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Invasive Alien Species in Germany and in International Conventions and the Role of Botanic Gardens. Frank Klingenstein. Nature conservation and phytosanitary measures: The German federal perspective and activities on IAS. 1) Biological globalisation: a) global situation

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slide1

Invasive Alien Species in Germany and in International Conventions and the Role of Botanic Gardens

Frank Klingenstein

nature conservation and phytosanitary measures the german federal perspective and activities on ias
Nature conservation and phytosanitary measures: The German federal perspective and activities on IAS
  • 1) Biological globalisation:
  • a) global situation
  • b) situation in Germany
  • 2) Categories of alien species and criteria for invasiveness
  • 3) Botanic Gardens and alien species
  • 4) International law and policies on alien species and their impact on Botanic Gardens
  • 5) Options for co-operation
  • 6) National activities in Germany
reasons for extinction of animals since 1600
Reasons for Extinction of Animals since 1600

hunting

23%

alien species

39%

others

2%

destruction of habitats

36%

source: World Conservation Monitoring Centre, „Global Biodiversity“ (1992)

slide7

suppression by alien species

Reasons for Threat to the German Flora

slide9

59 (~10%) of 653 threatened species in Germany are aliens (archaeophytes

~ 20 % of all archaeophytes are threatened

 archaeophytic alien species are often of special concern for conservation

slide10

Beginning of Biological Globalisation

intended introductions

„It disturbs me that I do not know all these herbs, bushes and plants, which may be very valuable for use as dyes, medicine or spices. I will take home samples of most of them.“ (18.10.1492)

un intended introductions
(un)intended introductions
  • 50 % unintended introductions
  •  trade and traffic

50 % intended introductions

30% ornamental plants20 % usful plants for forestry and agriculture

biological globalisation the case of hawaii
Biological Globalisation: the Case of Hawaii

natural migration: 1 species in 50.000 years = 1.200 species

Polynesian settlers 1.400 years ago: 1 species in 30 years = 45 new species

since the discovery by Cook in 1778: 1 species in 2 months = 1.000 new species

The biomass of alien species exceeds that of indigenous species

Silversword

(Argyroxiphium sandwicense)

source: Davis et al. 1995, WWF & IUCN

slide14

Disc Mayweed; Pineapple Weed (Matricaria discoidea)

escaped from BG Berlin in 1825

„alien“  „bad“ need for criteria

invasiveness ecological threat

+

=

Invasiveness = Ecological Threat
  • increased consumption by predators
  • competition for habitats or resources
  • change of ecological conditions
  • „genetic pollution”
economic damage
Economic Damage

e.g. alien weeds

Galinsoga ciliata

escaped from BG Breslau ~ 1850

Galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora)

escaped from BG Paris in 1800

threat to human health
Threat to Human Health

e.g. toxic plants

nature conservation and phytosanitary measures the german federal perspective and activities on ias1
Nature conservation and phytosanitary measures: The German federal perspective and activities on IAS
  • 1) Biological globalisation:
  • a) global situation
  • b) situation in Germany
  • 2) Categories of alien species and criteria for invasiveness
  • 3) Botanic Gardens and alien species
  • 4) International law and policies on alien species and their impact on Botanic Gardens
  • 5) Options for co-operation
  • 6) National activities in Germany
slide20

Botanic Garden and Museum Berlin-Dahlem (BGBM)

Call for eradication of Saxon Botanists (~1940):

„Like bolschewism endangers our occidental culture, this Mongolian invader as a crucial element of this culture threatens the beauty of our native forests.“

Most important garden in Germany and one of the largest in the world

Small Balsam (Impatiens parviflora)escaped from BG Berlin in 1837

slide21

Ecologic-Botanic Garden of Bayreuth:

build since 1978

24 ha

due to decreasing budget huge +/- wild areas

slide22

like 17 other species assessed in 2001:

Cephalaria alpinaCephalaria giganteaEchinops exaltatusCerinthe minorDoronicum pardalianchesEuphorbia polychromaGeum coccineumGeum japonicumScabiosa banaticaEryngium giganteumInula magnificaLychnis coronariaVerbascum olympicumCollomia linearisOenothera spp.Solidago flexicaulisSolidago graminifolia

Duchesnea indica (Indian Strawberry)

sold as garden plant since 1850spreading in BG Bayreuth since 1984escaped from BG Bielefeld 1974

slide23

Reticulitermes flavipes

Origin: North America

described 1837 from greenhouses in BG Schönbrunn, Vienna

since 1955 reproducing in Hamburg and damaging buildings etc.

