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ESA’s Technology Reference Studies: From Earth to Jupiter and beyond. M.L. van den Berg, P. Falkner, A. C. Atzei, A. Lyngvi, D. Agnolon, A. Peacock Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESA/ESTEC. SCI-A Technology Reference Studies.

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ESA’s Technology Reference Studies: From Earth to Jupiter and beyond

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Esa s technology reference studies from earth to jupiter and beyond

ESA’s Technology Reference Studies:

From Earth to Jupiter and beyond

M.L. van den Berg, P. Falkner, A. C. Atzei, A. Lyngvi, D. Agnolon, A. Peacock

Planetary Exploration Studies Section

Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office

ESA/ESTEC


Sci a technology reference studies

SCI-A Technology Reference Studies

  • What they are:

    Technologically demanding and scientifically meaningful mission concepts, that are not part of the ESA science programme

  • Aim:

    Strategic focus on critical technology development needs for potential future science missions (e.g. from Cosmic Vision)

  • How:

    • Design feasible and consistent mission profiles

  • Output:

    Identify critical technologies to enable new science missions

    Establish roadmap for mid-term technology developments


  • Trs design philosophy

    TRS design philosophy

    • Key objective for solar system exploration:

    • Establish affordable mission concepts

    • Cost-efficiency is achieved by:

    • Medium-sized launch vehicle – Soyuz-Fregat

    • Use of low resource spacecraft – typically ~200 kg (dry mass)

    • Highly miniaturized, highly integrated payload and avionics suites

    • When available proven, off the shelf, technology is baselined

    • Identify promising and innovative technology that reduce resources

    Technology Development: typically within 5 years  technically realistic assumptions


    Solar system studies overview

    Jovian Minisat Explorer TRS

    Solar system studies overview

    Venus Entry Probe

    • Aerobot technology

    • Microprobes

      Deimos Sample Return & Near Earth-Asteroid

    • Sample collection/investigation from a low gravity body

    • Direct Earth re-entry

      Cross-scale

    • Multi-spacecraft constellation

    • Low resource spinners

      Europa Minisat Explorer & Jupiter System Explorer

    • Extreme radiation environment

    • Use of solar power at 5 AU from the sun

      Interstellar Heliopause Probe

    • Extremely high delta-V (200 AU)

    • Long lifetime

      Geosail

    • Solar sail demonstrator


    Cross scale objectives

    Reconnection

    Shocks

    Turbulence

    Cross-Scale / Objectives

    • Establish a feasible mission profile for the investigation of

    • fundamental space plasma processes that involve

    • non-linear coupling across multiple length scales

    • The key universal space plasma processes are:

    • All three processes:

      • Are dynamical

      • Involve complex 3-D structured interaction between different length scales (electrons, ions, MHD fluid)

      • Can be investigated in near-Earth space (bowshock, current sheet, magnetosheath)


    Cross scale mission concept

    8 – 10 spacecraft to be launched with a single Soyuz-Fregat

    1 – 2 on electron scale: 2 – 100 km

    4 on ion scale: 100 – 2,000 km

    3 – 4 on large scale: 3,000 – 15,000 km

    Baseline orbit: 1.5 – 4 Re × 25 Re (near equatorial)

    < 100 krad in 5 y

    Spacecraft constellations optimized near apogee

    Cross-Scale / Mission concept

    Baseline solution

    • Dedicated transfer vehicle/dispenser system brings constellation to operational orbit

    • Simple identical 130 kg spinners with ~30 kg P/L

      • Individual data downlink

      • Autonomous payload operation

    • Cross-scale Technology Reference Study is work in progress


    Study of the jovian system 1

    Study of the Jovian System (1)

    • Launch with Soyuz-Fregat 2-1B

    • All-chemical propulsion / solar powered S/C

    • Transfer duration ~7 years

    • 1st study phase: Europa Exploration

    • Europa Orbiter: 30 kg P/L, 200 km polar orbit

      • 1.5 year tour of the Galilean moons

      • In orbit life time ~ 60 days (limited by radiation and perturbations)

      • TID: 1 Mrad (10 mm shield), 5 Mrad (4 mm shield)

