Welcome to the esl preservice introduction
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Welcome to the ESL Preservice Introduction. TCH offers: Adult education Employment assistance Immigration services Trainings (like this one– through Literacy NOW). Tacoma Community House is an organization that began in Tacoma in 1910 as a settlement house to welcome newcomers to Tacoma.

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Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

Welcome to theESL Preservice Introduction


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

TCH offers:

  • Adult education

  • Employment assistance

  • Immigration services

  • Trainings (like this one– through Literacy NOW)

Tacoma Community Houseis an organization that began in Tacoma in 1910 as a settlement house to welcome newcomers to Tacoma.


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

The workshops are funded by:

Office of Refugee and Immigrant Assistance

Fees to individual programs

Tacoma Community House

Literacy NOW provides a variety of workshops:

For ESL Tutors

For Literacy Tutors

Intercultural Communication for the Workplace or Library

Literacy NOW

is a division of

Tacoma Community House.


What will you get from this training

What will you get from this training?

The purpose of this training is to:

  • Give you information about immigrants and refugees

  • Give you an introduction to needs of English language learners

  • Provide background information and strategies to aid in communication with your learners


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

This information is divided into three sections. At the end of each section, there will be brief quiz for you to complete.


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

Washington State is home to a variety of people who come from all over the world.


History of immigration in wa

History of Immigration in WA

Most influxes of immigration have occurred during times when immigrants have felt the “push” away from their home countries due to wars, famines, and poor economic situations or the “pull” of America in terms of providing opportunity.


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

1770’s

First Asian Immigrants came in large numbers from Hawaii

1840-1880

Europe’s “First Wave Migrations to WA”

From Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, and Iceland

1860’s and 70’s

Japanese and Chinese recruited for industrial work


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

1880-WWI

Europe’s “Second Wave” Migrations to WA

  • Westward expansion encouraged the East Coast (Italy, Greece, the Balkan States, Poland, Russia and Austro-Hungary) to head West.

    1903

    Korean immigrants recruited for labor from Hawaii

  • About 1,000 came, forming a core Korean community in WA


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

1940’s

Middle Eastern Communities Emerged in WA

  • Immigrants were from Arabic speaking countries

Large numbers of Mexican Americans immigrated from southern states

  • This is credited as beginning the migrant agricultural workforce in WA and came in response to the labor drain at the beginning of WWII


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

Post WWII

Smaller “Third Wave” of European Immigrants

  • Settled among core groups of immigrants from their home countries

    1960’s and 70’s

    Influx of non-Mexican Latino immigrants

  • Were granted refugee status by the US government in response to the multiple military coups that occurred during this period across South America


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

1970’s

WA sponsors the first groups of Vietnamese refugees from the Vietnam War

  • This created an enclave of Vietnamese immigrants that form the base of a strong Vietnamese community still in WA today

    Post 1970’s

    Since the 1970’s, immigrants have come from the following areas:

  • Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos)

  • Poland (Russian Jews)

  • Former USSR

  • Somalia/Sudan


When you hear the word immigrant what do you think of

When you hear the word “immigrant” what do you think of?


According to the us government foreign born individuals are separated into groups

According to the US government, foreign born individuals are separated into groups:

  • US Citizens

  • Immigrants

    • Legal Immigrants

    • Illegal or undocumented immigrants

  • Refugees/Asylees


Immigrants

Immigrants

  • Legal Immigrants apply to live in the US through work or family connections

  • Illegal or undocumented immigrants do not have permission to reside in the US


Legal immigrants

Legal Immigrants…

  • Are sponsored– they have a connection here whether by work or by family

  • Are on their own timeline to learn English and get a job

  • Allowed to apply for citizenship after 5 years residence in the US

  • Cannot (typically) access social services


According to us law refugees are

According to US law refugees are…

People unable to live in their own country due to reasonable fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or social grouping


Refugees

Refugees:

  • Are on a timeline in terms of getting a job

  • Have access to social services and employment assistance (Temporary Assistant to Needy Families -- TANF)

    • BUT must be in class or work at least 32 hours

  • Can receive TANF benefits for 5 years

  • Allowed to apply for citizenship after 5 years of residence in the US

  • May have a highly traumatic background and experiences


Refugee resettlement three government priorities

Refugee Resettlement: Three Government Priorities

Priority 1– Compelling Protection cases

  • Refugees for whom no other durable solution exists.

