Invasive Alien Species in Germany and in International Conventions and the Role of Botanic Gardens
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Invasive Alien Species in Germany and in International Conventions and the Role of Botanic Gardens. Frank Klingenstein. Nature conservation and phytosanitary measures: The German federal perspective and activities on IAS. 1) Biological globalisation: a) global situation

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Invasive Alien Species in Germany and in International Conventions and the Role of Botanic Gardens

Frank Klingenstein


Nature conservation and phytosanitary measures: The German federal perspective and activities on IAS

  • 1) Biological globalisation:

  • a) global situation

  • b) situation in Germany

  • 2) Categories of alien species and criteria for invasiveness

  • 3) Botanic Gardens and alien species

  • 4) International law and policies on alien species and their impact on Botanic Gardens

  • 5) Options for co-operation

  • 6) National activities in Germany


Geographical Isolation asBasis for Evolution = Diversity

varieties of Great Tit (Parus major)


Reasons for Extinction of Animals since 1600

hunting

23%

alien species

39%

others

2%

destruction of habitats

36%

source: World Conservation Monitoring Centre, „Global Biodiversity“ (1992)


suppression by alien species

Reasons for Threat to the German Flora


Spread of Agriculture in Europe

[Benecke 1994]


59 (~10%) of 653 threatened species in Germany are aliens (archaeophytes

~ 20 % of all archaeophytes are threatened

 archaeophytic alien species are often of special concern for conservation


Beginning of Biological Globalisation

intended introductions

„It disturbs me that I do not know all these herbs, bushes and plants, which may be very valuable for use as dyes, medicine or spices. I will take home samples of most of them.“ (18.10.1492)


(un)intended introductions

  • 50 % unintended introductions

  •  trade and traffic

50 % intended introductions

30% ornamental plants20 % usful plants for forestry and agriculture


Biological Globalisation: the Case of Hawaii

natural migration: 1 species in 50.000 years = 1.200 species

Polynesian settlers 1.400 years ago: 1 species in 30 years = 45 new species

since the discovery by Cook in 1778: 1 species in 2 months = 1.000 new species

The biomass of alien species exceeds that of indigenous species

Silversword

(Argyroxiphium sandwicense)

source: Davis et al. 1995, WWF & IUCN


max. 50

Neophytes in Germany

 3.383

 988


Disc Mayweed; Pineapple Weed (Matricaria discoidea)

escaped from BG Berlin in 1825

„alien“  „bad“ need for criteria


+

=

Invasiveness = Ecological Threat

  • increased consumption by predators

  • competition for habitats or resources

  • change of ecological conditions

  • „genetic pollution”


Economic Damage

e.g. alien weeds

Galinsoga ciliata

escaped from BG Breslau ~ 1850

Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora)

escaped from BG Paris in 1800


Threat to Human Health

e.g. toxic plants


Nature conservation and phytosanitary measures: The German federal perspective and activities on IAS

  • 1) Biological globalisation:

  • a) global situation

  • b) situation in Germany

  • 2) Categories of alien species and criteria for invasiveness

  • 3) Botanic Gardens and alien species

  • 4) International law and policies on alien species and their impact on Botanic Gardens

  • 5) Options for co-operation

  • 6) National activities in Germany


Common Field Speedwell (Veronica persica)escaped from BG Karlsruhe in 1805


Botanic Garden and Museum Berlin-Dahlem (BGBM)

Call for eradication of Saxon Botanists (~1940):

„Like bolschewism endangers our occidental culture, this Mongolian invader as a crucial element of this culture threatens the beauty of our native forests.“

Most important garden in Germany and one of the largest in the world

Small Balsam (Impatiens parviflora)escaped from BG Berlin in 1837


Ecologic-Botanic Garden of Bayreuth:

build since 1978

24 ha

due to decreasing budget huge +/- wild areas


like 17 other species assessed in 2001:

Cephalaria alpinaCephalaria giganteaEchinops exaltatusCerinthe minorDoronicum pardalianchesEuphorbia polychromaGeum coccineumGeum japonicumScabiosa banaticaEryngium giganteumInula magnificaLychnis coronariaVerbascum olympicumCollomia linearisOenothera spp.Solidago flexicaulisSolidago graminifolia

Duchesnea indica (Indian Strawberry)

sold as garden plant since 1850spreading in BG Bayreuth since 1984escaped from BG Bielefeld 1974


Reticulitermes flavipes

Origin: North America

described 1837 from greenhouses in BG Schönbrunn, Vienna

since 1955 reproducing in Hamburg and damaging buildings etc.

