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China and Japan. Part III, Song, China to Ming, China. Gov/Hist 352 Campbell University. Song Dynasty. The Song Dynasty lasted from 960 to 1279. It controlled both the North and South from 960 to 1127. The capital at that time was Kaifeng.

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China and japan

China and Japan

Part III, Song, China to Ming, China

Gov/Hist 352

Campbell University


Song dynasty
Song Dynasty

  • The Song Dynasty lasted from 960 to 1279.

    • It controlled both the North and South from 960 to 1127. The capital at that time was Kaifeng.

    • From 1127 to 1279, it controlled only the South. Its capital was Hangzhou.

  • The “barbarian” Jin Dynasty occupied the North.


Five dynasties ten kingdoms
Five Dynasties- Ten Kingdoms

  • The period between the Tang and the Song Dynasties (907-960) is called the Five Dynasties. The Five existed in the north. The south was controlled by the Ten Kingdoms.

  • Constant warfare with northern barbarians and the turbulence of five dynastic successions caused a migration to the more secure south, spurring economic development there.


Emperor song taizu
Emperor Song Taizu

Taizu was the commander of the Later Zhou army. The army was sent north to fight the Khitans, but mutinied in the middle of the night. Taizu was forced to don the yellow robe. He accepted on one condition; his commanders must swear obedience. He later ordered them to retire, thereby securing the throne.

Emperor Taizu’s given name was Zhao Kuang-yin. He was the son of a minor civil official who chose and military career due to the circumstances of the times.


The gentry
The Gentry

  • The Song gentry replaced the Tang aristocracy as the dominate social group.

  • Gentry status depended on a combination of education, holding government office and ownership of land, although anomalies existed.

  • Social mobility existed as ancestry was no longer the key to determining status.

  • Local gentry frequently did not hold office, but did exercise leadership in such areas as public works (bridges, waterways, etc.), social welfare, temple building and defense.


Examination system
Examination System

  • The examination system was the new key to status and power.

  • It replaced the Tang nine-rank system as the most important method of appointment to office.

  • Song exams were conducted at multiple levels every three years. Theoretically, almost anyone (98%) could compete, regardless of social status.

  • The ultimate degree was the Jinshi. Only 1 in 200 achieved it and entered the meritocracy.


The inner asian frontier
The Inner Asian Frontier

  • The Northern song had to cope with three nomadic dynasties: the Khitans, the Xi Xia and Jurchen Jin.

  • The Khitan Liao Dynasty occupied the Liaotung Peninusula, S.Manchuria and 16 prefectures south of the wall.

  • The Khitans were of Mongol stock from the Amur River region and numbered about 2 million.


The inner asian frontier1
The Inner Asian Frontier

  • The Khitans could field an army of 300,000 which the Chinese kept at bay largely through treaties and payments of silk and silver.

  • The Xi Xia controlled the ancient Silk Road. They were Tanguts, ethnically related to the Tibetans. They sought to avoid sinification by establishing separate administrations, N. and S. of the wall.

  • They were formidable military force and were also held at bay by Chinese payments.

  • The Xi Xia were later almost totally exterminated by the Mongols.


The inner asian frontier2
The Inner Asian Frontier

  • The Jurchen Jin homeland was the Amur River area.

  • Wanyan Aguda united the Jin in 1115 and annihilated the Liao in 1125. The Jin capital was Yen (Beijing).

  • In 1127, the Jin sacked Kaifeng, ending the Northern Sung.

  • In 1141, the Song signed the treaty of Shaoxing. It ceded the land north of the Huai River to the Jin.

Extent of Jin empire in yellow.


Nomad power
Nomad Power

  • The horse - numbers and quality.

  • The iron stirrup - a major technological advance

  • Compound bow

  • Life style - prepared them for war.

  • Leadership and organization.

  • The prize.


Government income
Government Income

  • The Song experienced an early industrial, agricultural and commercial revolution but barely had sufficient funds to support its military.

  • Past monopolies were no longer effective in a complex market system. Monopolies had been attempted and abandoned in:

    • Alcohol and Tea. -Copper (coinage)

    • Luxury goods for the court -Iron and Steel

  • Evasion of head and land taxes reduced their effectiveness.


