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ESA’s Technology Reference Studies: From Earth to Jupiter and beyond. M.L. van den Berg, P. Falkner, A. C. Atzei, A. Lyngvi, D. Agnolon, A. Peacock Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESA/ESTEC. SCI-A Technology Reference Studies.

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slide1

ESA’s Technology Reference Studies:

From Earth to Jupiter and beyond

M.L. van den Berg, P. Falkner, A. C. Atzei, A. Lyngvi, D. Agnolon, A. Peacock

Planetary Exploration Studies Section

Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office

ESA/ESTEC

sci a technology reference studies
SCI-A Technology Reference Studies
  • What they are:

Technologically demanding and scientifically meaningful mission concepts, that are not part of the ESA science programme

  • Aim:

Strategic focus on critical technology development needs for potential future science missions (e.g. from Cosmic Vision)

  • How:
      • Design feasible and consistent mission profiles
  • Output:

Identify critical technologies to enable new science missions

Establish roadmap for mid-term technology developments

trs design philosophy
TRS design philosophy
  • Key objective for solar system exploration:
  • Establish affordable mission concepts
  • Cost-efficiency is achieved by:
  • Medium-sized launch vehicle – Soyuz-Fregat
  • Use of low resource spacecraft – typically ~200 kg (dry mass)
  • Highly miniaturized, highly integrated payload and avionics suites
  • When available proven, off the shelf, technology is baselined
  • Identify promising and innovative technology that reduce resources

Technology Development: typically within 5 years  technically realistic assumptions

solar system studies overview

Jovian Minisat Explorer TRS

Solar system studies overview

Venus Entry Probe

  • Aerobot technology
  • Microprobes

Deimos Sample Return & Near Earth-Asteroid

  • Sample collection/investigation from a low gravity body
  • Direct Earth re-entry

Cross-scale

  • Multi-spacecraft constellation
  • Low resource spinners

Europa Minisat Explorer & Jupiter System Explorer

  • Extreme radiation environment
  • Use of solar power at 5 AU from the sun

Interstellar Heliopause Probe

  • Extremely high delta-V (200 AU)
  • Long lifetime

Geosail

  • Solar sail demonstrator
cross scale objectives

Reconnection

Shocks

Turbulence

Cross-Scale / Objectives
  • Establish a feasible mission profile for the investigation of
  • fundamental space plasma processes that involve
  • non-linear coupling across multiple length scales
  • The key universal space plasma processes are:
  • All three processes:
    • Are dynamical
    • Involve complex 3-D structured interaction between different length scales (electrons, ions, MHD fluid)
    • Can be investigated in near-Earth space (bowshock, current sheet, magnetosheath)
cross scale mission concept
8 – 10 spacecraft to be launched with a single Soyuz-Fregat

1 – 2 on electron scale: 2 – 100 km

4 on ion scale: 100 – 2,000 km

3 – 4 on large scale: 3,000 – 15,000 km

Baseline orbit: 1.5 – 4 Re × 25 Re (near equatorial)

< 100 krad in 5 y

Spacecraft constellations optimized near apogee

Cross-Scale / Mission concept

Baseline solution

  • Dedicated transfer vehicle/dispenser system brings constellation to operational orbit
  • Simple identical 130 kg spinners with ~30 kg P/L
    • Individual data downlink
    • Autonomous payload operation
  • Cross-scale Technology Reference Study is work in progress
study of the jovian system 1
Study of the Jovian System (1)
  • Launch with Soyuz-Fregat 2-1B
  • All-chemical propulsion / solar powered S/C
  • Transfer duration ~7 years
  • 1st study phase: Europa Exploration
  • Europa Orbiter: 30 kg P/L, 200 km polar orbit
    • 1.5 year tour of the Galilean moons
    • In orbit life time ~ 60 days (limited by radiation and perturbations)
    • TID: 1 Mrad (10 mm shield), 5 Mrad (4 mm shield)
  • Relay sat: 15 kg P/L, 11 Rj × 28 Rj Jupiter orbit
    • Equatorial Jupiter orbit achieved after 1.5 years
    • Operational lifetime ~2 years
    • TID: 1.5 Mrad (4 mm shield)

