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Unit 3. The World After the Fall of The Roman Empire. The Surviving Rome. Remember: split, west fell, east survived… Byzantium- would survive for 1,000 and preserve the glory of Rome- most spoke Greek A New Rome-

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unit 3

Unit 3

The World After the Fall of The Roman Empire

the surviving rome
The Surviving Rome
  • Remember: split, west fell, east survived…
  • Byzantium- would survive for 1,000 and preserve the glory of Rome- most spoke Greek
  • A New Rome-
    • Justinian A New Caesar- Along with Belisarius he conquered much of N. Africa and Italy
    • Absolute power over church and state
    • Brutal dictators –most were assassinated
justinian s obsession
Justinian’s Obsession

Restoring the Roman Empire

The Code was the first step.

Captured many islands (Sicily) and Northern Africa

Short – lived… continued invasions of the West

Did hold off invasions to the Eastern Empire

justinian code
Justinian Code
  • Developed to unify and solidify laws of the Eastern Empire (lasted 900 years) and to regulate ALL Areas of Byzantine life-
    • Code- 5,000 useful laws (four volumes)
    • Digest- 50 volumes of legal summaries
    • Institutes- New Laws textbook to teach the law
    • Novellae- passed after 534
daily life and the city
Daily Life and the City
  • Constantinople-
    • 14-mile stone wall along the coast and refortified the rest
    • Churches Hagia Sophia (“Holy Wisdom”)
    • Palace complex, baths, schools, hospitals…
    • Preserved Greco Roman Culture
    • Mese- Main street- open air markets and entertainment
    • Hippodromes- “horse-racecourse” 60,000 seats
nikka victory rebellion
Nikka “Victory” Rebellion
  • Fans in the Hippodrome often rioted
  • Justinian’s government was harsh
  • Angry mob packed the place and demanded Justinian be overthrown
  • He almost left, but his wife (Theodora) urged him to stay in the city
  • Slaughtered 30,000 fans
more about theodora
More about Theodora
  • Reforms:
  • rights of women in divorce and property ownership, gave mothers some guardianship rights over their children, and forbid the killing of a wife who committed adultery.
the fall of the byzantine empire
The Fall of the Byzantine Empire
  • After Justinian’s death- riots, religious quarrels, foreign dangers, etc.
  • Plague- resembled bubonic plague
    • Lasted until around 700
    • Height in 542- 10,000 people per day died
  • Attacks from East and West
    • Used bribes, marriages, and diplomacy to resist
    • Constantinople managed to survive, but fell in 1453
the church divides
The Church Divides
  • Christianity developed differently in both parts of the empire- distance and communication
  • Differences
    • Leadership- supreme authority in East was the Emperor, West was Pope
    • Icons- East used to aid in worship, West (Leo 111 banned their use as idol worship)- one pope excommunicated the Byzantine emperor
    • Religious Doctrine- the pope and patriarch excommunicated each other.
more about icons
More About Icons
  • Objection of the western church was not about the icon itself, but the treatment of the icons
  • Veneration= reverence or importance of the icon was the issue
    • Incense, kisses, adornment, etc were common
    • Though honor is paid through this treatment- Eastern worshipers believed they were just paying their homage to the person or event.
the final split
The Final Split
  • Shortly after the joint excommunication
  • Roman Catholic Church= Western
  • Orthodox Church= Eastern
  • Missionaries competed for converts
    • Cyrillic Alphabet used to translate the Bible to convert the Slavs who developed into Russia
russia s birth
Russia’s Birth
  • Slavs (natives) interacted with Byzantines- blended into Russian culture
  • Place- between the Black and Baltic Seas- near the Ural Mountains, and three rivers- Dnieper, Don and Volga
  • Who-First= Slav farmers and traders, Varanigians AKA Rus settled in forts
  • Rurik, a Viking chief, became their king by invitation
russia s birth continued
Russia’s Birth (continued)
  • Rurik founded the city of Novograd- Russia’s first important city.
  • Oleg founded Kiev, another important city
  • This city became a major trade center because they could sail by river and sea to Constantinople
more about kiev
More about Kiev
  • Converted to Orthodox Christianity through Princess Olga who ruled for her son, who resisted conversion- her grandson eventually converted and made the people convert too.
  • Because of Byzantine influence Kiev became strong and grew into Russia’s first unified territory
  • Religion, law, trade, architecture, and art all influenced by Byzantines