... and other unintended species e.g. in soil ....

slide24

Insects etc. for biological pest control:

Nowadays only reproducing in greenhouses

But what will happen with climatic change?

nature conservation and phytosanitary measures the german federal perspective and activities on ias2
Nature conservation and phytosanitary measures: The German federal perspective and activities on IAS
  • 1) Biological globalisation:
  • a) global situation
  • b) situation in Germany
  • 2) Categories of alien species and criteria for invasiveness
  • 3) Botanic Gardens and alien species
  • 4) International law and policies on alien species and their impact on Botanic Gardens
  • 5) Options for co-operation
  • 6) National activities in Germany
slide26

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species(CITES; 1973)

Implementation in the European Union (EC 338/97):§ 3 (2) d: Export and trade of species may be limited, if they endanger biodiversity in the importing country

slide27

International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)

International standard for phytosanitary measures 11 (2003):Risk assessment for quarantine pests including analysis of environmental risks

convention on biological diversity cbd rio 1992
Convention on Biological Diversity(CBD; Rio 1992)

§ 8 h: Contracting parties shall ...

prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species

Guiding Principles for invasive alien species (2002)

precautionary, three-stage approach(prevention, control, management)

guiding principles on ias decision vi 23
Guiding Principles on IASDecision VI/23
  • Guiding principle 10: Intentional introduction
  • No intentional introduction of an alien species already invasive or potentially invasive should take place without authorization from an authority. A risk analysis should be carried out to authorize an introduction. The burden of proof should be with the proposer of the introduction. Authorization may be accompanied by conditions (e.g., monitoring procedures, payment for assessment and management).
    • 2. Lack of scientific certainty should not prevent an authority to prevent the [introduction]
    • "intentional introduction" refers to the movement and/or release by humans outside of its natural range
guiding principles on ias decision vi 231
Guiding Principles on IASDecision VI/23
  • Guiding principle 10: Intentional introduction
  • No intentional introduction of an alien species already invasive or potentially invasive should take place without authorizationfrom an authority. A risk analysis should be carried out to authorize an introduction. The burden of proof should be with the proposer of the introduction. Authorization may be accompanied by conditions (e.g., monitoring procedures, payment for assessment and management).
    • 2. Lack of scientific certainty should not prevent an authority to prevent the [introduction]
    • "intentional introduction" refers to the movement and/or release by humans outside of its natural range
guiding principles on ias decision vi 232
Guiding Principles on IASDecision VI/23
  • Guiding principle 10: Intentional introduction
  • No intentional introduction of an alien species already invasive or potentially invasive should take place without authorizationfrom an authority. A risk analysis should be carried out to authorize an introduction. The burden of proof should be with the proposer of the introduction. Authorization may be accompanied by conditions (e.g., monitoring procedures, payment for assessment and management).
    • 2. Lack of scientific certainty should not prevent an authority to prevent the [introduction]
    • "intentional introduction" refers to the movement and/or release by humans outside of its natural range
dimension of seed exchange

.

for the 95 BG‘s in Germany p.a.

receipt of seeds: 79.983

supply of seeds: 260.010

________________________________

326.000 transactions

3.400 per garden

Dimension of seed exchange

 seed exchange is the main source for BG’s

slide33

Contribution of Botanic Gardens to IAS-activities

  • PRACTICAL experience with the cultivation = “attitude” of alien plants in “new” countries (e.g. for risk assessments)
  • voluntary measures concerning the exchange or cultivation of invasive alien plants
  • building public awareness as reliable multipliers
  • scientific knowledge on ecology and distribution of plants as basis for conservation measures (e.g. black lists, eradication etc.)
activities in germany
Activities in Germany
  • National Strategy on IAS to implement the Guiding Principles of the CBD by suggesting

harmonization of legislation and measures

cooperation / responsibilities of stakeholders

  • Information networking with regional conservation authorities and all other interested stakeholders by mailing lists
slide36

www.neophyten.de

  • basic information on alien plants in Germany
  • handbook with data sheets for 30 invasive species
  • discussion forum for these species
slide37

www.floraweb.de

  • up to 55 characteristics on taxonomy, morphology, ecology, threat, etc.
  • including degree of naturalisation
  • distribution maps on the basis of the national floristic mapping program
  • photos
  • for all 3.500 wild growing vascular plants in Germany
early warning system
Early Warning System
  • intended extension of the existing forum and floristic mapping activities

2003

vor 1950

1980

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