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Chapter 16 Salads and Dressings Objectives Recognize the different purposes salads serve on a menu Salads on the Menu Purposes salads serve on the menu Appetizer salads Main course salads Salad bars Traditionally, appetizer salads served as a

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Chapter 16

Salads and Dressings


Objectives

  • Recognize the different purposes salads serve on a menu


Salads on the Menu

  • Purposes salads serve on the menu

    • Appetizer salads

    • Main course salads

    • Salad bars


Traditionally, appetizer salads served as a

light and refreshing lead-in to the main course

quick and easy way to satisfy diners while entrées are being prepared

Appetizer Salads


Chefs create lighter entrées by pairing chicken, seafood, or meat with salad greens

May combine hot and cold elements on same plate

Main Course Salads


Salad Bars

  • Common in American casual dining and fast-food restaurants

  • Diners enjoy the variety, choice, and ability to create custom salads

  • The use of low cost ingredients and minimal labor costs are appealing to restaurant operators


A successful salad bar

offers a large variety of attractively displayed ingredients

is designed for easy access

maintains food at proper temperatures

Salad Bars


Objectives

  • Classify the different types of salads


Types of Salads

  • Three types of salads include

    • simple salads

    • composed or plated salads

    • bound and marinated salads


A simple salad should include a variety of flavors, colors, and textures

Simple Salads


When dressing a simple salad,

any type of dressing can be used

dress the salad just before serving

serve dressing on the side

Simple Salads


Composed or Plated Salads

  • Composed salads are popular main course menu items

  • Four parts of a composed salad include

    • base

    • body

    • dressing

    • garnish


Composed or Plated Salads

  • Base

    • Lettuce leaves or a bed of cut greens

    • Acts as backdrop for other ingredients

  • Body

    • Main ingredient of salad

    • Could be greens, a marinated or bound salad, meat, fish, or poultry


Composed or Plated Salads

  • Dressing

    • Compatible with other ingredients

    • Adds moisture and flavor

  • Garnish

    • Adds color and texture to finished presentation


Chefs use combinations of various cooked foods to create bound salads and marinated salads

These salads provide an opportunity to use up leftover foods creatively

Bound and Marinated Salads


Objectives

  • Recognize common salad greens


Iceberg Lettuce

Most popular variety in U.S.

Long shelf life

Crisp leaves, round shape, tightly packed head

Mild, sweet, refreshing flavor

Common Salad Greens


Romaine Lettuce (Cos)

Crisp ribs surrounded by tender leaves

Elongated head with round-tipped leaves

Common Salad Greens


Escarole (Broad Leaf Endive)

Loose, relatively crisp head; flat leaves with curly tips

Slightly bitter flavor

Common Salad Greens


Curly Endive (Curly Chicory)

Crisp ribs; narrow leaves with curly edge

Bitter flavor; provides contrasting flavor and texture in lettuce mixtures

Common Salad Greens


Belgian Endive (Witloof Chicory)

Tightly packed, elongated head with pointed tip

Bitter flavor with slight sweetness

Common Salad Greens


Leaf Lettuce (Green Leaf Lettuce)

Used in salads or as liner for plates and platters

Mild flavor

Common Salad Greens


Red Leaf Lettuce (Red-Tipped Lettuce)

Same texture and flavor as green leaf lettuce

Often included in salad mixes for contrasting color

Common Salad Greens


Boston Lettuce (Butterhead)

Soft green cup-shaped leaves

Loose head with creamy-colored inner leaves

Popular as salad base and in mixed salads

Common Salad Greens


Bibb Lettuce (Limestone Lettuce)

Developed in Kentucky

Similar color and texture to Boston lettuce, but smaller head

One head is often served as single portion

Common Salad Greens


Spinach

Smaller, tender leaves are best for salads

Purchased in bunches or cello pack, packaged in plastic bags

Remove fibrous stems and wash several times to remove dirt and grit

Common Salad Greens


Watercress

Classic plate garnish for red meats

Remove thick stems before serving

Peppery flavor

Common Salad Greens


Radicchio

Italian variety of chicory

Bitter flavor

Small amounts added to mixed greens for contrasting color

Common Salad Greens


Mesclun

Often purchased ready-to-use

Attractive variety of textures, colors, and flavors

Common Salad Greens


Sprouts

Grown from seeds or beans soaked in water

Alfalfa, bean, radishes, and mustard are most popular types

Grown in high moisture, high temperature environment conducive to bacterial growth

Common Salad Greens


Objectives

  • Explain various factors involved when buying lettuce


Subject to great fluctuations in quality and price

Usually packed 24 heads to a case

Actual cost of the lettuce is affected by the amount of waste

Buying Lettuce


Buying Lettuce

  • Ready-to-Eat Greens

    • Greens are prewashed and precut

    • More expensive than other greens

    • No prep time and little or no waste for the operation

    • Must be rotated and used quickly


Objectives

  • Execute the preparation of salad greens


Preparing Salad Greens

  • Greens that are not ready-to-eat must be prepared before use

  • Steps for preparing salad greens include

    • cutting

    • washing

    • drying


Trim and remove the core

Trim any wilted or discolored leaves

Remove thick fibrous stems from leafy greens

Cut (or tear) into bite-sized pieces

Cutting


Washing

  • Cut greens are placed in a sink or large container filled with cold water

  • Greens should float freely


Washing

  • Stir the greens to loosen dirt and sand, which sinks to the bottom

  • Remove greens from the water and drain


To remove excess water from washed salad greens

drain in a colander or perforated hotel pan

use a salad spinner (best method)

Drying


Technique: Preparing Salad Greens

  • Remove any wilted outer leaves.