Wang anshi
Wang Anshi

  • Wang was the product of the Confucian revival. His sponsor was Emperor Shenzong; his principal antagonist was Sima Guang (1019-1086), the historian. When Shenzong died, the reforms were repealed, but revisited later.

  • Wang’s ideas of reform were the “New Deal” of his day. An improved economy would produce a stronger state and greater taxes. Many of his programs were made ineffective or counterproductive through bureaucratic resistance.

Wang Anshi (1021-1086


Wang anshi s reforms

2-Cash Coins.

Tea Certificates.

Guild Exemption Tax.

Small Business Loans.

Conversion of In-Kind Tax Payments.

Equalization of Loss.

Young Shoots.

Remission of Services Tax.

Price Fixing and Profit Limitation.

Planned Mensuration.

Government Pawn Shops.

Tithing System.

Horse Breeding.

Wang Anshi’s Reforms


Wang anshi s reforms1
Wang Anshi’s Reforms

  • Expanding the Civil Service.

    • Professional status for local functionaries.

    • Recognizing Specialties.

  • Public Schools.

    • National University.

    • Local Schools.

  • Military Reform Dilemma.

    • Centralization vs. Local Militias.

    • Weapons and the Iron Industry.


The northern song economy

Industry

Paper and books

Ceramics

Coal, coke, iron & steel.

Stoves, nails needles, well drilling equipment and chains.

Shipbuilding.

Commerce

Restaurants.

Hotels

Brokers for commerce

Letters of Credit

Guilds and Associations

Agriculture.

Early ripening rice.

Double cropping.

Extensive irrigation.

The Northern Song Economy


Loss of the north
Loss of the North

  • The Northern Song allied itself with the Jurchen Jin against the Liao. The Liao were annihilated.

  • The Jurchen proved to be a far more formidable adversary.

  • In 1126-7, the Jin captured Kaifeng, Emperor Huizong and his eldest son, Qinzong. The army fled south.

  • Prince Kang, the remaining heir, was saved by the guerrilla fighter, Yue Fei, who proved to be a great general and patriot.

Statue of General Yue Fei


Southern song peace
Southern Song Peace

  • Prince Kang became Emperor Gaozong.

  • Yue Fei suppressed rebellion in the South and regained much of the North. He was a hero.

  • Gaozong and his minister, Qin Guei, feared Yue Fei’s success. They imprisoned and killed him.

  • The Song sued for peace in 1142. The Huai River became the northern border, tribute had to be paid to the Jin and the Jin recognized as the elder brother.

Gaozong (r.1127-1162)


The chinese navy
The Chinese Navy

  • The Southern Song established China’s first navy to hold the Jin at bay along the Yangtze River.

  • Chinese ships equipped with fire arrows, trebuchets and gunpowder bombs soundly defeated the Jin twice in 1161 and in 1165.

  • The Chinese fleet included treadmill powered paddlewheel boats.

Song Naval Ship with catapult.


The southern song economy

Paper Money.

Canals

Foreign Trade

Imports of aromatics, herbal drugs, textiles, minerals, metal (cooper), ceramics.

Exports of porcelain, lacquer ware, silk.

Shipbuilding

Oceangoing vessels.

Compasses.

Axial Rudders

Watertight Bulkheads

Fenders and Sea Anchors

Rockets

Hangzhou.

A Chinese Venice

Tea & comfort houses, perfumes, bookstores, baths, cabarets, acrobats, storytellers, puppeteers.

Fire Department.

The Southern Song Economy


Neo confucianism
Neo-Confucianism

  • A classical revival which began in the 9th Century (spawned in part by printing) led to a complete reinterpretation of Confucianism.

  • The process of reinterpretation began with Zhou Dunyi, who found a reference to Taiji, the supreme ultimate (first cause), in the I Ching . Upon this, he based an entire system of metaphysics.

  • Taiji was identified with li (principle or law) and responsible of all phenomena. Qi was the force, energy or substance upon which li operated.


Supreme ultimate
Supreme Ultimate

  • Taiji acts as the first cause giving birth to Yin and Yang.

  • The interaction of Yin and Yang produces the five elements.

  • The Dao of the five elements produces maleness and femaleness. They are ultimately responsible all phenomena.