Launchconfiguration

Europa orbiter

  • ONERA developed radiation model which combines:
  • Salammbô (2004), Divine & Garrett (1983) and Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (2003)
study of the jovian system 2
Study of the Jovian system (2)
  • 2nd study phase: extended Jovian System Exploration
  • Magnetosphere: 1 – 2 dedicated spinning orbiter(s)
  • Atmosphere: 1 atmospheric entry probe
  • Magnetospheric orbiters:
  • P/L: 40 kg, 40 W
  • Equatorial orbit:15 Rj × 70 Rjand/or15 Rj × 200 Rj
  • Operational lifetime:at least 2 years
  • TID: < 1 Mrad (4 mm) (TBD)

Krupp et al. (2004)

interstellar heliopause probe objectives
Interstellar Heliopause Probe /Objectives
  • Mission concept for the exploration of the interface
  • between the Heliosphere and the interstellar medium
  • In-situ exploration of the outer heliosphere
  • Interaction between heliosphere and local interstellar medium
    • Termination shock, heliopause, hydrogen wall
    • Plasma acceleration and heating processes
  • Characterization of the local interstellar medium
    • Plasma and plasma dynamics
    • Neutral atoms
    • Galactic cosmic rays
    • Dust

From: http://interstellar.jpl.nasa.gov/interstellar

interstellar heliopause probe mission concept
Interstellar Heliopause Probe / Mission concept
  • Launch with Soyuz-Fregat 2-1b
  • Solar sail propulsion system (245 × 245 m2)
    • Two solar photonic assist (closest approach 0.25 AU)
    • Solar sail jettisoned at 5 AU
    • Flight time to 200 AU: 26 years (1 mm/s2)
  • Radioisotopic power source (7 W/kg)

Spacecraft design

  • Demonstration of solar sail
  • propulsion required
solar sail demonstration by geosail
Solar sail demonstration by GeoSail
  • Launch with VEGA from Kourou
  • Demonstration of solar sail propulsion
    • Sail deployment
    • Sail AOCS
    • Sail jettison
  • Plasma measurements at 23 RE throughout the year
    • Rotate line of apses 1 / day

1 deg/day

GeoSail TRS: 11 x 23 Re

Spacecraft design parameters

  • GeoSail Technology Reference Study has recently started
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Technology Reference Studies are a tool
  • for the identification of critical technologies:
    • Cross-scale
    • Spinning S/C with plasma physics instrumentation
    • Jovian system study
    • High radiation exposure tolerant systems (e.g. electronics, solar cells)
    • Interstellar Heliopause Probe
    • Solar sailing, radio-isotopic power generation, long lifetime systems

Cluster II

  • Sample of spacecraft technologies:
  • Enhanced Radiation Model for Jupiter (ONERA) – finished
  • Jupiter LILT solar cells (RWE) - running
  • Solar Sail Material Development (TRP) – under ITT
  • Hi-Rad. Solar Cell development (TRP) – approval
  • Effective Shielding Methods for Jovian Radiation (TRP) - approval
cross scale orbit
8 – 10 spacecraft to be launched with a single Soyuz-Fregat

1 – 2 on electron scale: 2 – 100 km

4 on ion scale: 100 – 2,000 km

3 – 4 on large scale: 3,000 – 15,000 km

Baseline orbit: 1.5 – 4 Re × 25 Re

Spacecraft constellations optimized near apogee

Cross-Scale / Orbit
  • Constellation passes through bowshock, magnetosheath and magnetotail
    • Perigee 1.5 – 4 Re
    • Apogee 25 Re
  • Constellations optimized near apogee
  • Range of constellation length scales is sampled at least once