  • Cut away any rusted or discolored parts, especially the leaf tips.

  • Remove the core or stem of the salad green.

  • Cut the lettuce or greens into bite-sized pieces.

  • Wash greens by submerging them in cold water.

  • Drain in a salad spinner.


Objectives

  • Compare and contrast the three salad dressings—simple vinaigrette, mayonnaise, and emulsified dressing


Salad Dressings

  • Salad dressing should enhance the flavor of the salad

  • Three basic types of salad dressing include

    • simple vinaigrette

    • mayonnaise

    • emulsified dressing


Simple Vinaigrettes

  • The secret to a good vinaigrette is balancing the fat, acid, and seasonings

  • Oil provides the palate with a supple mouthfeel and acts as flavor carrier

  • Vinegar “cuts” the fat, adds another taste sensation, and prevents the oil from coating the palate


Simple Vinaigrettes

  • To achieve the desired balance, a 3:1 ratio of oil to vinegar is often used

  • When working with a stronger vinegar, most chefs change the ratio to 4 or 5:1

  • Because vinegar and oil separate, simple vinaigrette must be stirred immediately before service


Mayonnaise and Emulsified Dressings

  • Simple vinaigrette separates because it is a temporary emulsion

  • An emulsion can be stabilized with egg or egg yolks to prevent separation


Mayonnaise and Emulsified Dressings

  • When making mayonnaise, the tiny drops of oil become suspended in the water from the vinegar and egg

  • Proteins from the egg yolk keep the oil and water from separating

  • Mayonnaise is often used as a base for dressings and cold sauces


Preparation of mayonnaise and emulsified dressings can be done by hand, with an electric mixer, or in a food processor.

Place egg yolks, mustard, and vinegar in a bowl and whip to combine them well.

Technique: Preparing Mayonnaise


Technique: Preparing Mayonnaise

  • While constantly whipping the yolk mixture, add the oil in a thin stream.


Technique: Preparing Mayonnaise

  • Continue to whip and add oil until all the oil is incorporated.


Technique: Preparing Mayonnaise

  • Adjust consistency by thinning with a small amount of water or lemon juice if needed.

  • Season with salt and pepper. Adjust acidity with additional vinegar or lemon juice if needed.

  • Refrigerate immediately.


Mayonnaise and Emulsified Dressings

  • One egg yolk to one cup of oil is the standard proportion for making mayonnaise

  • Mustard and vinegar are often added to taste


Mayonnaise and Emulsified Dressings

  • Emulsified dressings are made with the same technique used for creating emulsions

  • Herbs, spices, and cheese are common ingredients in emulsified dressings

  • Emulsified dressings are usually thinner than mayonnaise because of added liquid or the use of whole eggs


Ingredients for Dressings

  • Ingredients commonly used in dressings include

    • oil

    • vinegar

    • mustard

  • There is a range of choices for each of these ingredients, which allows chefs to customize dressings


Ingredients for Dressings

  • Oils

    • High quality oil is essential for making a good vinaigrette, mayonnaise, or dressing

    • Oils are classified as neutral or flavored

    • Neutral oils are “flavorless” and interchangeable in recipes

    • Flavored oils are extracted from ingredients that contribute their unique flavor


Ingredients for Dressings

  • Vinegars

    • Originally made from fermented barley juice, wine, or apple cider

    • Today, they are made from different types of wine, fruits, or herbs


Ingredients for Dressings

  • Vinegars

    • Most vinegars are diluted to five percent acid

    • Naturally fermented wine vinegars usually contain six to seven percent acid

    • Citrus juice can also be used as an acid in vinaigrettes


Ingredients for Dressings

  • Mustard

    • Its sharp flavor counters the richness of the oil

    • Helps to emulsify mayonnaise and emulsified dressings

    • Dry or prepared mustards can be used

    • Used in small amounts because of its strong flavor


Objectives

  • Recall standard procedures that will ensure both sanitation and quality in salad preparation


Sanitation and Quality in Salad Preparation

  • Thoroughly wash all salad ingredients

  • Keep salad ingredients well chilled

  • Refrigerate dressings containing egg or dairy products at or below 41°F (5°C)

  • Chill salad plates before plating


Sanitation and Quality in Salad Preparation

  • Use gloves or utensils to handle salad ingredients

  • Mix tossed salads with dressing as close to service as possible

  • Don’t overdress salads


Name the different purposes salads serve on a menu

Appetizer salad

Main course salad

Salad bar

Review


What are the three main types of salad?

Simple salads

Composed or plated salads

Bound and marinated salads

Review


Name the steps used to prepare salad greens

Cutting

Washing

Drying

Review


What are the three types of salad dressings?

Simple vinaigrette

Mayonnaise

Emulsified dressing

Review


What is the proportion of oil to vinegar chefs use when making a simple vinaigrette?

Three parts oil to one part vinegar

Review


What is the proportion of egg yolk to oil chefs use when preparing mayonnaise?

One egg yolk to one cup oil

Review


Name the three ingredients generally used in all dressings

Oil

Vinegar

Mustard

Review


Belgian endive (Witloof chicory)

Romain lettuce (Cos)

Salad Green Identification


Sprouts

Spinach

Salad Green Identification


Bibb lettuce(Limestone lettuce)

Iceberg lettuce

Salad Green Identification


Curly endive (Curly chicory)

Leaf lettuce (Green leaf lettuce)

Salad Green Identification


Escarole (Broad leaf endive)

Red leaf lettuce(Red-tipped lettuce)

Salad Green Identification


Boston lettuce (Butterhead)

Radicchio

Salad Green Identification


Mesclun

Watercress

Salad Green Identification


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