... and other unintended species e.g. in soil ....


Insects etc. for biological pest control:

Nowadays only reproducing in greenhouses

But what will happen with climatic change?


Nature conservation and phytosanitary measures: The German federal perspective and activities on IAS

  • 1) Biological globalisation:

  • a) global situation

  • b) situation in Germany

  • 2) Categories of alien species and criteria for invasiveness

  • 3) Botanic Gardens and alien species

  • 4) International law and policies on alien species and their impact on Botanic Gardens

  • 5) Options for co-operation

  • 6) National activities in Germany


Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species(CITES; 1973)

Implementation in the European Union (EC 338/97):§ 3 (2) d: Export and trade of species may be limited, if they endanger biodiversity in the importing country


International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)

International standard for phytosanitary measures 11 (2003):Risk assessment for quarantine pests including analysis of environmental risks


Convention on Biological Diversity(CBD; Rio 1992)

§ 8 h: Contracting parties shall ...

prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species

Guiding Principles for invasive alien species (2002)

precautionary, three-stage approach(prevention, control, management)


Guiding Principles on IASDecision VI/23

  • Guiding principle 10: Intentional introduction

  • No intentional introduction of an alien species already invasive or potentially invasive should take place without authorization from an authority. A risk analysis should be carried out to authorize an introduction. The burden of proof should be with the proposer of the introduction. Authorization may be accompanied by conditions (e.g., monitoring procedures, payment for assessment and management).

    • 2. Lack of scientific certainty should not prevent an authority to prevent the [introduction]

    • "intentional introduction" refers to the movement and/or release by humans outside of its natural range


Guiding Principles on IASDecision VI/23

  • Guiding principle 10: Intentional introduction

  • No intentional introduction of an alien species already invasive or potentially invasive should take place without authorizationfrom an authority. A risk analysis should be carried out to authorize an introduction. The burden of proof should be with the proposer of the introduction. Authorization may be accompanied by conditions (e.g., monitoring procedures, payment for assessment and management).

    • 2. Lack of scientific certainty should not prevent an authority to prevent the [introduction]

    • "intentional introduction" refers to the movement and/or release by humans outside of its natural range


Guiding Principles on IASDecision VI/23

  • Guiding principle 10: Intentional introduction

  • No intentional introduction of an alien species already invasive or potentially invasive should take place without authorizationfrom an authority. A risk analysis should be carried out to authorize an introduction. The burden of proof should be with the proposer of the introduction. Authorization may be accompanied by conditions (e.g., monitoring procedures, payment for assessment and management).

    • 2. Lack of scientific certainty should not prevent an authority to prevent the [introduction]

    • "intentional introduction" refers to the movement and/or release by humans outside of its natural range


.

for the 95 BG‘s in Germany p.a.

receipt of seeds: 79.983

supply of seeds: 260.010

________________________________

326.000 transactions

3.400 per garden

Dimension of seed exchange

 seed exchange is the main source for BG’s


Contribution of Botanic Gardens to IAS-activities

  • PRACTICAL experience with the cultivation = “attitude” of alien plants in “new” countries (e.g. for risk assessments)

  • voluntary measures concerning the exchange or cultivation of invasive alien plants

  • building public awareness as reliable multipliers

  • scientific knowledge on ecology and distribution of plants as basis for conservation measures (e.g. black lists, eradication etc.)


Activities in Germany

  • National Strategy on IAS to implement the Guiding Principles of the CBD by suggesting

    harmonization of legislation and measures

    cooperation / responsibilities of stakeholders

  • Information networking with regional conservation authorities and all other interested stakeholders by mailing lists


www.neophyten.de

  • basic information on alien plants in Germany

  • handbook with data sheets for 30 invasive species

  • discussion forum for these species


www.floraweb.de

  • up to 55 characteristics on taxonomy, morphology, ecology, threat, etc.

  • including degree of naturalisation

  • distribution maps on the basis of the national floristic mapping program

  • photos

  • for all 3.500 wild growing vascular plants in Germany


Early Warning System

  • intended extension of the existing forum and floristic mapping activities

2003

vor 1950

1980


Thank you for your attention


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