    Priority 2– Groups of special humanitarian concern, *subject to change every year

  • Burmese in Thailand;

  • Iranian religious minorities in Austria;

  • Meshketian Turks;

  • In-country processing: Former Soviet Union, Cuba, and Vietnam

    Priority 3– Family Reunification

  • Spouses, unmarried children under 21 or parents of persons admitted to the U.S. as refugees


According to us law

According to US law…

Foreign born citizens have the same rights, responsibilities, and expectations as native born citizens– EXCEPT that they cannot become President.

Whether an immigrant or refugee upon arrival, all foreign born individuals can apply for citizenship after 5 years residence in the US.


What percent of wa state is foreign born

Between 1990 and 2000 alone, the foreign born population increased by 90%.

Year Total Number % of Population

1990 322,144 6.6%

1999 434,957 7.7%

2000 614,457 10.4%

2005 763,059 12.2%

What percent of WA State is Foreign Born?


Where do us immigrants come from

Where do US Immigrants come from?

Nationally, the vast majority come from Mexico.

Top Ten Countries Represented by Immigrants in the US


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

WA State has a higher percentage of immigrants from Russia and the Ukraine than the US average.

WA State also has a higher percentage of immigrants from East Asian countries like Laos and Taiwan.


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

In Washington, immigrants come from…

Top Ten Countries Represented by Immigrants in WA State


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

The refugee population is very different from the immigrant population.

Because refugees only come from government approved countries, the countries they come from can change every year.


Where do us refugees come from

Where do US Refugees come from?

  • About 80,000 refugees come to the United States each year

  • The number of refugees accepted from each country changes each year.

  • In 2009, the biggest numbers of refugees are coming from:

    • Iraq (16,695)

    • Burma (16,000)

    • Bhutan (11,992)


In washington state refugees come from

In Washington State, refugees come from…

Top 3 Refugee Countries:

  • Somalia—17.8%

  • Ukraine—16.6%

  • Russia—10.3%


Quiz click for answers

Quiz (click for Answers)

What are the three groups into which the US government separates foreign born individuals?

Answer: US Citizens, Immigrants (legal and illegal) and Refugees/Asylees.

True or False: Refugees are sponsored by a family member or workplace.

Answer: False, legal immigrants are sponsored by a family member or workplace.

True or False: The countries which refugees are from can change every year.

Answer: True.

True or False: One major difference between the United States and Washington State is that WA State has more immigrants from Southeast Asia.

Answer: True, Vietnam and Laos are among the Top Ten Countries Represented in Washington State.


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

Whatever the immigrant status; refugee, asylee, legal immigrant, undocumented or illegal immigrant, all will struggle with differences between their home country culture and US culture.


There are three levels of culture to understand

A Model to Understand Culture

There are three levels of culture to understand…

Sensory

Conscious Rules

Unconscious Rules


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

The Sensory Level

When we think about culture, these are the areas that we can easily see and predict might be different from culture to culture.

Examples

  • Language

  • Architecture

  • Food

  • Money

  • Vegetation

  • Density of Population

  • Modes of Transportation

  • Clothing

Sensory

Conscious Rules

Unconscious Rules


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

Conscious Rules

These are the things we teach our children. Although we can name these behaviors, the meaning of the behaviors is obscured because they are automatic and we do not have to think about them.

Examples

  • Greetings

  • Eating

  • Punctuality

  • Eye Contact

  • Space

Sensory

Conscious Rules

Unconscious Rules


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

Unconscious Rules

Our beliefs, values and behaviors which are so automatic and “natural” that we hardly stop to think that someone else might see the world differently.