Once just a small trade city

Most important leader: Ivan III first to call himself tsar

Goal to reunite all of Russia

Married Sophia- niece of the last two Byzantine Emperors

Brought much Byzantine culture to Moscow

the mongol invasions
The Mongol Invasions
  • When- mid 1200’s
  • Who were the Mongols?- ferocious nomads from Central Asia
    • Transportation: horse
    • Methods: ruthless brutality, savage killings and burnings
    • Leaders: Genghis Kahn and Batu Kahn
    • Actions in Kiev: Attacked and demolished
mongol rule in russia the khanate of the golden horde aka golden camp in the mongol language
Mongol Rule in Russia: The Khanate of the Golden Horde (AKA Golden Camp in the Mongol language)
  • Leadership style: allowed Russians to follow their customs, tolerated all religions- the church acted as a mediator
  • Mongol demands: absolute obedience and massive tributes… NO REBELLION!
more effects of the mongols
More Effects of the Mongols


Russia= isolation, no access to new ideas and inventions. Split up and became more agricultural.

China= moved capital, population declined- low pay for farmers


Russia= fused together the govt and church

China= United the dynasties, Increased trade and commerce, utilized the silk roads

russia breaks free
Russia Breaks Free-
  • How? If Moscow controlled the three rivers they could control the Russian territories
    • Unification of small states around Moscow- through marriages and political deals
    • Princes found an ally: the church- the most powerful Bishop moved to Moscow
    • The leaders: Ivan I (Ivan Moneybag- won trust of the Mongols and was given power) and Ivan III (openly challenged Mongol Rule
    • Ivan III’s title= CZAR- Russian version of Caesar and shows their desire to be the Third Rome
the ottoman turks
The Ottoman Turks

Located between the declining Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Empires

Ghazis- warriors of Islam

Leader= Osman- followers called Ottomans

Military success based on use of gun-powder and cannons

decline and capture of the byzantines and constantinople
Decline and Capture of the Byzantines and Constantinople

Population decreased from over one-million to 50,000

Still controlled the Bosporus Strait and could cut off Ottoman access to Asia and the Balkans

Mehmed II (“Give me Constantinople”)

7-week siege (Carried boats over land), constant cannon fire, broke the wall and entered the city

the muslim world

The Muslim World

The Rise of Islam

The Expansion of Islam

The Muslim Culture

geography of arabia
Geography of Arabia

Crossroads of Africa, Asia, and Europe

Location made trade a huge part of life for the people of Arabia

Oceans and seas AND land trade through caravan routes and the silk roads

Climate- deserts, Bedouins (nomads), clans, farming communities in oases- farming and market towns


Arabia’s most important city

Religion- location of the Kaaba

The Kaaba was an ancient shrine that held and honored many idols to the gods- many people visited the Kaaba to pay their respects to these gods

Commerce- being located on the Red Sea and land trade routes made this a major trade city

the prophet muhammad
The Prophet Muhammad

Birth- Mecca- orphaned at age 6, raised by grandfather and uncle with little education

Young man- worked on the caravan routes- married an older business woman, Khadijah

Revelations- a voice, he believed was Gabrielle, said Allah was the only true god and Muhammad was the last of his prophets

terms to know
Terms to Know

Islam: submission to the will of Allah

Muslim: one who has submitted- or the followers of Islam

Allah: the one and only true God

early hostility
Early Hostility

613- preaching belief in one god

Leaders in Mecca feared he would lead to the neglect of the other gods

Why would this be a problem?

