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Immigration. Chapter 7. Objectives:. To look at the rise of immigration at the turn of the century To evaluate the promise of the “American Dream” To analyze the economic, social, and political effects of immigration and to understand the immigrant experience.

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Immigration

Immigration

Chapter 7


Objectives
Objectives:

  • To look at the rise of immigration at the turn of the century

  • To evaluate the promise of the “American Dream”

  • To analyze the economic, social, and political effects of immigration and to understand the immigrant experience




After 1890, they came from southern and eastern Europe, esp. Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.

(lots of prejudice against new immigrants) Why?


Why these immigrants came
Why these immigrants came: Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.

  • Escape persecution

  • Better jobs

  • Independence/freedom



7 steps an Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.

immigrant

followed

at Ellis Island


Baggage Room…. Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.


Steps to medical exam… Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.


Waiting area for interviews… Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.


Prove reason for coming…. Italy, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.




  • Chinese and Japanese $20.00… immigrants came through Angel Island in San Francisco.

  • They were discriminated and restricted.


  • All Immigrants suffered from $20.00…culture shock.

  • Some Americans took advantage of this.

  • Ethnic communities sprang up for protection.

  • They thought of themselves as “hyphenated Americans” – Chinese-Americans, Italian-Americans, etc.


  • Some wanted a $20.00…melting pot – mixture of different cultures and races


Some immigrants refused to “melt in”, causing anti-immigrant feelings among native born Americans. (salad bowl idea)


Americanization movement anti-immigrant feelings among native born Americans. ( – attempt to assimilate different cultures into American.


  • Nativism anti-immigrant feelings among native born Americans. ( – favoritism toward native-born Americans.

    • Led to xenophobia and restrictions on immigrants.

  • Nativists believed Anglo-Saxons were superior to other ethnic groups.



  • Literacy tests anti-immigrant feelings among native born Americans. ( were eventually required for immigrants


  • Chinese immigrants worked for lower wages, so…. anti-immigrant feelings among native born Americans. (

  • 1882, Chinese Exclusion Act - closed Chinese immigration- except for students, teachers, merchants, tourists and gov’t officials.

  • Law was not changed until 1943.


  • This fear was extended to most Asians. anti-immigrant feelings among native born Americans. (

  • 1907-1908 –Gentlemen’s Agreement between Pres. T. Roosevelt and Japan, required limited emigration of Japanese unskilled workers to the US, and in exchange, San Francisco would not segregate Japanese already in America.


Urbanization chapter 7

Urbanization – Chapter 7 anti-immigrant feelings among native born Americans. (


Objectives1
Objectives: anti-immigrant feelings among native born Americans. (

  • To explore the rise in urbanization

  • To understand the problems faced by people in the new cities

  • To describe the attempts at reform of the cities


Factors leading to urbanization
Factors leading to Urbanization: anti-immigrant feelings among native born Americans. (

1. Population Explosion. Between 1870 and 1920, the urban population exploded from 10 million to 54 million causing serious problems in the cities of the Midwest and Northeast.



3. 1890-1930, Southern African-Americans moved north and west to cities to escape oppression.

  • Job competition between blacks and whites caused racial tension and segregation in Northern cities.


Urban problems
Urban Problems: west to cities to escape oppression.

1. Housing:

Row houses

Tenement houses

Slums resulted….


2 transportation
2. west to cities to escape oppression.Transportation:

  • Lack of transportation for the poor

  • Result: street cars and the electric subway.


3 water
3 west to cities to escape oppression.. Water:

  • Safe drinking water was a problem, little indoor plumbing..

  • Cholera and typhoid fever were spread in water supplies

    Result - Filtration and chlorination were introduced in the late 1800’s and early 1900’’s


4 sanitation
4. west to cities to escape oppression.Sanitation:

  • horse manure in the streets

  • sewage in open gutters

  • foul factory smoke

  • undependable trash collection

  • garbage in the streets

  • dirty outhouses

    Result - sanitation departments were opened


5 crime
5. west to cities to escape oppression. Crime:

  • Pickpockets and thieves flourished

    Result - New York City organized the first full time police force in 1844. too small to make a difference


6 fire
6. west to cities to escape oppression. Fire:

  • Limited water supply, wooden housing, candles and kerosene heaters contributed to fires.

    Result:

  • First fire departments (mostly voluntary, but by 1900, cities had full time fire depts.)

  • Brick and stone replaced wood.


Two major city disasters

Great Chicago Fire, 1871 west to cities to escape oppression.

Burned for 24 hours

Killed about 300

3 square miles burned

17,500 bldgs. destroyed

San Francisco Earthquake, 1908

1000 people died

200,000 homeless

Fire swept 5 square miles

28,000 bldgs. destroyed

Two major city disasters:


City reformers
City Reformers: west to cities to escape oppression.

  • Social Gospel movement preached

    salvation through service to the poor.

  • Settlement houses – community houses in the slums to provide services and education for the poor.


Hull House west to cities to escape oppression.was started by Jane

Addams (in Chicago).


Politics in the gilded age
Politics in the Gilded Age: west to cities to escape oppression.

  • Political Machines took over city politics.

  • Mostly operated like a pyramid with the mayor at the top – The Boss.


City bosses
City Bosses: west to cities to escape oppression.

  • Bosses provided services in exchange for kickbacks.

  • The machine helped immigrants get jobs and places to live in exchange for their votes.


  • Political Machines used west to cities to escape oppression.fraud and graft (illegal use of political influence for personal gain) to gain power and wealth.


Boss tweed of new york
Boss Tweed of New York: west to cities to escape oppression.

  • William Tweed of New York City became the head of Tammany Hall, NYC’s Democratic machine (1868) and got wealthy from kickbacks, etc.

  • Tweed Ring


  • Thomas Nast west to cities to escape oppression., the cartoonist, helped turn the public against Tweed and brought his downfall in 1871.

Boss Tweed


  • Politicians gave west to cities to escape oppression.patronage (giving government jobs to people who helped them get elected). Like Jackson’s spoils system.

  • Many government officials were not qualified for their jobs.



  • 1876, political system.Pres. Hayes tried to reform the patronage system.

  • Stalwarts – opposed changes in the patronage system

  • Mugwumps – wanted civil service reform

  • Half-Breeds – wanted reform but were loyal to their party


  • Garfield political system. became president in 1880; his vice president Chester Arthur was a Stalwart. Garfield gave jobs to reformers.

  • Garfield was shot July 2, 1881, by a Stalwart (died in Sept.)

  • Chester Arthur became president (1881) and turned to reform.


  • Pendleton Civil Service Act, 1883 – political system. authorized a civil service commission to make appointments to federal jobs based on a candidate’s performance on exams (merit system).



  • President Grover Cleveland the question of protective tariffs. (1885) tried to lower the tariff, but failed.

  • Cleveland didn’t think the government needed lots of money. He didn’t want the government to take care of the people. He believed people should take care of themselves


  • Pres. Benjamin Harrison the question of protective tariffs. (1888) defeated Cleveland in the next election with help from big business.

  • He passed the McKinley Tariff Act of 1890 which raised tariffs.


  • Cleveland (1892) the question of protective tariffs.was reelected after Harrison and tried to lower the tariff again.

  • Then, after him, President McKinley(1896) raised the tariff.


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