China and Japan. Part III, Song, China to Ming, China. Gov/Hist 352 Campbell University. Song Dynasty. The Song Dynasty lasted from 960 to 1279. It controlled both the North and South from 960 to 1127. The capital at that time was Kaifeng.
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Part III, Song, China to Ming, China
Taizu was the commander of the Later Zhou army. The army was sent north to fight the Khitans, but mutinied in the middle of the night. Taizu was forced to don the yellow robe. He accepted on one condition; his commanders must swear obedience. He later ordered them to retire, thereby securing the throne.
Emperor Taizu’s given name was Zhao Kuang-yin. He was the son of a minor civil official who chose and military career due to the circumstances of the times.
Extent of Jin empire in yellow.
Wang Anshi (1021-1086
Guild Exemption Tax.
Small Business Loans.
Conversion of In-Kind Tax Payments.
Equalization of Loss.
Remission of Services Tax.
Price Fixing and Profit Limitation.
Government Pawn Shops.
Horse Breeding.Wang Anshi’s Reforms
Paper and books
Coal, coke, iron & steel.
Stoves, nails needles, well drilling equipment and chains.
Brokers for commerce
Letters of Credit
Guilds and Associations
Early ripening rice.
Extensive irrigation.The Northern Song Economy
Statue of General Yue Fei
Song Naval Ship with catapult.
Imports of aromatics, herbal drugs, textiles, minerals, metal (cooper), ceramics.
Exports of porcelain, lacquer ware, silk.
Fenders and Sea Anchors
A Chinese Venice
Tea & comfort houses, perfumes, bookstores, baths, cabarets, acrobats, storytellers, puppeteers.
Fire Department.The Southern Song Economy
4 Directions: East South West North
4 Seasons: Spring Summer Autumn Winter
5 Elements: Wood Fire Metal/Earth Water
4 Virtues: Humanity Propriety Righteousness Wisdom
4 Character: Mild Functional Judgmental Contracting
4 Wills: Creation Growth Maturity Storing
4 Beginnings: Empathy Modesty Shame Right & Wrong
4 Birth Growth Collecting Preservation
4 Morality Flourish Advantage Firmness
4 Times: Sunrise Noon Sunset Midnight
Zhu Xi (1130-!200)
Chinggis Khan (r.1206-26)
The Mongols began their westward advance in 1206 and reached the Danube in 1241. It was the largest contiguous empire in history including parts of Asia, the Middle East and Europe.
Kublai Khan (r.1260-1294)
The Song navy was the key to
projecting power. The defection
of the navy made the conquest of
the South possible in 1279.
Marco Polo, 1215-1294
In Xanadu did Kubla KhanA stately pleasure-dome decree :Where Alph, the sacred river, ranThrough caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.
So twice five miles of fertile groundWith walls and towers were girdled round :And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree ;And here were forests ancient as the hills,Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.
Tibetan Buddhist monks or Lamas.
Much of the religion’s ritual is based
on the esoteric mysticism and on
ancient shamanism and animism.
The Emaciated Horse by Gong Kai symbolizes the state of Chinese life under the Yuan Dynasty.
Completed in 1407/08 at Nanjing University, it contained 22, 937 scrolls in 11, 095 volumes and occupied 40 cubic meters.
Yinzong (1436-50 & 1457-65)
Hai Rui (1514-1587)
Zhang Juzheng (1525-82)
Emperor Wanli (r1573-1620
Matteo Ricci (1552 –1610)
Wang Yangming (1472-1529)
“The way of the great learning involves manifesting virtue, renovating the people, and abiding by the highest good.
“The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the kingdom, first ordered well their own States.
“Wishing to order well their States, they first regulated their families.
“Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons.
“Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified
“Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts.
“Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge.
“Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things.”
ChangLing is the largest and best preserved of the 13 Ming Tombs near Beijing.