People would stop traveling to the city to pay homage to the idols in the Kaaba- economically motivated!

the hijrah
The Hijrah

After attacks on Muhammad’s followers he decided to leave Mecca

Traveled to a city 200 miles north

Renamed the city Medina

Gathered a large number of followers

Became a military and political leader

Returned to Mecca

muhammad s return
Muhammad’s Return

630- 10,000 man army marched to Mecca

Destroyed the idols in the Kaaba

Took over the city and established it as an Islamic center as many citizens converted

Lived 2 more years and began unification of the Arabian Peninsula

basic beliefs of islam
Basic Beliefs of Islam

There is one God.

There is good and evil

Each person is responsible for his/her actions

five pillars of faith
Five Pillars of Faith

Faith- one God, Allah, Muhammad is his messenger

Prayer- 5 times each day toward Mecca

Alms- religious tax to benefit the poor, Muslims must support the less fortunate

Fasting- reminder that spiritual needs are more important than physical…. No eating during daylight hours for the month of Ramadan

Pilgrimage (hajj)- all Muslims should visit the holy city of Mecca- all wear the same garments to signify equality before Allah

other customs morals and laws of the muslims
Other Customs, Morals and Laws of the Muslims
  • No eating pork or drinking alcohol
  • Communal worship on Friday afternoons at a Mosque
  • No priests, Muslims worship Allah directly
islamic authority
Islamic Authority

Ulama- scholars who relate Islam to

Quran- holy book- written in Arabic- the only true language of Islam- and is the FINAL words of Allah

Sunna- Muhammad’s example or model for proper living

Shari’a- body of law the regulates family life, moral conduct, business and community relations

links to christianity and judaism
Links to Christianity and Judaism

Allah is the same as their God

Jesus= prophet, not the Son of God

All believe in The Ten Commandments, Heaven and Hell and final judgment

All trace their ancestry to Abraham

Jews and Christians are called “people of the book”

Islamic law requires Muslims to extend religious tolerance to them

the spread of islam
The Spread of Islam

Caliph- successor or deputy

Caliphate- rule of a Caliph

Abu-Bakr was the first following Muhammad’s death

“Rightly guided Caliphs” were those who knew Muhammad and followed the Quran

the jihad
The Jihad

As many tribes abandoned Islam following Muhammad’s death, they refused to pay tribute

The jihad (means striving) was instituted to justify the spread of Islam

An inner struggle against evil

An armed struggle against non-believers

success of the rightly guided caliphs
Success of the “Rightly Guided Caliphs”
  • Well disciplined and trained armies
  • Byzantine empire was weak due to centuries of conflict
  • Persecution of those who did not accept Christianity or Zoroastrianism
islam s attraction
Islam’s Attraction

Equality and hope in this world

Muslims did not have to pay a poll tax (for non-Muslims)

Allowed conquered people to practice their religion

Christians and Jews had special treatment as “People of the Book”

a crisis of internal conflict
A Crisis of Internal Conflict

Several successors of Muhammad were assassinated and the elective system of choosing the Caliph was lost

The Umayyads took over

Moved the capital to Damascus

Muslims of Arab descent were angered

Umayyads surrounded themselves with wealth and ceremony- things not associated with Muhammad

3 muslim groups emerge
3 Muslim Groups Emerge

Shi’a- “Party of Ali”

Sunni- followers of Muhammad’s example

Sufi- rejected the wealth and luxury of the Umayyad and lived a simple life of poverty and devotion

The Shi’a outwardly resisted the Umayyad rule and believe Caliphs must be descendent of Muhammad

the abbasid caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate

Around 750 the Abbasids defeated the Umayyads

Moved the capital to Baghdad

Developed a bureaucracy

A treasury kept track of money flow

Taxed land, imports, exports, and non-Muslims’ wealth

Did not keep complete political control of the empire, so other Caliphates spread

the muslim trade network
The Muslim Trade Network

Sea trade= Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean

Land trade= Silk Roads

Language of trade= Arabic, money was the Abbasid Dinar

Set up bands and letters of credit called sakk (Checks)

muslim class society
Muslim Class Society
  • Upper= Muslims from births
  • Second= converts to Islam
  • Third= Protected people (monotheistic believers)
  • Fourth= slaves (non-Muslim prisoners of war only)