Neo confucian equivalents
Neo-Confucian Equivalents

4 Directions: East South West North

4 Seasons: Spring Summer Autumn Winter

5 Elements: Wood Fire Metal/Earth Water

4 Virtues: Humanity Propriety Righteousness Wisdom

4 Character: Mild Functional Judgmental Contracting

4 Wills: Creation Growth Maturity Storing

4 Beginnings: Empathy Modesty Shame Right & Wrong

4 Birth Growth Collecting Preservation

4 Morality Flourish Advantage Firmness

4 Times: Sunrise Noon Sunset Midnight


Zhu xi
Zhu Xi

  • Although a maverick, Zhu Xi became the most influential Song Neo-Confucian philosopher..

  • Zhu received the Jinshi at 18.

  • He held several official positions, but his principal interest was in teaching. He headed the White Deer Grotto Academy and wrote Reflections on Things at Hand plus commentaries on the Analects, The Mencius, The Great Learning and The Doctrine of the Mean.

Zhu Xi (1130-!200)


Zhu xi s philosophy
Zhu Xi’s Philosophy

  • Zhu Xi believed that li operated as benevolence and that man was both good and incorruptible.

  • Man’s true nature could be obscured by turgid qi, but qi could be refined.The sageswere born with perfect li and qi.

  • Self-cultivation(li)is the root of social and political order; moral power is superior to coercion.

  • Natural calamities were the result of disturbances in the natural order (li), not divine wrath.

  • In 1237, his commentaries were officially recognized as texts for the examination system.


The mongols
The Mongols

  • In 1206, Temüjin successfully united the fragmented tribes of Mongolia. He was named the “Chinggis Khan", or the "Universal Ruler".

  • Chinggis Khan’s main interest was in China, specifically the Xi Xia, Jin Dynasty and Southern Song Dynasty.

  • He conquered the Jin in 1210 and the Xi Xia in 1224 (only 1% survived).

  • His grandson, Kublai Khan conquered the Southern Song and established the Yuan Dynasty

Chinggis Khan (r.1206-26)


Mongol empire
Mongol Empire

The Mongols began their westward advance in 1206 and reached the Danube in 1241. It was the largest contiguous empire in history including parts of Asia, the Middle East and Europe.


Mongol military force
Mongol Military Force

  • Composed of cavalry, mounted archers with iron stirrups.

  • Organized in 10’s, 100’s and 1000’s.

  • Capable of surprise, mobility & concentration of mass.

  • Struck terror into the hearts of all.

    • Didn’t bathe from birth to death.

    • Could sleep in the saddle on the march.

    • Lived off of mare’s milk and blood.

    • Could hit an inch target with an arrow at a full gallop.

    • Butchered, raped and burned one city after another.

    • Could strike without warning and leave without a clue.


Yelu chucai
Yelu Chucai

  • Yelu Chucai (1189-1244) was sinicized Khitan of royal Liao lineage who had served the Jin. He was 6’8” tall with a beard that reached his waist.

  • Yelu became an advisor to Chinggis Khan in 1218 and later Ogodei. He was able to convince Ogodei not to turn North China into pasture land by explaining taxation.

  • He established a system of taxation in 1229 which he administered until his death when it was outsourced to Muslim tax farmers in 1239.


The yuan dynasty
The Yuan Dynasty

  • Kublai Khan adopted the dynastic name Yuan in 1271.

  • He sought to maintain a balance between Mongol identity and customary rule of China.

    • a. Alternated residence between Beijing and Shangdu (Xanadu).

    • Prohibited fraternization and/or intermarriage with Chinese.

    • Divided population into four status groups: (1) Monglos, (2) Mongol Allies, (3) people of North China and (4) Southern Chinese (called Manzi).

Kublai Khan (r.1260-1294)


Yuan rule
Yuan Rule

  • The Mongol population was only one million. Yet, it ruled a population of 87 million while continuing attempted conquests of distant lands.

    • Japan in 1274 & 1281.

    • Vietnam & Burma in the 1280s.

    • Java in 1281 & 1292.

  • And, defending against Ogodei’s grandson, Khaidu, in the North.

The Song navy was the key to

projecting power. The defection

of the navy made the conquest of

the South possible in 1279.


Yuan control
Yuan Control

  • Used Confucians as highly placed advisors and educators, even of their own children.