    • Relay sat: 15 kg P/L, 11 Rj × 28 Rj Jupiter orbit

      • Equatorial Jupiter orbit achieved after 1.5 years

      • Operational lifetime ~2 years

      • TID: 1.5 Mrad (4 mm shield)

    Launchconfiguration

    Europa orbiter

    • ONERA developed radiation model which combines:

    • Salammbô (2004), Divine & Garrett (1983) and Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (2003)


    Study of the jovian system 2

    Study of the Jovian system (2)

    • 2nd study phase: extended Jovian System Exploration

    • Magnetosphere: 1 – 2 dedicated spinning orbiter(s)

    • Atmosphere: 1 atmospheric entry probe

    • Magnetospheric orbiters:

    • P/L: 40 kg, 40 W

    • Equatorial orbit:15 Rj × 70 Rjand/or15 Rj × 200 Rj

    • Operational lifetime:at least 2 years

    • TID: < 1 Mrad (4 mm) (TBD)

    Krupp et al. (2004)


    Interstellar heliopause probe objectives

    Interstellar Heliopause Probe /Objectives

    • Mission concept for the exploration of the interface

    • between the Heliosphere and the interstellar medium

    • In-situ exploration of the outer heliosphere

    • Interaction between heliosphere and local interstellar medium

      • Termination shock, heliopause, hydrogen wall

      • Plasma acceleration and heating processes

    • Characterization of the local interstellar medium

      • Plasma and plasma dynamics

      • Neutral atoms

      • Galactic cosmic rays

      • Dust

    From: http://interstellar.jpl.nasa.gov/interstellar


    Interstellar heliopause probe mission concept

    Interstellar Heliopause Probe / Mission concept

    • Launch with Soyuz-Fregat 2-1b

    • Solar sail propulsion system (245 × 245 m2)

      • Two solar photonic assist (closest approach 0.25 AU)

      • Solar sail jettisoned at 5 AU

      • Flight time to 200 AU: 26 years (1 mm/s2)

    • Radioisotopic power source (7 W/kg)

    Spacecraft design

    • Demonstration of solar sail

    • propulsion required


    Solar sail demonstration by geosail

    Solar sail demonstration by GeoSail

    • Launch with VEGA from Kourou

    • Demonstration of solar sail propulsion

      • Sail deployment

      • Sail AOCS

      • Sail jettison

    • Plasma measurements at 23 RE throughout the year

      • Rotate line of apses 1 / day

    1 deg/day

    GeoSail TRS: 11 x 23 Re

    Spacecraft design parameters

    • GeoSail Technology Reference Study has recently started


    Conclusion

    Conclusion

    • Technology Reference Studies are a tool

    • for the identification of critical technologies:

      • Cross-scale

      • Spinning S/C with plasma physics instrumentation

      • Jovian system study

      • High radiation exposure tolerant systems (e.g. electronics, solar cells)

      • Interstellar Heliopause Probe

      • Solar sailing, radio-isotopic power generation, long lifetime systems

    Cluster II

    • Sample of spacecraft technologies:

    • Enhanced Radiation Model for Jupiter (ONERA) – finished

    • Jupiter LILT solar cells (RWE) - running

    • Solar Sail Material Development (TRP) – under ITT

    • Hi-Rad. Solar Cell development (TRP) – approval

    • Effective Shielding Methods for Jovian Radiation (TRP) - approval


    Esa s technology reference studies from earth to jupiter and beyond

    Questions?


    Backup slides

    Backup-slides


    Cross scale orbit

    8 – 10 spacecraft to be launched with a single Soyuz-Fregat

    1 – 2 on electron scale: 2 – 100 km

    4 on ion scale:100 – 2,000 km

    3 – 4 on large scale:3,000 – 15,000 km

    Baseline orbit: 1.5 – 4 Re × 25 Re

    Spacecraft constellations optimized near apogee

    Cross-Scale / Orbit

    • Constellation passes through bowshock, magnetosheath and magnetotail

      • Perigee 1.5 – 4 Re

      • Apogee 25 Re

    • Constellations optimized near apogee

    • Range of constellation length scales is sampled at least once

    Cross scale TRS baseline orbit 4 x 25 Re


    Tailbox definition

    Tailbox Definition

    • Q is 10 Re from the Earth’s centre in anti-sunward direction along the equatorial plane