There are no priests b/c Muslims pray directly to Allah

house of wisdom learning center for islam
House of Wisdom = Learning Center for Islam

Books translated into Arabic- helped preserve European culture

Al Razi- physician who wrote a Comprehensive Book (medical encyclopedia)

IbnSina-Wrote the Canon of Medicine is still one of the most important medical books ever written, and served as the medical authority throughout Europe for 600 years. Among the Canon\'s contributions to modern medicine was the recognition that tuberculosis is contagious; diseases can spread through water and soil; and a person\'s emotional health influences his or her physical health. I

Science= observation and experimentation to solve problems

Math is the basis of all knowledge “al jabr”

Astronomy- book, Optics- revolutionized ideas about vision and led to the development of telescopes and microscopes

IbnBattuta- Geographer who mapped northern Africa for the Muslims

muslim art and archetecture
Muslim Art and Archetecture

Only Allah can create life images, so pictures are discouraged in art

Woodwork, glass, ceramics and calligraphy flourished

Architecture is the greatest example of cultural blending between Muslims, Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines


Ornate arches frame the doors of the Koutoubia, Marrakech, Morocco\'s oldest mosque. Completed in the 12th century, the Koutoubia served as a model for other mosques in the Muslim world.

the sharia governs muslim life
The Sharia Governs Muslim Life
  • System of law
  • Regulates family life, moral conduct, business and community life
  • Forbidden to eat pork or drink alcoholic beverages
role of women in muslim society
Role of Women in Muslim Society

Had more economic and property rights than other cultures of the time

Equal to men as BELIEVERS, but Islam teaches they be obedient and submissive

Today some Muslim cultures limit women’s rights (Iraq and Afghanistan are examples)

west african trade empires see unit guide to complete the chart
West African Trade Empires (See Unit Guide to complete the chart)
  • Ghana
  • Mali
  • Songhai
    • Location- all in Western Africa
    • All centered on taxing the gold and salt trade
    • Geography- between salt mines to the north and gold mines to the south.





Famous Leaders-






Famous Leaders-






Famous Leaders-

swahili trade cities
Swahili Trade Cities

Located in Eastern Africa

Swahili- language blending African and Arabic

Geography- location near the Indian Ocean easily reached by Muslim traders

Traded gold and salt from Western Africa with Muslim traders

Also traded slaves- primarily females to Muslim Empire as house servants.

