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Ancient Historical Egypt. Pre-dynastic Egypt (5500-3100 BC) Ennead (Nine Gods) Ra (Re), Amun Tefnut, Shu Nut, Geb. Pre-dynastic Egypt (5500-3100 BC). Ennead (continued) Osiris Isis Seth Nephthys Horus. Gift of the Nile. Fertile Silt Available Water Multiple Harvests

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Ancient historical egypt

Ancient Historical Egypt

Pre-dynastic Egypt(5500-3100 BC)

Ennead (Nine Gods)

Ra (Re), Amun

Tefnut, Shu

Nut, Geb


Pre dynastic egypt 5500 3100 bc
Pre-dynastic Egypt(5500-3100 BC)

  • Ennead (continued)

    • Osiris

    • Isis

    • Seth

    • Nephthys

    • Horus


Gift of the nile
Gift of the Nile

  • Fertile Silt

  • Available Water

  • Multiple Harvests

  • Akhet: July-October

  • Peret: November-February

  • Shemu: March-June



Domestication
Domestication

  • Walled city @ Naqada ~3600 BC

  • Pets-cats


Natural defenses
Natural Defenses

  • Deserts

  • Cataracts

  • Nomadic Tribes


Last pre dynastic period 3400 3100 bc
Last Pre-dynastic Period(3400-3100 BC)

  • Northern (Lower) Egypt

    • Nile Delta

    • Land of Papyrus

  • Southern (Upper) Egypt

    • Nile Valley

    • Land of Reeds

  • Distinct ecologies, gods, pottery


Early dynastic period 3100 2650 bc
Early Dynastic Period(3100-2650 BC)

  • Manetho: commissioned by Ptolemy II

  • Narmer (Menes)

    • Narmer Palette: no perspective, size=importance

    • Hieraconpolis (Horus) and Naqada (Seth)

  • Memphis

    • Capital of Unified Egypt

    • Juncture between Valley and Delta



Early dynastic period continued
Early Dynastic Period(continued)

  • Burial Customs

    • Mud-brick Chambers

    • More Elaborate

    • Embalming: @ Abydos, also @ Saqq ara


Old kingdom 2650 2152 bc
Old Kingdom(2650-2152 BC)

  • King-Divine Heir of Sun God (Ra)

    • White Crown – Upper Egypt (south)

    • Red Crown – Lower Egypt (north)

  • King’s Wife-One who unites (Ra impregnates)

  • Royal Court

  • Afterlife

    • King’s Ka goes to Ra

    • Officials accompany King for service




Third dynasty 2675 2625 bc
Third Dynasty(2675-2625 BC)

  • Mastabas

  • King Djoser

  • Step Pyramid @ Saqqara

    • First large stone monument in history

    • House of Eternity

    • One of 70 extant pyramids

  • Imhotep: Architect and God


Fourth dynasty 2625 2500 bc
Fourth Dynasty (2625-2500 BC)

  • Sneferu

  • Khufu (Cheops): Great Pyramid

  • Khafre (Chephren): middle Giza pyramid, with some casing on top; appears slightly higher than Great Pyramid

  • Menkaure (Mycerinus): Third Giza Pyramid



Khafre chefren pyramid and complex
Khafre (Chefren)Pyramid and Complex


Fifth dynasty 2465 2323 bc
Fifth Dynasty (2465-2323 BC)

  • Cult of Sun God Ra

    • Temple building

    • Priestly class

  • Sun Temples, Obelisks

  • Provincial Nobles

    • King’s authority declines

    • Judged on own merit, direct to Osiris


First intermediate period 2150 2040 bc
First Intermediate Period(2150-2040 BC)

  • Drought, raids?

  • Heracleopolis

    • Heirs to Memphite kings

  • Thebes (Luxor)

    • Southern expansion to Nubia (Sudan)

  • Power Struggle for “Two Egypts”?


Middle kingdom 2040 1759 bc
Middle Kingdom(2040-1759 BC)

  • 2007-1956 BC

  • 1938-1909 BC

  • Stability and Expansion

    • Fayum-oasis, perfume?

    • Nubia-gold, copper, semi-precious stones, exotic animals

    • Expeditions: Asia, Crete


Middle kingdom continued
Middle Kingdom(continued)

  • Ethic of Ma’at

    • Harmony through justice

    • Right living

  • Writing

    • Administrative-hieratic

    • Religious-hieroglyphic

  • Religion: Ra, Amun, Osiris (judge)


New kingdom 1539 1075 bc
New Kingdom(1539-1075 BC)

  • Thutmose (Tutmoses) III

    • Nice Tomb choice

  • Hatshepsut (1479-1458)

    • Daughter of Thutmose I

    • Wife of Thutmose II

    • Deir el-Bahri

  • Thutmose IV




New kingdom continued
New Kingdom(continued)

  • Ramesses II (the Great)

  • Ramesses III - unfinished tomb

  • Ramesses IV – tomb was “home” to Champollion

  • Cleopatra VII – first of Ptolemys to speak Egyptian dialect, alliance with Julius Caesar


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