  • Placed greatest reliance on military vs. civil administration.

  • Depended heavily on non-Chinese for civilian officials: Muslims, Tibetans, Uighurs, and men from the west such as the Persian astronomer, Jamal al-Din, and the Venetian, Marco Polo.

  • In 1342, Mongol chancellor Toghto revived the examination system.


Palace politics
Palace Politics

  • Kublai Khan’s died in 1294. There were seven additional Yuan emperors. Most were ineffective.

  • Togan Timur (1333 –1368) was the longest reigning Mongol emperor. He was a voluptuary who largely ignored the increasing chaos.

  • Two notable ministers served as chancelors: Bayan (1335-40) and Toghto (1340-44 & 1349-55). Toghto is credited with reviving the examination system, digging new Yellow River and Grand Canal channels and the only successful efforts to crush the Red Turban Rebellion.


The economy
The Economy

  • The loss of population (108 million to 67 million) reflected harsh conditions, extreme cold, high taxes, inflation, disease and natural disasters.

  • The Yellow River began flooding in the 1340s, flowing both north and south of the Shandong Peninsula and emptying into the Grand Canal, making it useless. Re-digging these channels involved 150,000 civilians and 20,000 troops.

  • The Yangtze region was not as seriously affected. Cotton was produced for the first time and marshes converted to productive farmland.


Red turban rebellion
Red Turban Rebellion

  • By the middle of the 14th Century, China began to experience recurring local rebellions in the North. Efforts to combat these, led to the increasing independence of regional commanders.

  • The Red Turban faction of the White Lotus led an open rebellion against the Yuan. Toghto might have crushed the rebellion had he not been replaced due to political squabbling in 1355.

  • The ultimate winner was Zhu Yuanzhang who established the Ming Dynasty in 1368.


Marco polo
Marco Polo

  • Mongol rule opened trade routes between the West and China.

  • The Polo’s, as Venetian traders, took advantage of this opportunity making two trips to China, one in 1264 and the other in 1271. Marco was on the second trip.

  • Marco’s account of his travels and his 17 years in China was published in Il Milione in 1295. It was a sensation, inspiring interest in the East and even an English poem.

Marco Polo, 1215-1294


The kubla khan
The Kubla Khan

  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge published the poem Kubla Khan in 1798 inspired by Marco Polo’s account of his travels. It romanticized the East.

    In Xanadu did Kubla KhanA stately pleasure-dome decree :Where Alph, the sacred river, ranThrough caverns measureless to man

    Down to a sunless sea.

    So twice five miles of fertile groundWith walls and towers were girdled round :And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree ;And here were forests ancient as the hills,Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.


Religion and philosophy
Religion and Philosophy

  • The Mongols were attracted to Tibetan Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism)with its magic charms to cure or harm.

  • Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucian practices of moral cultivation and scholarly study flourished.

  • The mathematician Zhu Shijie became quite influential both in China and Japan.

Tibetan Buddhist monks or Lamas.

Much of the religion’s ritual is based

on the esoteric mysticism and on

ancient shamanism and animism.


The emaciated horse
The Emaciated Horse

The Emaciated Horse by Gong Kai symbolizes the state of Chinese life under the Yuan Dynasty.


The ming
The Ming

  • The founder of the Ming was Zhu Yuanzhang, aka, Hongwu. An orphan, he had been a shepherd, a monk, a beggar, Red Turban, bandit, and warlord.

  • In 1356, he conquered Nanjing and made it his capital. In 1368, he took Peking. The Mongols fled. In 1372, his forces burned Karakorum and controlled most of Central Asia.

  • Hongwu was autocratic, harsh, even brutal. He personally decided all matters; perused 1,660 memorials in 10 days dealing with 3,391 matters.

Hongwu (r.1368-98)


Hongwu s accomplishments
Hongwu’s Accomplishments

  • Established a Grand Secretariat of four persons through which he governed.

  • Registered the entire population of China.

  • Established his own system of mutual responsibility.

    • Jia = 10 families

    • Li = 10 Jia

  • Sought to reform the entire population in accordance with the Confucian cannon.

  • Reestablished the Imperial University.

  • Restored the civil service examination system.