Cross scale TRS baseline orbit 4 x 25 Re

tailbox definition
Tailbox Definition
  • Q is 10 Re from the Earth’s centre in anti-sunward direction along the equatorial plane
  • P (tailbox centre) is at 30 Re from the Earth’s centre with line Q-P parallel to the ecliptic plane
  • The tailbox is defined as a rectangular box parallel to the ecliptic plane:
    • 25 Re along Q-P line, extending 5 Re tailward of P
    • 4 Re orthogonal to the ecliptic plane (+/-2 Re from the tailbox centre P)
    • 10 Re parallel to the dawn-dusk terminater (+/-5 Re from the centre P)
jupiter radiation belt models
Divine & Garrett (1983) from Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) :

empirical model based on Pioneer & Voyager in situ measurements, observations from Earth, theoretical formula

with a good coverage in both space and energy

…but based on a restricted set of quite old data :

empirical pitch-angle dependence and magnetic field model far from reality

GIRE -Galileo Interim Radiation Electron- (2003) from JPL :

update of D&G thanks to Galileo measurements

only concern electrons from 8 to 16Rj

Salammbô-3D (2004) from ONERA :

physical model derived from the Salammbô-3D code widely used for Earth

global model with a coverage in space limited to 6-9Rj

A. Sicard and S. Bourdarie, Physical Electron Belt Model from Jupiter\'s surface to the orbit of Europa, JGR, V109, February 2004.

Jupiter radiation belt models
jupiter radiation models spatial coverage
Jupiter radiation models / spatial coverage

Spatial coverage

D&G out 83

D&G in 83

GIRE

Electron

Salammbô

L

6

8

9.5

12

16

Salammbô

Proton

D&G 83

jupiter radiation models energy coverage
Jupiter radiation models / energy coverage

Energy coverage

D&G in and out 83

GIRE

Electron

Salammbô

MeV

Proton

Salammbô

D&G83

jme radiation concerns
JME – Radiation Concerns

JEO Radiation

  • For Jupiter and Jovian Moons
  • Radiation environment requires:
    • European Rad-Hard component program (electronics, solar cells also materials)
  • Ganymede = somewhat relaxed, but still very harsh !

Outer Planets Program Yes or No?

Yes  develop European RTG technology no specific high radiation solar cell LILT development

No  high radiation solar cell LILT development

jupiter challenges
Development of low resource minisats

Surviving deep space as well as Jupiter’s extreme radiation environment:

Radiation hardened components ( 1 Mrad) + radiation shielding

Radiation optimised solar cells, totally new development required

Development of highly integrated systems (especially low resource radar)

Maximise the use of solar power, even at ~5 AU from Sun

Low power deep space communication

Planetary protection compatible systems

LOW COST vs. investments in new developments

Jupiter challenges

The Jupiter Explorer TRS addresses several challenges:

slide22

Cosmic Vision Themes 1 & 2 (solar system themes)

How does the Solar

System work ?

What are the conditions for life & planetary formation ?

2

1

TRS

Solar-Polar Orbiter

(Solar Sailor)

From the sun to the

edge of the

solar system

From dust and gas

to

stars and planets

Far Infrared

Interferometer

Helio-pause Probe

(Solar Sailor)

TRS

TRS

Cross-scale

Jupiter Magnetospheric

Explorer (JEP)

TRS

The Giant Planets

and their

environment

From exo-planets to

biomarkers

TRS

Jovian In-situ

Planetary Observer (JEP)

Near Infrared Terrestrial

Planet Interferometer

TRS

Europa Orbiting

Surveyor (JEP)

Asteroids and small

bodies

Life & habitability in

the solar system

Kuiper belt Explorer

Mars In-situ Programme

(Rovers & sub-surface)