blending of cultures
Blending of Cultures

Muslims and Christians influenced African religion and culture

Syncretism= blending of African beliefs with Christianity and Islam

background information
Background Information
  • Roots- Classical Rome, Catholic Church and Germanic tribes
  • Flashback to the fall of Rome…. Germanic Tribes invaded Rome to escape the Huns, eventually the Germanic Tribes gained strength and power
changes brought by germanic invaders to europe
Changes brought by Germanic Invaders to Europe
  • Economy- disruption of trade, businesses failed, money became scarce
  • Government- cities abandoned as centers for government- little or no leadership
  • Culture- population shifted from cities to rural areas- people had to grow their own food- culture abandoned for survival
the decline of learning
The Decline of Learning
  • Would you rather write a book, create art, perform in plays, etc. OR EAT?!
  • Germanic invaders could not read or write in Latin and had no written language of their own
  • The development of many languages (Spanish, German, French, English, etc) mirrored the break-up of the Roman Empire
germanic kingdoms and tribes
Germanic Kingdoms and Tribes
  • 400-600 Roman Provinces were replaced with Germanic Kingdoms
  • Held together by loyalty to family and their tribes and governed by unwritten rules and customs
    • Remember: Romans were loyal to citizenship in a central state and their government
    • The Twelve Tables= Roman Laws
results of these changes
Results of these changes:
  • People lived in rural areas and pledged loyalty to their local chief or prince
  • Conflicts between these princes and kings led to no unification of Germany because the warriors pledged loyalty to their prince, not a central figure
  • Remembered for unifying the Frankish kingdoms and creating an empire larger than any since Rome
  • Crowned Emperor by Pope Leo II- joined Germanic power with the Catholic Church and tied them to Rome
new leadership
New Leadership:
  • Charlemagne died (of Pleurisy at the age of 72) his son, Louis the Pious, took over
  • Louis was religious, but a poor leader- even his sons fought him for power- he died of illness then the struggle between the sons began
  • Treaty of Verdun- the kingdom was split into three kingdoms
treaty of verdun 843
Treaty of Verdun (843)
  • The sons agreed to split the empire between them
  • Three kingdoms emerged
lasting legacy of carolingian rulers
Lasting Legacy of Carolingian Rulers
  • The church emerged as a power: When Charlemagne accepted the crowning by the Pope, he gave the church power higher than the kings
  • Key role of the church… gain converts, provide order, provide security
adaptation to a rural society
Adaptation to a Rural Society
  • Monasteries- religious communities in rural areas to provide education and services to the people
  • Blacksmith, schools, grain storage, medical attention, etc.
monks and nuns
Monks and Nuns
  • Gave up personal possessions to serve God and live in monasteries
  • Worked to educate others, wrote and copied books and preserved Roman heritage and Germanic history
attacks on europe
Attacks on Europe
  • From the North: Vikings from Scandinavia- terrifying raids on cities by attacking from the sea quickly- sometimes before locals could defend themselves
  • From the South: Muslims- came up from Africa and reached to modern Switzerland
  • From the East: Magyars- came from modern Turkey- expert horsemen- looking for captives to sell as slaves, not land to settle
a new social order
A New Social Order
  • Kings and queens needed protection from these invasions, with no government to provide an army they turned to feudalism
  • Feudalism= Political and economic system involving land ownership and personal loyalty and based on rights and obligations
key terms in feudalism
Key Terms in Feudalism
  • King- land legally belonged to him
  • Lord- a landowner who granted land in exchange for military service
  • Fief- the land granted by a lord to another
  • Vassal- the person receiving the fief and owing service to the lord
  • Manor- the lord’s estate
  • Serf- peasants bound to the land
the ins and outs of feudalism
The Ins and Outs of Feudalism
  • Class mobility- little mobility was possible because class was based on control of land
  • Based on land holding and protective alliances
  • Status was based birth and determined power and prestige
  • Feudalism depends on agreements, obligations, and church teachings
the manor
The Manor
  • The basic economic system under feudalism
  • The lord’s estate
  • Covered a few square miles
  • Mostly self sufficient
  • The Castle- offered protection from invasions to all living on the manor
  • The church- became the center of daily life: tithes were paid to the church
daily life on the manor
Daily life on the Manor
  • Life was harsh and full of work!
  • Things to deal with included:
    • Taxes – to the lord, marriage, tithe
    • 1-2 room house
    • No where to keep livestock
    • Poor diet (bread, vegetables, and soup)
    • Life-expectancy = 35 years
  • Definition- a code of complex ideals that demanded a knight to defend his feudal lord, God, and his chosen lady
  • Chivalry emerged because of the expectation that knights would fight bravely
what is a knight
What is a knight?
  • Mounted horsemen who pledged to defend a lord’s lands in exchange for a fief: AKA (vassals)
  • Knights fought for
    • Land
    • Reward fiefs (wealth)
    • Spoils of war (allowed to take riches from places they attacked)
how to become a knight
How to become a knight…
  • First you must be the son of a noble
  • Age 7- pages were sent to another castle to serve their host and practice fighting skills
  • Age 14- squire who acted as a servant for the knight
  • Age 21- a squire could become a full-fledged knight
characteristics of the ideal knight
Characteristics of the ideal knight
  • Courageous, loyal, chivalrous, protector of the weak and poor, devoutly religious
  • Pastimes of knights- centered on preparing for war- hunting, wrestling, and tournaments
literature of chivalry
Literature of Chivalry
  • Retold stories of chivalrous deeds and heroic battles
  • Troubadours- traveling poets and musicians
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine- one of the most important women of the middle ages- promoted literature- mother of two future kings
what about the women
What about the women?
  • Noble women- role was to get married, take care of the estate, bear children, and attend church- they held little property
  • Peasant women- laborers and performed household duties

This church in Rottingdean, East Sussex, is nearly 1000 years old. It was made of stone and built to last. It would have been much larger than a Medieval peasant\'s cruck house.

