The ippc and alien invasive species dealing with alien invasive species since 1952
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The IPPC and Alien Invasive Species Dealing with Alien Invasive Species since 1952. Ralf Lopian Senior Advisor Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Finland Chairman of the ICPM. The IPPC and Alien Invasive Species. Contents: Definitions and Abbreviations Responsibilities

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The IPPC and Alien Invasive Species Dealing with Alien Invasive Species since 1952

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The ippc and alien invasive species dealing with alien invasive species since 1952

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesDealing with Alien Invasive Species since 1952

Ralf Lopian

Senior Advisor

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Finland

Chairman of the ICPM


The ippc and alien invasive species

The IPPC and Alien Invasive Species

  • Contents:

    • Definitions and Abbreviations

    • Responsibilities

    • IPPC activities concerning Alien Invasive Species

    • Relationship between Guiding Principles and the IPPC and its Standards

    • Discussion and Conclusions


The ippc and alien invasive species abbreviations 1

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesAbbreviations (1)

  • CBD – Convention on Biological Diversity; it has three main goals: the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources. Activities with direct phytosanitary impacts are its provisions on ”Alien Species” and ”Alien Invasive Species”.

  • IPPC – International Plant Protection Convention; its aim is to secure a common and effective action to prevent the spread and introduction of pests of plants and plant products, and to promote appropriate measures for their control.

  • ICPM – Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures of the IPPC


The ippc and alien invasive species abbreviations 2

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesAbbreviations (2)

  • RPPOs – Regional Plant Protection Organizations; RPPOs function as the coordinating bodies in the geographical areas covered and shall participate in various activities to achieve the objectives of the IPPC ().

  • EPPO – European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization; it is the Regional Plant Protection Organization responsible for cooperation in plant protection in the European and Mediterranean region ().

  • SPS – Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization (WTO); its main field of work is the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures in relation to trade .


The ippc and alien invasive species definitions 1

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesDefinitions (1)

  • [Plant] Pest - Any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal or pathogenic agent [directly or indirectly] injurious to plantsor plant products[IPPC, 1997]

  • Quarantine [Plant] Pest – A pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled[IPPC, 1997]


The ippc and alien invasive species definitions 2

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesDefinitions (2)

  • Alien Species - a species, subspecies or lower taxon, introduced outside its natural past or present distribution; includes any part, gametes, seeds, eggs, or propagules of such species that might survive and subsequently reproduce [CBD, 2003]

  • Invasive Alien Species (=Alien Invasive Species) – an alien species whose introduction and/or spread threaten biological diversity [CBD, 2003]


The ippc and alien invasive species relationship between plant pests and aiss

Criteria of a Quarantine Pest

Any organism

Injurious to plants

Having a potential economic (environmental) impact

Not present, or if present not widely distributed and being officially controlled

Not included

Criteria of an Alien Invasive Species

Any organism

Threat to biodiversity (plants being part of biodiversity)

Threat to biological diversity through introduction and/or spread

Survival and subsequent reproduction capability

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesRelationship between Plant Pests and AISs


The ippc and alien invasive species responsibilities overlapping mandates 1

SPS

RPPOs

(e.g.EPPO)

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesResponsibilities: Overlapping Mandates (1)

Protecting plants

from plant pests

IPPC

Protecting biodiversity (wild flora) from AISs

Trade related rules concerning plant health and life

CBD


The ippc and alien invasive species responsibilities overlapping mandates 2

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesResponsibilities: Overlapping Mandates (2)

  • Areas of overlap between IPPC and Guiding Principles are:

    • providing legal and and regulatory frameworks

    • building capacity and technical assistance for developing countries

    • assessing and managing potential plant pest risks

    • protecting areas that may be threatened by plant pests

    • applying measures to prevent the unintentional introduction of plant pests


The ippc and alien invasive species responsibilities overlapping mandates 3

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesResponsibilities: Overlapping Mandates (3)

  • Areas of overlap are (continued):

    • certifying that risk managemant procedures have been applied

    • assessing and managing the intentional introduction of organisms that may be plant pests

    • exchanging of scientific and regulatory information relevant to plant pests

    • cooperating between countriess to minimize the impact of plant pests

    • detecting, controlling and eradicating pests in agricultural and wild flora


The ippc and alien invasive species ippc activities concerning alien invasive species 1

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesIPPC activities concerning Alien Invasive Species (1)

  • 1999: the second meeting of the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM 2) created an informal open-ended working group to consider issues regarding GMOs, biosecurity and invasive species.