Examples

  • Importance of work

  • Attitudes about men’s/women’s roles

  • Communication Styles

  • What makes a good parent, spouse, boss

Sensory

Conscious Rules

Unconscious Rules


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

Culture shockhappens when a person experiences the confusion and discomfort of having everything culturally familiar replaced by unfamiliar cultural norms.


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

People living in a different culture adjust through a process of integrating their native culture with the new culture in a form of bi-culturalism.

There are five stages of…

Cultural Adjustment


Stage 1

Stage 1:

Everything is new and interesting.

1

Happiness

2

5

4

3

Time


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

This person is in Stage 1:

“I come to the US and I go to the grocery store and there is so much food! Also, there are cars everywhere– everyone has a car! America is so exciting!”


Stage 2

Stage 2:

1

Everything is new and interesting.

Happiness

5

3

4

2

Time

The differences of the new culture become apparent and frustrating.


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

This person is in Stage 2:

“I was a college instructor in Afghanistan and I had many things, and I still don’t have those things here like I had there. And I won’t be able to have those things here; the standard of living. I don’t even have a backyard here so that my children can play, and in Afghanistan I had over 1,000 acres of farmland, fruit gardens, and houses.”


Stage 3

Stage 3:

Cultural differences and challenges are mastered.

Unconscious rules of the

culture become

better understood.

1

Everything is new and interesting.

Happiness

3

2

Time

The differences of the new culture become apparent and frustrating.

4

5


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

This person is in Stage 3:

“I changed my values and attitudes in this country. In my country I didn’t talk to my children very much, but in this country I try to play with them. I try to change to that relationship where we can share everything. I love them.”


Stage 4

Stage 4:

1

Everything is new and interesting.

Cultural differences and challenges are mastered. Unconscious rules of the culture become better understood.

Happiness

5

4

3

2

Time

Strangeness of the new culture hits home.

The differences of the new culture become apparent and frustrating.


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

This person is in Stage 4:

“I'll never get used to how Americans say ‘hi’, but don’t really stop to talk. I miss how in my country we say ‘hi’ to everyone and stop to talk with friends or neighbors we meet. But, I am safe and my children have opportunities to build a future here.”


Stage 5

Stage 5:

ACCEPTANCE AND ADJUSTMENT

ATTAINED

1

Everything is new and interesting.

Cultural differences and challenges are mastered. Unconscious rules of the culture become understood.

Happiness

5

3

4

2

Time

Strangeness of the new culture hits home.

The differences of the new culture become apparent and frustrating.


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

This person is in Stage 5:

“I have lots of friends in America. I feel like this is my home. I miss my country, but not like I used to. I’m very happy here.”


Helping immigrants adjust

Helping immigrants adjust

  • Learn about your students’ culture

    • Look for books or movies about that culture

  • Recognize the process of acculturation

    • Compare and contrast the students’ culture with US Culture and include examples of different cultures in your teaching

  • Deepen your awareness of your own culture

    • Pay close attention to Unconscious Rules

  • Be open to differences in perception, your “Rules” may be different


Quiz click for answers1

Quiz(click for Answers)

  • What are the three levels of culture?

    Answer: Sensory, Conscious Rules and Unconscious Rules.

  • What is culture shock?

    Answer: The intense confusion and discomfort produced when adjusting to life in an unfamiliar culture.

  • What are some different ways you can help students experiencing culture shock adjust?

    Answer: Learn about your students’ culture, recognize the process of acculturation, deepen your awareness of you own culture and be open to differences in perception.


What skills and support do immigrants and refugees need

What skills and support do immigrants and refugees need?

  • English skills

  • Work or job skills

  • Help learning English

  • Help finding or applying for a job

  • Help finding housing


Where do they get their skills support

Where do they get their skills/support?