The Power of the Church

This entrance to Amiens Cathedral in France shows just how vast cathedrals were. The doors alone are over 20 feet tall, while the \'porch\' which surrounds it makes this doorway nearly 60 feet tall; taller than many houses now.

pope gelasius i c 500 said
Pope Gelasius I c. 500 said,

“There are by two powers by which this world is chiefly ruled: the sacred authority of the priesthood and the authority of kings.”

What does this quote mean to you?

setting the stage for church power
Setting the stage for church power
  • Central government was weak and not unified. In addition, Nobles did not always support the central government/
  • The church expanded its political role which led to strong rulers to question the church’s authority
the foundation of church authority
The foundation of Church Authority
  • Power was based on status (just like in feudalism)
  • Clergy- the different ranks of church officials
  • Lay people are not members of the clergy
primary benefit
Primary Benefit
  • The Medieval Church unified the people
  • All levels of society attended services together- the shared beliefs was a bond between classes- this gave security and a sense of belonging to all people
church policies that bound the social groups together
Church “policies” that bound the social groups together
  • Path to salvation- everlasting life in heaven was obtained by ALL who followed the same path
  • Sacraments- important religious ceremonies
  • Baptism, Eucharist, Reconciliation, Confirmation, Marriage, Holy Orders, Anointing of the Sick
church laws
Church Laws
  • Cannon Law- laws that ALL people were expected to follow- from kings to peasants
  • Basically it controlled all aspects of the Medieval life- customs, norms, laws, etc could not violate the church law
so what happens if a person did violate canon law
So, what happens if a person did violate Canon Law?
  • The Church had two tools to enact in this case
  • Excommunication- banishment from church, sacraments and salvation * for a king this would also free his vassals
  • Interdict- (for those who continued to violate the law) no religious ceremonies could be held in the king’s land (remember the Sacraments)
the holy roman empire emerges
The Holy Roman Empire Emerges
  • Otto the Great- a successor of Charlemagne
  • Most effective ruler of Medieval Germany
  • Formed a close alliance with the Church
  • Gained power over Italy
  • Named Germany the Holy Roman Empire
the church and kings clash
The Church and Kings Clash
  • Lay Investiture- ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed local Church officials- the Church was against this because who ever controlled investiture controlled the clergy
  • Most famous Clash= Henry IV and Pope Gregory
  • Pope Gregory banned lay investiture
  • Henry IV ordered him to step down- with the approval of his Bishops
  • Pope Gregory EXCOMMUNICATES Henry IV- the Bishops and German princes then sided with the Pope
january 1077 the showdown
January 1077- The “Showdown”
  • To save his throne, Henry IV traveled to Italy to visit the Pope
  • After three days of waiting (in the snow) outside of the Papal palace and begging for forgiveness (according to Gregory’s official church documents) he was granted forgiveness
  • Nothing was really solved- the conflict continued with their successors
1122 the concordat of worms
1122- The Concordat of Worms
  • This was a great compromise between German royalty and the church
  • The Pope – only- could appoint Bishops
  • BUT, the King could veto his appointment
disorder in the holy roman empire
Disorder in the Holy Roman Empire
  • Frederick I BARBAROSSA was forceful and dominated the German princes
  • Every time he left town rebellion broke out
  • The Church got involved, led and won a rebellion of Italians (the Lombard League)
  • First time in history that foot soldiers defeated Knights due to the crossbow
  • German authority was lost - the empire crumbled
roman empire vs holy roman empire
Roman Empire vs. Holy Roman Empire
  • Difference- there was no powerful central government
  • Results of all this- German kings controlled less land than England and France, never truly united, and conflicts between them and the church continued
the age of faith

