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ESA’s Technology Reference Studies: From Earth to Jupiter and beyond. M.L. van den Berg, P. Falkner, A. C. Atzei, A. Lyngvi, D. Agnolon, A. Peacock Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESA/ESTEC. SCI-A Technology Reference Studies.

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ESA’s Technology Reference Studies: From Earth to Jupiter and beyond

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ESA’s Technology Reference Studies:

From Earth to Jupiter and beyond

M.L. van den Berg, P. Falkner, A. C. Atzei, A. Lyngvi, D. Agnolon, A. Peacock

Planetary Exploration Studies Section

Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office

ESA/ESTEC


SCI-A Technology Reference Studies

  • What they are:

    Technologically demanding and scientifically meaningful mission concepts, that are not part of the ESA science programme

  • Aim:

    Strategic focus on critical technology development needs for potential future science missions (e.g. from Cosmic Vision)

  • How:

    • Design feasible and consistent mission profiles

  • Output:

    Identify critical technologies to enable new science missions

    Establish roadmap for mid-term technology developments


  • TRS design philosophy

    • Key objective for solar system exploration:

    • Establish affordable mission concepts

    • Cost-efficiency is achieved by:

    • Medium-sized launch vehicle – Soyuz-Fregat

    • Use of low resource spacecraft – typically ~200 kg (dry mass)

    • Highly miniaturized, highly integrated payload and avionics suites

    • When available proven, off the shelf, technology is baselined

    • Identify promising and innovative technology that reduce resources

    Technology Development: typically within 5 years  technically realistic assumptions


    Jovian Minisat Explorer TRS

    Solar system studies overview

    Venus Entry Probe

    • Aerobot technology

    • Microprobes

      Deimos Sample Return & Near Earth-Asteroid

    • Sample collection/investigation from a low gravity body

    • Direct Earth re-entry

      Cross-scale

    • Multi-spacecraft constellation

    • Low resource spinners

      Europa Minisat Explorer & Jupiter System Explorer

    • Extreme radiation environment

    • Use of solar power at 5 AU from the sun

      Interstellar Heliopause Probe

    • Extremely high delta-V (200 AU)

    • Long lifetime

      Geosail

    • Solar sail demonstrator


    Reconnection

    Shocks

    Turbulence

    Cross-Scale / Objectives

    • Establish a feasible mission profile for the investigation of

    • fundamental space plasma processes that involve

    • non-linear coupling across multiple length scales

    • The key universal space plasma processes are:

    • All three processes:

      • Are dynamical

      • Involve complex 3-D structured interaction between different length scales (electrons, ions, MHD fluid)

      • Can be investigated in near-Earth space (bowshock, current sheet, magnetosheath)


    8 – 10 spacecraft to be launched with a single Soyuz-Fregat

    1 – 2 on electron scale: 2 – 100 km

    4 on ion scale: 100 – 2,000 km

    3 – 4 on large scale: 3,000 – 15,000 km

    Baseline orbit: 1.5 – 4 Re × 25 Re (near equatorial)

    < 100 krad in 5 y

    Spacecraft constellations optimized near apogee

    Cross-Scale / Mission concept

    Baseline solution

    • Dedicated transfer vehicle/dispenser system brings constellation to operational orbit

    • Simple identical 130 kg spinners with ~30 kg P/L

      • Individual data downlink

      • Autonomous payload operation

    • Cross-scale Technology Reference Study is work in progress


    Study of the Jovian System (1)

    • Launch with Soyuz-Fregat 2-1B

    • All-chemical propulsion / solar powered S/C

    • Transfer duration ~7 years

    • 1st study phase: Europa Exploration

    • Europa Orbiter: 30 kg P/L, 200 km polar orbit

      • 1.5 year tour of the Galilean moons

      • In orbit life time ~ 60 days (limited by radiation and perturbations)

      • TID: 1 Mrad (10 mm shield), 5 Mrad (4 mm shield)