  • Work

  • Interacting in the community

  • Going to school

  • Working with a tutor

  • Sponsors


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

Roles of Learners

Adults play a number of roles; they are family members, community members, workers or job seekers.


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

Family Member Role

Your students might be home-bound parents with little contact with the English speaking community. 


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

Worker Role

Your students might have jobs and this may be the most important area where they need support in English.


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

Community Member Role

Your students may be concerned about becoming US Citizens or interacting with the English speaking community. 


We need tutors because

We need tutors because…

There are many people in our community who want to improve their English skills for work, community, or family reasons.


Why learn english

Why Learn English?

4 main reasons:

  • Voice:

    • To express ideas and opinions with the confidence to be heard and understood

  • Access to information:

    • To access information in order to orient self in the world

  • Independent action:

    • To solve problems and make decisions independently

  • Bridge to the future:

    • To reflect on past learning experiences and apply insights to the world as it changes


The tutor s role

The Tutor’s Role

  • To set up a welcoming learning environment

  • To set the tone for learning

  • To create timely learning experiences connected to what the learner is ready to learn

  • To identify and use relevant and purposeful materials

  • To encourage

  • To monitor the learner’s development


As a tutor you can expect

As a tutor, you can expect …

  • To receive support– your agency will train you and provide resources through your volunteer coordinator

  • To experience a “Getting to Know You” period where you and your learner develop rapport

  • To gain a new perspective

  • To be an important part of someone else’s success


Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

By the time you are matched with your learner, they will have had their “Literacy Level” determined.


Levels of literacy

Levels of Literacy

  • Pre-Literate

    • Oral tradition, first language not written

    • Holding a pen or opening a book are new exercises

    • Teaching: focus on oral skills, then transition into reading and writing

  • Non-Literate

    • Written language in home country but the student has little or no exposure to literacy in their first or second language

    • Teaching: emphasize the connection between spoken and written language

  • Semi-Literate

    • Limited schooling in their own language

    • Teaching: help students become confident in their literacy skills

  • Non-Roman Alphabet Literate

    • Speak and are literate in a language that is written with a different script.

    • Can transfer skills from one language to another even if the script is completely different.

  • Fully Literate

    • Read and write with ease in English and their own language.


  • What does your student s level mean

    What does your student’s level mean?

    You student’s level will indicate their skills in:

    • Speaking

    • Reading

    • Writing

    • Listening


    Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

    How are their skills measured?

    • Through observation

    • Through assessment

    • Washington programs use CASAS (Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems)


    The casas test

    The CASAS Test

    The CASAS Test breaks learners skills into levels:

    Beginning Literacy/Pre-Beginning ESL: Level 1 Communicates through gestures with a few isolated words

    Low Beginning ESL: Level 2

    Asks and responds to basic learn phrases spoken slowly and repeated often

    High Beginning ESL: Level 3

    Simple oral communication abilities using basic learned phrases and sentences


    Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

    Low Intermediate ESL: Level 4

    Understands simple learned phrases easily and some new simple phrases containing familiar vocabulary spoken slowly with frequent repetition

    High Intermediate ESL: Level 5

    Understands learned phrases easily and new phrases containing familiar vocabulary, Some limited telephone conversation abilities

    Advanced ESL: Level 6

    Can participate in conversations on a variety of topics. Has ability to communicate on telephone on familiar topics.


    Quiz click for answers2

    Quiz(click for Answers)

    • What are the three different roles learners play outside of the classroom?

      Answer: Family, Worker and Community Member.

    • True or False: Part of a tutor’s role is to create a welcoming learning environment.

      Answer: True.

    • True or False: The difference between a preliterate and non-literate is that a preliterate has no written language in their first language and a non-literate has no exposure to written language in their first language.

      Answer: True.


    So why are levels so important

    So, why are levels so important?

    Depending on your learners’ literacy level you can expect different levels of understanding and communication, fluency and accuracy, and the student’s level can inform your choice of materials and activities.


    Here s an example of different communication levels

    Here’s an example of different communication levels:


    Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

    Is this the mother?