The Age of Faith

A Spiritual Revival in the Church

Chapter 14 Section 1

causes and effects
Causes and Effects
  • Causes:
    • Vikings and other invaders raided western Europe and destroyed monasteries and centers of learning- New monasteries were built with the idea of reform.
  • Effects:
    • New religious orders of monks spread the ideas of reform- devotion and reverence to God, restored and expanded Pope’s power
main problems in the church
Main Problems in the Church
  • Illiterate Priests
  • Popes with questionable morals
  • Bishops and abbots cared more about their Feudal duties than the spiritual
  • Priests with wives and children
  • Simony- bishops selling positions
  • Lay investiture
reforms and church organization
Reforms and Church Organization
  • Popes Leo and Greg- enforced laws against simony and married priests
  • Restructured
      • Resembled a kingdom
      • Papal Curia- the pope’s group of advisors
        • Acted as a court
        • Developed Canon law
  • Tithes
      • 1/10 of the yearly income
      • Used to perform social services- hospitals
the crusades1
The Crusades


  • Social- stop attacks, reclaim Palestine for Christians
  • Political- get rid of knights who threatened peace in the kingdoms
  • Economic- younger sons of knights seeking fortunes, cash loans to finance the journey, control of trade routes
1 st and 2 nd crusades
1st and 2nd Crusades
  • 1097- three armies of knights and people gathered outside Constantinople- not prepared for climate and had no plan, no leader
  • 1099- army of 12,000 managed to capture Jerusalem and a small strip of land
  • 1144- Muslims captured a key city- 2nd Crusade began
  • 1187-Jerusalem captured by Saladin
3 rd crusade
3rd Crusade
  • Three Kings- Phillip II (France), Barbarossa (German Emperor) and Richard the Lionhearted (England) --- arguments and death left Richard alone
  • Saladin- Kurdish Warrior and Muslim leader- admired by many westerners
  • Result-Truce in 1192 Jerusalem under Muslim control, but unarmed Christians could visit.
the crusading spirit dwindles
The Crusading Spirit Dwindles
  • Causes- 4th Crusade failed, looting of Constantinople by knights, religious spirit faded- most were out for their own gain.
  • The Children’s Crusade
    • French-led by a 12 year old, 30,000 children
    • Germany- 20,000 children
    • Results- many died from cold or starvation, lost at sea, sold into slavery- only 2,000 returned home
the spanish crusade
The Spanish Crusade
  • 1100’s-Muslims (Moors) controlled much of Spain
  • Reconquista- long effort to drive out Muslims
  • 1492- Ferdinand and Isabella gain control of Grenada (island) – the last Muslim controlled territory
spanish inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
  • To unify Spain and increase their power I and F used the court of the church to suppress heresy
  • Heretics- people who’s religious beliefs differed from the Roman Catholic Church (Muslims and Jews)
  • 1492- all Jews and Muslims were gone from Spain
effects of the crusades
Effects of the Crusades
  • Women-chance to manage estates or operate businesses
  • Merchants- expanded trade- imported spices, fruits, and cloth
  • Pope- weakened his power and nobles- increased the power of kings
  • Muslims- intolerance and prejudice of Christians left a legacy of bitterness and hatred- still in effect today
  • Jews-time of increased persecution in Europe and poor relationships in Muslim regions


The town and monastery reached the height of their glory when in Vézelay St. Bernard called for the Second Crusade, in an oration heard by King Louis VII of France and a great number of nobles on March 31, 1146. Vézelay was also the site of the rendezvous between kings Philippe IV of France and Richard I of England as they embarked on the Third Crusade.

the formation of western europe

The Formation of Western Europe

Changes in Medieval Society

Chapter 14 Section 1

a growing food supply
Switch to Horsepower

In the past - farmers used oxen (not real fast)

Switched to horses that could do 3 times as much work in the same amount of time.

Harness was improved

Three Field System

In the past – used a two-field system, where they only used 50% (1/2) of their land.

The three-field system allowed farmers to use 67% (2/3)of their land, thereby producing more.