  • 2001: based on the recommendations of the working group ICPM 3 decided that:

    • species that may be invasive and that directly or indirectly affect plants or plant products should be assessed, monitored and managed, if necessary, according to IPPC provisions

    • alien invasive species that are plant pests and that are not present (if present then limited distribution + official control) should be considered quarantine pests and should be subjected to measures according to IPPC provisions


The ippc and alien invasive species ippc activities concerning alien invasive species 2

The IPPC and Alien Invasive Species IPPC activities concerning Alien Invasive Species (2)

  • that the IPPC is directly relevant to article 8(h) of the CBD (Prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species)

  • many provisions and standards of the IPPC are directly relevant to, or overlap with the Interim Guiding Principles (Now: Guiding Principles) of the CBD

  • standards should be reviewed to ensure that they adequately address environmental risks of plant pests

  • a supplement to ISPM 11 (International Standard on Phytosanitary Measures No.11: Pest Risk Analysis for quarantine pests) be developed to address in detail the environmental risks of plant pests


The ippc and alien invasive species ippc activities concerning alien invasive species 3

The IPPC and Alien Invasive Species IPPC activities concerning Alien Invasive Species (3)

  • the IPPC Secretariat cooperates with the CBD on Alien Invasive Species related matters

    • IPPC Secretariat to seek observers status with CBD

    • IPPC Secretariat to attend relevant meetings of the CBD and to invite the CBD to attend relevant IPPC meetings

    • IPPC Secretariat to cooperate with other standard setting bodies to ensure that common areas of interest are adequately covered


The ippc and alien invasive species dealing with alien invasive species since 1952

Phytosanitary Aspects of Biotechnology and Alien Invasive SpeciesIPPC activities concerning Alien Invasive Species (4)

  • In 2003 the ICPM adopted:

    • a supplementary standard to ISPM 11 (PRA of Quarantine Pests) on environmental risk of plant pests

    • a supplementary standard to ISPM 5 (Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms) providing guidelines on the understanding of ”potential economic importance” and related terms including reference to environmental considerations


The ippc and alien invasive species dealing with alien invasive species since 1952

Phytosanitary Aspects of Biotechnology and Alien Invasive SpeciesIPPC activities concerning Alien Invasive Species (5)

  • In 2003 the IPPC Secretariat and the CBD Secretariat signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in order to:

    • promote synergy

    • avoid overlaps

    • avoid unnecessary duplication

    • ensure effective cooperation in joint activities


The ippc and alien invasive species dealing with alien invasive species since 1952

IPPC and/or Standard provisions

IPPC:Art. VII (2a) (potential

contradiction)

ISPM 11: (partial application)

IPPC:general aim of IPPC (full

application)

ISPM 11: supplement on

environmental risks

ISPM 5: supplement on potential

economic importance

Guiding Principle

No.1: Precautionary

Approach

No.2: Three-stage

Hierarchical

Approach

No.3: Ecosystem Approach

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesRelationship between Guiding Principles and the IPPC and its Standards (1)


The ippc and alien invasive species dealing with alien invasive species since 1952

IPPC and/or Standard provisions

IPPC:general aim of IPPC (full

application)

ISPM 3: biocontrol agents

ISPM 6: surveillance

ISPM 17: pest reporting

ISPM 19: pest listing

IPPC: Art. IV (2b) & Art. IV (3b)

ISPM 6: surveillance

ISPM 8: pest status

Guiding Principle

No.4: The Role of States

No.5: Research and

Monitoring

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesRelationship between Guiding Principles and the IPPC and its Standards (2)


The ippc and alien invasive species dealing with alien invasive species since 1952

IPPC and/or Standard provisions

IPPC:not covered (Art. IV, 3a provides very limited coverage)