    • P (tailbox centre) is at 30 Re from the Earth’s centre with line Q-P parallel to the ecliptic plane

    • The tailbox is defined as a rectangular box parallel to the ecliptic plane:

      • 25 Re along Q-P line, extending 5 Re tailward of P

      • 4 Re orthogonal to the ecliptic plane (+/-2 Re from the tailbox centre P)

      • 10 Re parallel to the dawn-dusk terminater (+/-5 Re from the centre P)


    Jupiter radiation belt models

    Divine & Garrett (1983) from Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) :

    empirical model based on Pioneer & Voyager in situ measurements, observations from Earth, theoretical formula

    with a good coverage in both space and energy

    …but based on a restricted set of quite old data :

    empirical pitch-angle dependence and magnetic field model far from reality

    GIRE -Galileo Interim Radiation Electron- (2003) from JPL :

    update of D&G thanks to Galileo measurements

    only concern electrons from 8 to 16Rj

    Salammbô-3D (2004) from ONERA :

    physical model derived from the Salammbô-3D code widely used for Earth

    global model with a coverage in space limited to 6-9Rj

    A. Sicard and S. Bourdarie, Physical Electron Belt Model from Jupiter's surface to the orbit of Europa, JGR, V109, February 2004.

    Jupiter radiation belt models


    Jupiter radiation models spatial coverage

    Jupiter radiation models / spatial coverage

    Spatial coverage

    D&G out 83

    D&G in 83

    GIRE

    Electron

    Salammbô

    L

    6

    8

    9.5

    12

    16

    Salammbô

    Proton

    D&G 83


    Jupiter radiation models energy coverage

    Jupiter radiation models / energy coverage

    Energy coverage

    D&G in and out 83

    GIRE

    Electron

    Salammbô

    MeV

    Proton

    Salammbô

    D&G83


    Jme radiation concerns

    JME – Radiation Concerns

    JEO Radiation

    • For Jupiter and Jovian Moons

    • Radiation environment requires:

      • European Rad-Hard component program (electronics, solar cells also materials)

    • Ganymede = somewhat relaxed, but still very harsh !

    Outer Planets Program Yes or No?

    Yes  develop European RTG technology no specific high radiation solar cell LILT development

    No  high radiation solar cell LILT development


    Jupiter challenges

    Development of low resource minisats

    Surviving deep space as well as Jupiter’s extreme radiation environment:

    Radiation hardened components ( 1 Mrad) + radiation shielding

    Radiation optimised solar cells, totally new development required

    Development of highly integrated systems (especially low resource radar)

    Maximise the use of solar power, even at ~5 AU from Sun

    Low power deep space communication

    Planetary protection compatible systems

    LOW COST vs. investments in new developments

    Jupiter challenges

    The Jupiter Explorer TRS addresses several challenges:


    Esa s technology reference studies from earth to jupiter and beyond

    Cosmic Vision Themes 1 & 2 (solar system themes)

    How does the Solar

    System work ?

    What are the conditions for life & planetary formation ?

    2

    1

    TRS

    Solar-Polar Orbiter

    (Solar Sailor)

    From the sun to the

    edge of the

    solar system

    From dust and gas

    to

    stars and planets

    Far Infrared

    Interferometer

    Helio-pause Probe

    (Solar Sailor)

    TRS

    TRS

    Cross-scale

    Jupiter Magnetospheric

    Explorer (JEP)

    TRS

    The Giant Planets

    and their

    environment

    From exo-planets to

    biomarkers

    TRS

    Jovian In-situ

    Planetary Observer (JEP)

    Near Infrared Terrestrial

    Planet Interferometer

    TRS

    Europa Orbiting

    Surveyor (JEP)

    Asteroids and small

    bodies

    Life & habitability in

    the solar system

    Kuiper belt Explorer

    Mars In-situ Programme

    (Rovers & sub-surface)

    TRS

    Near Earth Asteroid

    sample & return

    Mars sample and return

    Terrestrial Planet

    Astrometric Surveyor

    Looking for life

    beyond the solar

    system

    Terrestrial-Planet

    Spectroscopic Observer


    Cosmic vision themes 3 4 fundamental physics and astrophysics

    Cosmic vision themes 3 & 4 (fundamental physics and astrophysics)


