • Content: Quantity of items to be counted

    • Process: Time allocated for the task

    • Product: Different Inventory Checklist


SUPPORTING THE LEARNING


USE OF VISUAL AIDS

Guide for skip counting


USE OF MULTIMEDIA / ICT

  • PowerPoint slides and videos were used to facilitate discussions and for demonstration purposes during instruction time.


USE OF MULTIMEDIA / ICT

  • During lessons, some photographs and short videos of students performing the counting tasks were taken. Some of these photographs or videos were used, where appropriate, as anchors for discussions or instruction by the main teacher, in subsequent lessons.


USE OF SELF-CHECKING TEMPLATE


USE OF TASK SHEETS


LEARNING POINTS

  • Observations from Pre-test:

  • Students were mostly counting in 1s.

  • Students could improve on their planning and organisational skills when counting.

  • To introduce different counting strategies (counting in 2s, 5s & 10s)

  • To show students how to organise their objects when counting


LEARNING POINTS

  • Observations from Classroom Lessons 1 to 5:

  • Students were able to use counting in 2s, 5s & 10s.

  • The MSN and LSN groups preferred to use ‘counting in 10s’.

  • Students were able to bundle their objects into groups of 2s, 5s or 10s on their table in a more organised manner.

To apply their counting skills by performing a simulated inventory check @ TS Mart using any of the counting strategies learnt.


LEARNING POINTS

  • Observations from Lesson 6 @ TS Mart:

  • Students were very engaged and the ‘inventory check’ task was authentic & meaningful to them.

  • Organisation of some objects was challenging for certain students (eg. bulky items, difficult

  • to stack up). Bigger work area could be

  • provided.

  • Students were given the choice to choose an appropriate counting strategy but it could be a difficult decision for them.

To provide more structure to guide students in their counting – by introducing a ‘10’ template.


LEARNING POINTS

  • Observations from Post-Test @ TS Mart:

  • Students were able to use the template provided to perform counting in 10s more confidently and accurately.

  • Students were able to organise the real objects more efficiently and neatly in groups of 2s & 5s on the bigger work area provided.

  • Students found it useful when the counting strategy was specified for them (eg. Trial #1: Count in 10s, Trial #2: Count in 5s, etc)


SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

  • Important to provide a clear structure to help students perform their counting more accurately and with greater confidence (e.g. by using a template).

  • Students should be given enough time to learn and practise the use of visual support provided.

  • There must be systematic and scaffolded transition from classroom activities to simulated (authentic) contexts to promote students’ application and generalization of skills learnt within the classroom to simulated (authentic) environments.


PROJECT TAKEAWAYS

  • Peer Observation

    “… have benefited from the observations made during the lesson for each of the ability groups.”

  • Reflective Teaching & Peer Collaboration

    “… able to plan for the next lesson based on these observations, and we were more conscious in planning differentiated activities to cater to students with different levels of abilities.”


conclusion


  • Students’ demonstration of learning, as part of assessment of and for learning

  • Teacher-directed instruction, has strong evidence in developing basic numeracy in children with special needs

  • Association learning activated through the use of multi-sensory manipulatives, songs, role play, etc.

  • Relationship to peers as part of a safe and predictable environment for learning together

  • Task differentiation to accommodate diverse learners’ profiles through resource development

Findings (S.T.A.R.T.)


OVERALL FEEDBACK


  • Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Compton, D. L., Powell, R. S., Seethaler, P.M. Capizzi, A. M., Schatschneider, C. & Flectcher, J. M. (2006). The cognitive correlates of third-grade skill in arithmetic, algorithmic computation, and arithmetic word problems. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 29-43.

  • Kavale, K. A. & Forness, S. R. (2000). Policy decisions in special education: The role of meta-analysis. In R. Gersten, E. P. Schiller, & S. Vaughn (Eds.), Contemporary special education research (pp. 281-326). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum,

  • Kennedy A. & Barblett L.. (2010) Early Childhood Australia Research in Practice Series, “Learning and Teaching through Play”. Canberra: Early Childhood Australia Inc.

  • Kroesbergen, E. H. & Van Luit, J. E. H. (2003). Mathematics interventions for children with special needs: A meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 24, 97-114.

  • Montague, M. (2007). Self-regulation and mathematics instruction. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 22, 75-83.

  • Vaughn, S. (2003). What is special about special education for students with learning disabilities? The Journal of Special Education, 37(3), 140-147.

References


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