The yongle emperor
The Yongle Emperor

  • Was the fourth son of Hongwu. When Hongwu’s eldest son died in 1392, his son, Jianwen (Yongle’s nephew), became heir to the throne.

  • When the Hongwu died in 1398, Yongle led a massive civil war to gain the throne. He took Nanjing in 1402, but Jianwen was never found.

  • Once in power, Yongle exterminated all male heirs in his nephew’s line through the 10th generation (called “agnates”).

Yongle (r.1403-1425)


Yongle s accomplishments
Yongle’s Accomplishments

  • Yongle is considered to be one of China’s great emperors.

  • Pursued an aggressive foreign policy, conducting wars against the Mongols, attempting to annex Annam and sending major naval expeditions to Southeast Asia, India and Africa.

  • Reestablished the capital in Beijing. Built a new Forbidden City and restored the Grand Canal.

  • Sponsored the Yongle Encyclopedia.


Zheng he
Zheng He

  • Zheng He led huge fleets on 7 voyages of exploration from 1403 to 1433, the last reaching Africa.

  • He was a Moslem eunuch, who had been captured as a boy in Yunnan and made Zhu Di’s (Yongle’s) slave. He proved to be a loyal, brave and resourceful comrade during the civil war.

  • When Yongle died the voyages stopped and records of Zheng He’s explorations were destroyed. Why?



Power struggle
Power Struggle

  • A power struggle had always existed to some degree between the “inner court” and the “outer court.”

  • The “inner court” was composed of wives, concubines, other relatives and eunuchs. They had direct access to the emperor, knew his weaknesses and frequently tried to manipulate him.

  • The “outer court” was composed of educated officials who sought to administer the country in accordance Confucian principles.

  • Conflict was inevitable, especially when legitimacy was in question as with Yongle.


Forbidden city
Forbidden City

  • Construction of the palace complex began in 1407. It was completed 14 years later. The labor of a million workers including one hundred thousand artisans was required.

  • The complex measures almost ½ mile E-W and slightly more than ½ mile N-S. It contains 9,999 buildings.


Yongle encyclopedia
Yongle Encyclopedia

  • Composed at the direction of Emperor Yongle, it is the largest non-fiction work ever published.

  • Incorporated eight thousand texts from ancient times up to the early Ming Dynasty. It covered all that had ever been written on the Confucian canon, history, philosophy, and the arts and sciences.

Completed in 1407/08 at Nanjing University, it contained 22, 937 scrolls in 11, 095 volumes and occupied 40 cubic meters.


Continuing mongol threat
Continuing Mongol Threat

  • Mongol pressure continued during much of the Ming.

  • Recurring Mongol attacks led Emperor Yinzong to personally lead a military campaign. Yinzong was captured by the Mongols and held for ransom for one year. When released, he was imprisoned in the palace for 6 ½ more years while his brother reigned.

  • Yinzong was responsible for rebuilding 600 miles of the Great Wall. It remains to this day.

Yinzong (1436-50 & 1457-65)


Hai rui
Hai Rui

  • Ming government officials became notorious for graft and corruption.

  • Hai Rui was famous for diligence and honesty. He was born on Hainan Island and only gained office at the age of 39.

  • He is best known for submitting a memorial 1565 denouncing the Jianjing Emperor for ignoring corruption. The emperor was infuriated. Hai Rui was jailed and sentenced to death, but saved when the emperor died a year later.

Hai Rui (1514-1587)


Zhang juzheng
Zhang Juzheng

  • Zhang Juzheng was a reformer who dominated the Ming government during the reign of Muzong and served as mentor & regent to Shenzong (Wanli).

  • He is credited with repair of the Grand Canal, reform of the courier system, increasing the power of the central government vis-a-vis provincial officials, reducing the number of officials, minimizing eunuch influence, preventing abuse of power by censors.

Zhang Juzheng (1525-82)


Zhang juzheng reforms
Zhang Juzheng Reforms

  • Among Zhang Juzheng’s other accomplishments:

    • Improving government finances thru a comprehensive land survey that eliminated a considerable amount of tax exempt land.

    • Enforcing the “single whip” tax system.

    • Assessed taxes in silver or silver equivalents. The silver tael (ounce) became the monetary standard.

    • Seeking to decrease the importance of form as opposed to content in the use of the “eight-legged essay” in the examinations system.