TRS

Near Earth Asteroid

sample & return

Mars sample and return

Terrestrial Planet

Astrometric Surveyor

Looking for life

beyond the solar

system

Terrestrial-Planet

Spectroscopic Observer

trs studies
TRS Studies

VEP

DSR

heritage

NEA-SR

Deimos Sample Return

SF-2B launch

1 kg surface material

direct Earth re-entry

Near Earth Asteroid - SR

SF-2B

Sample return with direct Earth re-entry

potential surface & remote sensing investigations

Venus Entry Probe

SF-2B launch

Entry-Probe with Aerobot (floating ~55 km)

Atmospheric MicroProbes (15)

Atmospheric Orbiter

trs studies solar sailing

IHP

TRS Studies – Solar Sailing

SPO

GeoSail

Interstellar Heliopause Probe

SF-2B launch

solar sail based (60.000m2)

200 AU in 25 year

RTG based

  • GeoSail
  • Solar Sail demonstrator
  • 40 x 40 m2 Sail Size
  • Rotate line of apsides 1º / day
  • Small S/C and Technology P/L
  • Solar Polar Orbiter
  • Solar Sail based
  • @ 0.48 AU (3:1 resonance)
  • Max inclination 83°
  • 5 year cruise time
  • ~40 kg P/L mass
other technology reference studies
Other Technology Reference Studies
  • Gamma-ray lens
  • Evolving violent universe
  • 500 m focal length
  • Gamma-ray focussing optics
  • Formation flying
  • Wide Field Imager
  • Expanding universe/Dark energy
  • Soyuz-Fregat to L2
  • 2m telescope with 1° FOV
  • Light weight optical mirrors
status overview
Status / Overview

Sci-AP TRS status as of 10 November 2006

  • Venus Entry Probe (VEP) finished 
  • Deimos Sample Return (DSR) finished 
  • Jovian Minisat Explorer (JME) finished 
  • Jupiter Entry Probe (JEP) finished 
  • Interstellar Heliopause Probe (IHP) finished 
  • Jupiter System Explorer (JSE) on-going
  • Cross Scale (CS) on-going
  • Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return on-going
  • Solar Sail Demonstrator (GeoSail)on-going
  • Solar Polar Orbiter sail GNC under study

2003-05

2006 -

trs technologies summary
TRS Technologies / Summary
  • Microprobes
  • Localization and Communication (QinetiQ) - running
  • High Speed Impact (Vorticity) – finished (2006)
  • 2 System studies (ESYS and TTI) – finished (2004)
  • Entry:
  • Jupiter Entry numerical simulation (ESIL) - running
  • Venus Entry and MicroProbes (ESIL) – finished (2004)
  • Jupiter Entry Probe (ESA-CDF, Oct 2005) – finished (2005)
  • Instrumentation Technology:
  • Jupiter Ground Penetrating Radar (ESA-CDF, Jun 2005) – finished
  • Advanced Radar Processing (GSP2006) – running
  • Miniaturization of Radars (SEA) – finished (2005)
  • Planetary Radar - running
  • Payload Definition for (IHP, DSR, VEP, JME) – finished
  • Highly Integrated P/L suites Engineering Plan – finished (2005)
  • Highly Integrated P/L suites Detailed Design – under negotiation
  • 3 axis Fluxgate Magnetometer ASIC – running
  • Ground Penetrating Radar YAGI Antenna (TRP) – under approval
  • Spacecraft Technology:
  • Jupiter LILT solar cells (RWE) - running
  • Hi-Rad. Solar Cell development (TRP) – approval
  • Solar Sail GNC (ESA internal study) – running
  • Solar Sailing Trajectories (Univ. of Glasgow, McInnes) – finished 04
  • Solar Sail Material Development (TRP) – under ITT
  • Enhanced Radiation Model for Jupiter (ONERA) – finished
  • Effective Shielding Methods for Jovian Radiation (TRP) - approval
  • Touch-and-Go sample mechanism (GSTP06) – under preparation (?)
  • In-situ P/L:
  • Nano-Rover + Geochemistry P/L (VHS)
  • Mole + HP3 (Galileo, DLR)
  • LMS
  • ATR
  • Melting Probes
  • OSL – surface dating
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