    • Relay sat: 15 kg P/L, 11 Rj × 28 Rj Jupiter orbit

      • Equatorial Jupiter orbit achieved after 1.5 years

      • Operational lifetime ~2 years

      • TID: 1.5 Mrad (4 mm shield)

    Launchconfiguration

    Europa orbiter

    • ONERA developed radiation model which combines:

    • Salammbô (2004), Divine & Garrett (1983) and Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (2003)


    Study of the Jovian system (2)

    • 2nd study phase: extended Jovian System Exploration

    • Magnetosphere: 1 – 2 dedicated spinning orbiter(s)

    • Atmosphere: 1 atmospheric entry probe

    • Magnetospheric orbiters:

    • P/L: 40 kg, 40 W

    • Equatorial orbit:15 Rj × 70 Rjand/or15 Rj × 200 Rj

    • Operational lifetime:at least 2 years

    • TID: < 1 Mrad (4 mm) (TBD)

    Krupp et al. (2004)


    Interstellar Heliopause Probe /Objectives

    • Mission concept for the exploration of the interface

    • between the Heliosphere and the interstellar medium

    • In-situ exploration of the outer heliosphere

    • Interaction between heliosphere and local interstellar medium

      • Termination shock, heliopause, hydrogen wall

      • Plasma acceleration and heating processes

    • Characterization of the local interstellar medium

      • Plasma and plasma dynamics

      • Neutral atoms

      • Galactic cosmic rays

      • Dust

    From: http://interstellar.jpl.nasa.gov/interstellar


    Interstellar Heliopause Probe / Mission concept

    • Launch with Soyuz-Fregat 2-1b

    • Solar sail propulsion system (245 × 245 m2)

      • Two solar photonic assist (closest approach 0.25 AU)

      • Solar sail jettisoned at 5 AU

      • Flight time to 200 AU: 26 years (1 mm/s2)

    • Radioisotopic power source (7 W/kg)

    Spacecraft design

    • Demonstration of solar sail

    • propulsion required


    Solar sail demonstration by GeoSail

    • Launch with VEGA from Kourou

    • Demonstration of solar sail propulsion

      • Sail deployment

      • Sail AOCS

      • Sail jettison

    • Plasma measurements at 23 RE throughout the year

      • Rotate line of apses 1 / day

    1 deg/day

    GeoSail TRS: 11 x 23 Re

    Spacecraft design parameters

    • GeoSail Technology Reference Study has recently started


    Conclusion

    • Technology Reference Studies are a tool

    • for the identification of critical technologies:

      • Cross-scale

      • Spinning S/C with plasma physics instrumentation

      • Jovian system study

      • High radiation exposure tolerant systems (e.g. electronics, solar cells)

      • Interstellar Heliopause Probe

      • Solar sailing, radio-isotopic power generation, long lifetime systems

    Cluster II

    • Sample of spacecraft technologies:

    • Enhanced Radiation Model for Jupiter (ONERA) – finished

    • Jupiter LILT solar cells (RWE) - running

    • Solar Sail Material Development (TRP) – under ITT

    • Hi-Rad. Solar Cell development (TRP) – approval

    • Effective Shielding Methods for Jovian Radiation (TRP) - approval


    Questions?


    Backup-slides


    8 – 10 spacecraft to be launched with a single Soyuz-Fregat

    1 – 2 on electron scale: 2 – 100 km

    4 on ion scale:100 – 2,000 km

    3 – 4 on large scale:3,000 – 15,000 km

    Baseline orbit: 1.5 – 4 Re × 25 Re

    Spacecraft constellations optimized near apogee

    Cross-Scale / Orbit

    • Constellation passes through bowshock, magnetosheath and magnetotail

      • Perigee 1.5 – 4 Re

      • Apogee 25 Re

    • Constellations optimized near apogee

    • Range of constellation length scales is sampled at least once

    Cross scale TRS baseline orbit 4 x 25 Re


    Tailbox Definition

    • Q is 10 Re from the Earth’s centre in anti-sunward direction along the equatorial plane