IPPC: especially Art. VII

ISPM 1: principles

ISPM 7: export certification system

ISPM 12: phytosanitary certificates

ISPM 13: non-compliance & emergency action

ISPM 14: integrated measures

Guiding Principle

No.6: Education and Public

Awareness

No.7: Border Control and Quarantine Measures

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesRelationship between Guiding Principles and the IPPC and its Standards (3)


The ippc and alien invasive species dealing with alien invasive species since 1952

IPPC and/or Standard provisions

IPPC:especially Art. VIII

ISPM 1: principles

ISPM 6: surveillance

ISPM 8: pest status

ISPM 13: non-compliance & emergency action

ISPM 17: pest reporting

ISPM 19: pest listing

IPPC: especially Art. XX; PCE; FAO structure a bonus

Guiding Principle

No.8: Exchange of Information

No.9: Cooperation, including Capacity Building

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesRelationship between Guiding Principles and the IPPC and its Standards (4)


The ippc and alien invasive species dealing with alien invasive species since 1952

IPPC and/or Standard provisions

IPPC: especially Art. VII

ISPM 1: principles

ISPM 2: PRA

ISPM 3: biocontrol agents

ISPM 11: PRA for quarantine pests

IPPC: especially Art. VII

ISPM 1: principles

ISPM 2: PRA

ISPM 11: PRA for quarantine pests

ISPM 14: integrated measures

Guiding Principle

No.10: Intentional Introduction

No.11: Unintentional Introductions

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesRelationship between Guiding Principles and the IPPC and its Standards (5)


The ippc and alien invasive species dealing with alien invasive species since 1952

IPPC and/or Standard provisions

IPPC: Art. I (partially)

IPPC: Art. I

ISPM 9: pest eradication programmes

IPPC: especially Art. I

ISPM 4: pest free areas

ISPM 9: pest eradication prog.

ISPM 10: pest free places of production

Guiding Principle

No.12: Mitigation of Impacts

No.13: Eradication

No.14: Containment

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesRelationship between Guiding Principles and the IPPC and its Standards (6)


The ippc and alien invasive species dealing with alien invasive species since 1952

IPPC and/or Standard provisions

IPPC: Art. I

ISPM 14: integrated measures

Guiding Principle

No.15: Control

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesRelationship between Guiding Principles and the IPPC and its Standards (6)


The ippc and alien invasive species discussion 1

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesDiscussion (1)

  • Do we need active involvement of plant health authorities for Alien Invasive Species?

    • Avoid duplication of activities on an international and national level

    • Long experience on assessing and managing biological risks related to introduced organisms

    • Well developed infrastructures on national levels for surveying organisms

    • Minimizing negative trade impacts


The ippc and alien invasive species discussion 2

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesDiscussion (2)

  • Is there a need for a well structured international regulatory framework for Alien Invasive Species?

    • Avoid duplication of activities, contradicting approaches and confusion of competences in international agreements

    • Establishment of clear hierachies of competences as in national legislation of many countries

    • Improve cooperation of international organizations

    • Minimizing negative trade impacts


The ippc and alien invasive species discussion 3

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesDiscussion (3)

  • What are countries responsibilities in establishing an international regulatory framework for Alien Invasive Species?

    • Countries should ratify the relevant international agreements

    • National coordination of strategies concerning international agreements

    • Request international organizations to cooperate in their activities


The ippc and alien invasive species discussion 4

The IPPC and Alien Invasive Species Discussion (4)

  • What are possible future activities for Alien Invasive Species?

    • Declaration of competences for international organizations

    • Resolving possible contradicting provisions in international agreements (WTO/SPS; CBD; IPPC)

    • Providing Technical Assistance to developing countries

      • IPPC to intensify its TA activities

      • CBD to contribute to IPPC TA activities (IPPC Trust Fund)


The ippc and alien invasive species conclusions

The IPPC and Alien Invasive SpeciesConclusions

  • Phytosanitary authorities, know-how and structures have a clear mandate and function in the field of biotechnology and alien invasive species.

  • An international regulatory framework for alien invasive species should be established setting clear competences and hierachies for international organizations in this field.

  • All countries should ratify the relevant international agreements and fully participate in their activities.

  • Providing Technical Assistance to developing countries


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