    Trs studies

    TRS Studies

    VEP

    DSR

    heritage

    NEA-SR

    Deimos Sample Return

    SF-2B launch

    1 kg surface material

    direct Earth re-entry

    Near Earth Asteroid - SR

    SF-2B

    Sample return with direct Earth re-entry

    potential surface & remote sensing investigations

    Venus Entry Probe

    SF-2B launch

    Entry-Probe with Aerobot (floating ~55 km)

    Atmospheric MicroProbes (15)

    Atmospheric Orbiter


    Trs studies solar sailing

    IHP

    TRS Studies – Solar Sailing

    SPO

    GeoSail

    Interstellar Heliopause Probe

    SF-2B launch

    solar sail based (60.000m2)

    200 AU in 25 year

    RTG based

    • GeoSail

    • Solar Sail demonstrator

    • 40 x 40 m2 Sail Size

    • Rotate line of apsides 1º / day

    • Small S/C and Technology P/L

    • Solar Polar Orbiter

    • Solar Sail based

    • @ 0.48 AU (3:1 resonance)

    • Max inclination 83°

    • 5 year cruise time

    • ~40 kg P/L mass


    Other technology reference studies

    Other Technology Reference Studies

    • Gamma-ray lens

    • Evolving violent universe

    • 500 m focal length

    • Gamma-ray focussing optics

    • Formation flying

    • Wide Field Imager

    • Expanding universe/Dark energy

    • Soyuz-Fregat to L2

    • 2m telescope with 1° FOV

    • Light weight optical mirrors


    Status overview

    Status / Overview

    Sci-AP TRS status as of 10 November 2006

    • Venus Entry Probe (VEP) finished 

    • Deimos Sample Return (DSR) finished 

    • Jovian Minisat Explorer (JME) finished 

    • Jupiter Entry Probe (JEP)finished 

    • Interstellar Heliopause Probe (IHP)finished 

    • Jupiter System Explorer (JSE) on-going

    • Cross Scale (CS)on-going

    • Near Earth Asteroid Sample Returnon-going

    • Solar Sail Demonstrator (GeoSail)on-going

    • Solar Polar Orbitersail GNC under study

    2003-05

    2006 -


    Trs technologies summary

    TRS Technologies / Summary

    • Microprobes

    • Localization and Communication (QinetiQ) - running

    • High Speed Impact (Vorticity) – finished (2006)

    • 2 System studies (ESYS and TTI) – finished (2004)

    • Entry:

    • Jupiter Entry numerical simulation (ESIL) - running

    • Venus Entry and MicroProbes (ESIL) – finished (2004)

    • Jupiter Entry Probe (ESA-CDF, Oct 2005) – finished (2005)

    • Instrumentation Technology:

    • Jupiter Ground Penetrating Radar (ESA-CDF, Jun 2005) – finished

    • Advanced Radar Processing (GSP2006) – running

    • Miniaturization of Radars (SEA) – finished (2005)

    • Planetary Radar - running

    • Payload Definition for (IHP, DSR, VEP, JME) – finished

    • Highly Integrated P/L suites Engineering Plan – finished (2005)

    • Highly Integrated P/L suites Detailed Design – under negotiation

    • 3 axis Fluxgate Magnetometer ASIC – running

    • Ground Penetrating Radar YAGI Antenna (TRP) – under approval

    • Spacecraft Technology:

    • Jupiter LILT solar cells (RWE) - running

    • Hi-Rad. Solar Cell development (TRP) – approval

    • Solar Sail GNC (ESA internal study) – running

    • Solar Sailing Trajectories (Univ. of Glasgow, McInnes) – finished 04

    • Solar Sail Material Development (TRP) – under ITT

    • Enhanced Radiation Model for Jupiter (ONERA) – finished

    • Effective Shielding Methods for Jovian Radiation (TRP) - approval

    • Touch-and-Go sample mechanism (GSTP06) – under preparation (?)

    • In-situ P/L:

    • Nano-Rover + Geochemistry P/L (VHS)

    • Mole + HP3 (Galileo, DLR)

    • LMS

    • ATR

    • Melting Probes

    • OSL – surface dating


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