A Growing Food Supply
the guilds
Definition – organization of individuals in the same business who work together to improve economic and social conditions for it members

Functions of the Guild

Set standards of quality

Train Apprentices

Carried goods to local regions

The Guilds
guilds con t
Examples of Guilds


Wine makers

Glass makers




To be a member

Started as an APPRENTICE


Become a MASTER


Guilds Con’t
commercial revolution
Commercial Revolution


Expansion of TRADE and BUSINESS

commercial revolution1
Fairs and Trade

Took place mainly in towns

Peasant from manors would travel to buy, sell, and trade

Items: cheese, bacon, wine, glass, salt, leather, dyes, knives, ropes, honey

Crusades opened up trade routes

Business and Banking

Due to the mass travel or merchants and traders checks and credit became a means of moving money.

Lending also became prevalent

Commercial Revolution
effects of the commercial revolution
Effects of the Commercial Revolution
  • Increased the power of the king
  • More money was available for building businesses
  • Workers were paid for labor
urban life
Urban Life
  • Population began to grow.
  • Towns were small, but there were lots of them.
  • Towns were FILTHY.
  • People were not content to live on the manor, so they moved to towns.
revival of learning
Revival of Learning
  • Result of the Crusades
  • Muslims were very educated
    • Aided with the writing of the Greek philosophers
  • Vernacular – Common language of a place or region
  • Scholastics – men who studied together at the great universities
  • Thomas Aquinas – Argued for religious ideas that could be proved with logic, favored the GREEKS.
chapter 14 section 4
Chapter 14, Section 4
  • The Church Divided
  • The 100 Years’ War
  • The Bubonic Plague
a church divided
A Church Divided
  • The Great Schism
    • CAUSE: Thru a series of situations the Roman Catholic Church ended up with two popes. (One in Italy and the other in France)
    • The division (or schism) was over which one should be the pope.
    • This weakened the power of the church (Lost some of their credibility.)
  • John Wycliff
    • Who – English preacher
    • Stated – “Jesus Christ was the head of the church, not the Pope.”
    • His complaint – Church was worldly, and pope had too much authority.
the hundred years war
The Hundred Years’ War
  • Lasted from 1337 – 1453
  • Fighting was off and on, not continuous
  • Who: England v. France
  • Central Issue: The Throne of France
  • Weapon that altered everything was the longbow
the hundred years war con t
The Hundred Years’ War Con’t
  • Longbow – “The Machine Gun of the Middle Ages”
    • English developed it
    • Description: about 6 feet tall, cheap to make, easy to carry
    • Lethal Aspects: Accurate to about 200 yards, average archer could shoot about 14 arrows per minute
    • The French were still using crossbows, which made the battles even more lopsided.
the hundred years war con t1
The Hundred Years’ War Con’t
  • French Heroine
    • Joan of Arc – French Teenager
    • Background – Had visions that she should lead the French Army
    • The Army followed her, and won several battles, and guided the French to victory
    • Condemned as a witch, and burned at the stake
the hundred years war con t2
The Hundred Years’ War Con’t
  • Impact of the Hundred Years’ War
    • Nationalism emerged in the two countries --NATIONAL IDENTITIES WERE FORMED
    • Power of the French monarch evolved
    • English suffered internal turmoil
the bubonic plague con t
The Bubonic Plague Con’t
  • When: 1300s
  • Where: Europe, Asia, North Africa
  • “Fathers and mothers refused to nurse or assist their children.”
  • “Black Death” – B/C of the bluish/black spots that developed on the victim’s skin
  • Followed the trade routes from the east
  • 75% of those who caught the disease died
the bubonic plague con t2
The Bubonic Plague Con’t
  • Symptoms of the Black Death
    • Painful boils on the skin (armpits & groin)
    • Black and Purple Spots on the skin
    • High fever, chills, delirium
    • DEATH!
  • Effects of the Black Death
    • 50+ million dead
    • Population reduction
    • Trade went down
    • Contributed to the ending of Medieval Society