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Ancient Historical Egypt

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Ancient Historical Egypt. Pre-dynastic Egypt (5500-3100 BC) Ennead (Nine Gods) Ra (Re), Amun Tefnut, Shu Nut, Geb. Pre-dynastic Egypt (5500-3100 BC). Ennead (continued) Osiris Isis Seth Nephthys Horus. Gift of the Nile. Fertile Silt Available Water Multiple Harvests

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ancient historical egypt

Ancient Historical Egypt

Pre-dynastic Egypt(5500-3100 BC)

Ennead (Nine Gods)

Ra (Re), Amun

Tefnut, Shu

Nut, Geb

pre dynastic egypt 5500 3100 bc
Pre-dynastic Egypt(5500-3100 BC)
  • Ennead (continued)
    • Osiris
    • Isis
    • Seth
    • Nephthys
    • Horus
gift of the nile
Gift of the Nile
  • Fertile Silt
  • Available Water
  • Multiple Harvests
  • Akhet: July-October
  • Peret: November-February
  • Shemu: March-June
domestication
Domestication
  • Walled city @ Naqada ~3600 BC
  • Pets-cats
natural defenses
Natural Defenses
  • Deserts
  • Cataracts
  • Nomadic Tribes
last pre dynastic period 3400 3100 bc
Last Pre-dynastic Period(3400-3100 BC)
  • Northern (Lower) Egypt
    • Nile Delta
    • Land of Papyrus
  • Southern (Upper) Egypt
    • Nile Valley
    • Land of Reeds
  • Distinct ecologies, gods, pottery
early dynastic period 3100 2650 bc
Early Dynastic Period(3100-2650 BC)
  • Manetho: commissioned by Ptolemy II
  • Narmer (Menes)
    • Narmer Palette: no perspective, size=importance
    • Hieraconpolis (Horus) and Naqada (Seth)
  • Memphis
    • Capital of Unified Egypt
    • Juncture between Valley and Delta
early dynastic period continued
Early Dynastic Period(continued)
  • Burial Customs
    • Mud-brick Chambers
    • More Elaborate
    • Embalming: @ Abydos, also @ Saqq ara
old kingdom 2650 2152 bc
Old Kingdom(2650-2152 BC)
  • King-Divine Heir of Sun God (Ra)
    • White Crown – Upper Egypt (south)
    • Red Crown – Lower Egypt (north)
  • King’s Wife-One who unites (Ra impregnates)
  • Royal Court
  • Afterlife
    • King’s Ka goes to Ra
    • Officials accompany King for service
third dynasty 2675 2625 bc
Third Dynasty(2675-2625 BC)
  • Mastabas
  • King Djoser
  • Step Pyramid @ Saqqara
    • First large stone monument in history
    • House of Eternity
    • One of 70 extant pyramids
  • Imhotep: Architect and God
fourth dynasty 2625 2500 bc
Fourth Dynasty (2625-2500 BC)
  • Sneferu
  • Khufu (Cheops): Great Pyramid
  • Khafre (Chephren): middle Giza pyramid, with some casing on top; appears slightly higher than Great Pyramid
  • Menkaure (Mycerinus): Third Giza Pyramid
fifth dynasty 2465 2323 bc
Fifth Dynasty (2465-2323 BC)
  • Cult of Sun God Ra
    • Temple building
    • Priestly class
  • Sun Temples, Obelisks
  • Provincial Nobles
    • King’s authority declines
    • Judged on own merit, direct to Osiris
first intermediate period 2150 2040 bc
First Intermediate Period(2150-2040 BC)
  • Drought, raids?
  • Heracleopolis
    • Heirs to Memphite kings
  • Thebes (Luxor)
    • Southern expansion to Nubia (Sudan)
  • Power Struggle for “Two Egypts”?
middle kingdom 2040 1759 bc
Middle Kingdom(2040-1759 BC)
  • 2007-1956 BC
  • 1938-1909 BC
  • Stability and Expansion
    • Fayum-oasis, perfume?
    • Nubia-gold, copper, semi-precious stones, exotic animals
    • Expeditions: Asia, Crete
middle kingdom continued
Middle Kingdom(continued)
  • Ethic of Ma’at
    • Harmony through justice
    • Right living
  • Writing
    • Administrative-hieratic
    • Religious-hieroglyphic
  • Religion: Ra, Amun, Osiris (judge)
new kingdom 1539 1075 bc
New Kingdom(1539-1075 BC)
  • Thutmose (Tutmoses) III
    • Nice Tomb choice
  • Hatshepsut (1479-1458)
    • Daughter of Thutmose I
    • Wife of Thutmose II
    • Deir el-Bahri
  • Thutmose IV
new kingdom continued
New Kingdom(continued)
  • Ramesses II (the Great)
  • Ramesses III - unfinished tomb
  • Ramesses IV – tomb was “home” to Champollion
  • Cleopatra VII – first of Ptolemys to speak Egyptian dialect, alliance with Julius Caesar
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