    • P (tailbox centre) is at 30 Re from the Earth’s centre with line Q-P parallel to the ecliptic plane

    • The tailbox is defined as a rectangular box parallel to the ecliptic plane:

      • 25 Re along Q-P line, extending 5 Re tailward of P

      • 4 Re orthogonal to the ecliptic plane (+/-2 Re from the tailbox centre P)

      • 10 Re parallel to the dawn-dusk terminater (+/-5 Re from the centre P)


    Divine & Garrett (1983) from Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) :

    empirical model based on Pioneer & Voyager in situ measurements, observations from Earth, theoretical formula

    with a good coverage in both space and energy

    …but based on a restricted set of quite old data :

    empirical pitch-angle dependence and magnetic field model far from reality

    GIRE -Galileo Interim Radiation Electron- (2003) from JPL :

    update of D&G thanks to Galileo measurements

    only concern electrons from 8 to 16Rj

    Salammbô-3D (2004) from ONERA :

    physical model derived from the Salammbô-3D code widely used for Earth

    global model with a coverage in space limited to 6-9Rj

    A. Sicard and S. Bourdarie, Physical Electron Belt Model from Jupiter's surface to the orbit of Europa, JGR, V109, February 2004.

    Jupiter radiation belt models


    Jupiter radiation models / spatial coverage

    Spatial coverage

    D&G out 83

    D&G in 83

    GIRE

    Electron

    Salammbô

    L

    6

    8

    9.5

    12

    16

    Salammbô

    Proton

    D&G 83


    Jupiter radiation models / energy coverage

    Energy coverage

    D&G in and out 83

    GIRE

    Electron

    Salammbô

    MeV

    Proton

    Salammbô

    D&G83


    JME – Radiation Concerns

    JEO Radiation

    • For Jupiter and Jovian Moons

    • Radiation environment requires:

      • European Rad-Hard component program (electronics, solar cells also materials)

    • Ganymede = somewhat relaxed, but still very harsh !

    Outer Planets Program Yes or No?

    Yes  develop European RTG technology no specific high radiation solar cell LILT development

    No  high radiation solar cell LILT development


    Development of low resource minisats

    Surviving deep space as well as Jupiter’s extreme radiation environment:

    Radiation hardened components ( 1 Mrad) + radiation shielding

    Radiation optimised solar cells, totally new development required

    Development of highly integrated systems (especially low resource radar)

    Maximise the use of solar power, even at ~5 AU from Sun

    Low power deep space communication

    Planetary protection compatible systems

    LOW COST vs. investments in new developments

    Jupiter challenges

    The Jupiter Explorer TRS addresses several challenges:


    Cosmic Vision Themes 1 & 2 (solar system themes)

    How does the Solar

    System work ?

    What are the conditions for life & planetary formation ?

    2

    1

    TRS

    Solar-Polar Orbiter

    (Solar Sailor)

    From the sun to the

    edge of the

    solar system

    From dust and gas

    to

    stars and planets

    Far Infrared

    Interferometer

    Helio-pause Probe

    (Solar Sailor)

    TRS

    TRS

    Cross-scale

    Jupiter Magnetospheric

    Explorer (JEP)

    TRS

    The Giant Planets

    and their

    environment

    From exo-planets to

    biomarkers

    TRS

    Jovian In-situ

    Planetary Observer (JEP)

    Near Infrared Terrestrial

    Planet Interferometer

    TRS

    Europa Orbiting

    Surveyor (JEP)

    Asteroids and small

    bodies

    Life & habitability in

    the solar system

    Kuiper belt Explorer

    Mars In-situ Programme

    (Rovers & sub-surface)

    TRS

    Near Earth Asteroid

    sample & return

    Mars sample and return

    Terrestrial Planet

    Astrometric Surveyor

    Looking for life

    beyond the solar

    system

    Terrestrial-Planet

    Spectroscopic Observer


    Cosmic vision themes 3 & 4 (fundamental physics and astrophysics)