    • Attempting to close private academies as breeding grounds for political associations and tax exempt land.


Emperor wanli
Emperor Wanli

  • Wanli became emperor at age 9. Zhang Juzheng ably administered the country until he died in 1582.

  • Wanli reigned effectively for the next 18 years. He combated a Mongol rebellion, Japanese attempts to invade Korea and an internal rebellion.

  • During the last 20 years of his reign, he lost interest in ruling and the government stagnated.

  • In 1619, the Manchus defeated a 200,000 man Ming army.

Emperor Wanli (r1573-1620


Matteo ricci
Matteo Ricci

  • Was a Jesuit and first successful Christian missionary to China. He was presented at the court of Wanli in 1601. He is buried in Beijing.

  • He learned classical Chinese and styled himself a “Western Confucian. His amazing gift with languages, astounding memory and knowledge of mathematics, astronomy and cartography gained him the opportunity to proselytize to the elite.

  • The Jesuits continued their mission in China during the Qing Dynasty.

Matteo Ricci (1552 –1610)


Ming society
Ming Society

  • Ming China functioned economically as a series of 45,000 semi- autonomous economic areas.

  • The magistrate was the interface between the government and the people.

  • The local landed gentry were expected to be responsible for day-to day administration.

  • The gentry was composed of self perpetuating clans.

  • The growth of commerce undercut the status of the gentry/scholar official.


Wang yangming s neo confucianism
Wang Yangming’s Neo-Confucianism

  • He was a capable and principled administrator and military official. He suffered beating , prison and exile for insulting a court eunuch over corruption.

  • During his exile, he experienced a sudden enlightenment which became the source of his philosophy.

  • He was troubled by the difficulty of living a Confucian life in the midst of a corrupt world.

Wang Yangming (1472-1529)


The great learning
The Great Learning

  • Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming were both inspired by the Great Learning (part of the Classic of Rites). They parted ways over the meaning of “the investigation of things.” The text reads:

    “The way of the great learning involves manifesting virtue, renovating the people, and abiding by the highest good.

    “The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the kingdom, first ordered well their own States.


The great learning cont d
The Great Learning (Cont’d)

“Wishing to order well their States, they first regulated their families.

“Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons.

“Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified

their hearts.

“Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts.

“Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge.

“Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things.”


Wang yangming s theories
Wang Yangming’s Theories

  • External knowledge acquired for any purpose other than constructing the moral self is vulgar learning.

  • All humans possess “innate knowledge,” the capacity for moral judgment. Selfish desire can block the function of innate knowledge, if it is not eliminated.

  • Moral awareness is dependent on self alone. The external world does not exist apart from our mental perception of it.

  • True knowledge does not exist apart from action.


Wang yangming s disciples
Wang Yangming’s Disciples

  • Wang Ji and Wang Gen were the founders of the Taizhou branch of Wang Yangming’s teachings.

    • Wang Ji employed Buddhist and Daoist terminology.

    • Wang Gen rode an ox cart to Beijing to present a memorial to the emperor.

  • He Xinyin condemned the family.

  • Li Zhi shaved his head and dressed as a Buddhist monk.

  • Jia Hong considered Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism as forming a single teaching.


End of the ming
End of the Ming

  • A combination of factors contributed to the fall of the Ming Dynasty.

    • Deterioration of the imperial line. Emperors Wanli and Xizong are examples. Xizong was the carpenter emperor.

    • Bureaucratic corruption and eunuch influence.

    • A tax system and fiscal policy out of step with the new monetary economy. Silver, which had to be imported, was the monetary standard.

    • Rebellion.

    • The Manchu's who occupied the northern border.


Li zicheng s rebellion
Li Zicheng’s Rebellion

  • The collapse of the economy was compounded by famine spawning outlaw gangs and rebels.

  • Li Zicheng was unemployed postal clerk who managed to gather a force of 20,000.

  • Li seized Beijing in 1644. The emperor committed suicide, but Li was unable to win the support of the scholar-official elite.

  • Wu Sangui, the general who commanded the eastern passes, defected to the Manchus.

  • The Manchus entered Beijing in June,1644.


End part iii

End Part III

ChangLing is the largest and best preserved of the 13 Ming Tombs near Beijing.


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