    Is the father sitting or standing?

    In your house, who does the cooking?

    Is the mother eating?

    Where was the mother before?

    What do you eat for breakfast?

    Are they in the kitchen or in the living room?

    Where do you like to eat?

    What is on the table?

    Who likes orange juice?

    Is there food on the table?

    This picture generates a range of questions

    How does the father feel?

    Is there a spoon on the table?

    Who is cooking, the mom or the dad?

    How many people are in your family?

    What is on the table?


    Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

    Is this the mother?

    Is the father sitting or standing?

    In your house, who does the cooking?

    Is the mother eating?

    Where was the mother before?

    What do you eat for breakfast?

    Are they in the kitchen or in the living room?

    Where do you like to eat?

    What is on the table?

    Who likes orange juice?

    Is there food on the table?

    Which Questions are the easiest to answer?

    How does the father feel?

    Is there a spoon on the table?

    Who is cooking, the mom or the dad?

    How many people are in your family?

    What is on the table?


    Yes no questions the easiest to answer

    Yes/No Questions– The easiest to answer

    • Is this the mother?

    • Is the juice on the table?

    • Is there a glass on the table?

    • Is it morning?


    Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

    Often, English Language Learners understand more language than they can produce.

    So, the easiest questions are those that require the least language response.


    Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

    The Question Hierarchy can guide your choices when working with adults learning English.

    YES/NO QUESTIONS

    EASIER

    EITHER/OR QUESTIONS

    WH– QUESTIONS

    PERSONAL QUESTIONS

    HARDER

    OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS


    Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

    We’ve already seen examples of yes/no questions from the visual, now let’s look at other levels.


    Either or or choice questions

    Either/or or Choice Questions

    • Are they in the kitchen or in the bedroom?

    • Who is cooking, the mother or the father?

    • Does the mother have long or short hair?

    • Is the father sitting or standing?


    Wh questions for getting factual information

    Wh-Questions- for getting factual information

    • What is on the table?

    • Who is drinking orange juice?

    • How many people are in the kitchen?


    Personal questions

    Personal Questions

    • How many people are in your family?

    • In your house, who does the cooking?

    • Who works in your family?

    • Where do you study?


    Open ended interpretative questions the most difficult to answer

    Open-ended, interpretative questions– the most difficult to answer

    • Where was the mother before?

    • How does the mother feel?

    • What is going to happen next?


    Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

    Not only is the Question Hierarchy useful in structuring conversation, its also a useful tool that can be used in many different ways in instruction.

    You will learn more about the Question Hierarchy in your next Literacy NOW training.


    In your next literacy now training you will also

    In your next Literacy NOW training, you will also….

    • Receive information about ESL teaching theory

    • Practice using a variety of teaching methods

    • Gain confidence to use your newly acquired skills in your tutoring sessions


    Welcome to the esl preservice introduction

    Your experience in the next workshop will model the learning process that we recommend for your students who will come to you with real needs and specific purposes for using new language skills in their lives.

    We’ll see you at the next training!


    Sources

    Sources

    Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems. Skill Level Descriptors. 21 August 2009. http://https://www.casas.org

    Cultural Orientation Resource Center. US Refugee Program: Current Fiscal Year Admission Statistics. 11 September 2009. http://www.cal.org/co/refugee/statistics/index.html

    Ellis, Mark. Immigrants in WA State. 18 August 2009. Available online: http://faculty.washington.edu/ellism/wa-immigration.pdf

    Literacy Network of Washington. Teaching English Language Learners: A Handbook for Volunteers. Washington, 2008.

    Malloy, Jennifer. Personal Interview. 31 July 2009.

    United States. Census Bureau. 2000 Census. 18 August 2009.

    Washington State. Refugee and Immigrant Assistance Program. ESA Program Briefing Book 2008. 2008.

    White, Sid and S.E. Solberg, eds. Peoples of Washington: Perspectives on Cultural Diversity. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Press, 1989.


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