    TRS Studies

    VEP

    DSR

    heritage

    NEA-SR

    Deimos Sample Return

    SF-2B launch

    1 kg surface material

    direct Earth re-entry

    Near Earth Asteroid - SR

    SF-2B

    Sample return with direct Earth re-entry

    potential surface & remote sensing investigations

    Venus Entry Probe

    SF-2B launch

    Entry-Probe with Aerobot (floating ~55 km)

    Atmospheric MicroProbes (15)

    Atmospheric Orbiter


    IHP

    TRS Studies – Solar Sailing

    SPO

    GeoSail

    Interstellar Heliopause Probe

    SF-2B launch

    solar sail based (60.000m2)

    200 AU in 25 year

    RTG based

    • GeoSail

    • Solar Sail demonstrator

    • 40 x 40 m2 Sail Size

    • Rotate line of apsides 1º / day

    • Small S/C and Technology P/L

    • Solar Polar Orbiter

    • Solar Sail based

    • @ 0.48 AU (3:1 resonance)

    • Max inclination 83°

    • 5 year cruise time

    • ~40 kg P/L mass


    Other Technology Reference Studies

    • Gamma-ray lens

    • Evolving violent universe

    • 500 m focal length

    • Gamma-ray focussing optics

    • Formation flying

    • Wide Field Imager

    • Expanding universe/Dark energy

    • Soyuz-Fregat to L2

    • 2m telescope with 1° FOV

    • Light weight optical mirrors


    Status / Overview

    Sci-AP TRS status as of 10 November 2006

    • Venus Entry Probe (VEP) finished 

    • Deimos Sample Return (DSR) finished 

    • Jovian Minisat Explorer (JME) finished 

    • Jupiter Entry Probe (JEP)finished 

    • Interstellar Heliopause Probe (IHP)finished 

    • Jupiter System Explorer (JSE) on-going

    • Cross Scale (CS)on-going

    • Near Earth Asteroid Sample Returnon-going

    • Solar Sail Demonstrator (GeoSail)on-going

    • Solar Polar Orbitersail GNC under study

    2003-05

    2006 -


    TRS Technologies / Summary

    • Microprobes

    • Localization and Communication (QinetiQ) - running

    • High Speed Impact (Vorticity) – finished (2006)

    • 2 System studies (ESYS and TTI) – finished (2004)

    • Entry:

    • Jupiter Entry numerical simulation (ESIL) - running

    • Venus Entry and MicroProbes (ESIL) – finished (2004)

    • Jupiter Entry Probe (ESA-CDF, Oct 2005) – finished (2005)

    • Instrumentation Technology:

    • Jupiter Ground Penetrating Radar (ESA-CDF, Jun 2005) – finished

    • Advanced Radar Processing (GSP2006) – running

    • Miniaturization of Radars (SEA) – finished (2005)

    • Planetary Radar - running

    • Payload Definition for (IHP, DSR, VEP, JME) – finished

    • Highly Integrated P/L suites Engineering Plan – finished (2005)

    • Highly Integrated P/L suites Detailed Design – under negotiation

    • 3 axis Fluxgate Magnetometer ASIC – running

    • Ground Penetrating Radar YAGI Antenna (TRP) – under approval

    • Spacecraft Technology:

    • Jupiter LILT solar cells (RWE) - running

    • Hi-Rad. Solar Cell development (TRP) – approval

    • Solar Sail GNC (ESA internal study) – running

    • Solar Sailing Trajectories (Univ. of Glasgow, McInnes) – finished 04

    • Solar Sail Material Development (TRP) – under ITT

    • Enhanced Radiation Model for Jupiter (ONERA) – finished

    • Effective Shielding Methods for Jovian Radiation (TRP) - approval

    • Touch-and-Go sample mechanism (GSTP06) – under preparation (?)

    • In-situ P/L:

    • Nano-Rover + Geochemistry P/L (VHS)

    • Mole + HP3 (Galileo, DLR)

    • LMS

    • ATR

    • Melting Probes

    • OSL – surface dating


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