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Chapter 8 Water and Minerals. Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney. Introduction. Minerals Major Trace Water Most indispensable nutrient. Minerals in a 60-Kilogram (132-Pound) Person (Grams). Water. Makes up about 60 percent of a person’s weight Roles Solvent

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chapter 8 water and minerals

Chapter 8Water and Minerals

Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney

introduction
Introduction
  • Minerals
    • Major
    • Trace
  • Water
    • Most indispensable nutrient
water
Water
  • Makes up about 60 percent of a person’s weight
  • Roles
    • Solvent
    • Cleansing agent
    • Lubrication and cushion
    • Coolant
body s water balance
Body’s Water Balance
  • Water balance
    • Dehydration
      • Thirst
      • Signs
      • Groups at risk
    • Water intoxication
  • Body water varies by pounds
  • Thirst and satiety govern water intake
    • Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, kidneys
safety and sources of drinking water
Safety and Sources of Drinking Water
  • Public water
    • Removal of many hazards
      • Disinfectants
    • Testing and reporting
    • Chlorination and cancer
  • Water sources
    • Surface water
    • Groundwater
bottled water
Bottled Water
  • Regulation and safety
    • Sales across state lines
    • Standards
      • Less rigid than those for tap water
  • BPA
  • IBWA trademark
  • Water for nutrition’s sake
    • Fluoride
body fluids and minerals
Body Fluids and Minerals
  • Water follows salt
    • Electrolytes
      • Water flows toward greater concentration
  • Fluid and electrolyte balance
    • Causes of imbalance
  • Acid-base balance
    • Hydrogen
    • Buffers
calcium
Calcium
  • Bone and tooth formation
    • Hydroxyapatite
      • Fluorapatite
    • Bone and tooth turnover
calcium1
Calcium
  • In body fluids
    • 1 percent of body’s calcium
      • Roles
    • Blood calcium is tightly controlled
  • Calcium balance
    • Skeleton serves as a calcium bank
      • Bone density
    • Organs
phosphorus
Phosphorus
  • Second most abundant mineral in body
    • Majority found in bones with calcium
  • Roles in the body
  • Recommendations
    • Deficiencies are unlikely
  • Food sources
magnesium
Magnesium
  • “Major mineral”
    • Dietary requirement
  • Bones and kidneys
  • Roles in the body
    • Works with calcium
  • Deficiency
  • Toxicity
  • Recommendations
sodium
Sodium
  • Roles
    • Major part of fluid and electrolyte balance
    • Acid-base balance
  • Deficiency
  • “Water Weight”
  • Recommendations
    • Intakes
sodium1
Sodium
  • Blood pressure
    • Hypertension
      • Measures
      • Types
    • Sodium intakes increases blood pressure
      • Heart damage
    • DASH diet
  • Controlling salt intakes
potassium
Potassium
  • Positively charge ion inside the cells
  • Roles
    • Fluid and electrolyte balance
    • Heartbeat
  • Deficiency
    • Dehydration
  • Toxicity
  • Recommendations
iodine
Iodine
  • Body’s work is done by iodide
  • Roles
    • Thyroxine
  • Deficiency
    • Goiter
    • Cretinism
  • Toxicity
  • Food sources
slide26
Iron
  • Every living cell contains iron
  • Two proteins
    • Hemoglobin
    • Myoglobin
  • Roles
    • Carry oxygen
    • Make new cells, amino acids, hormones, & neurotransmitters
slide27
Iron
  • Iron stores
    • A mineral to be hoarded
    • Iron losses
    • Special proteins transport and store iron
  • Absorbing iron
    • Forms of iron in food
    • MFP factor
    • Impairing iron absorption
slide30
Zinc
  • Works with proteins in every organ
    • Roles
  • Expression of deficiency
    • Groups at greatest risk for deficiency
  • Vegetarians
fluoride
Fluoride
  • Not essential to life
  • Roles in the body
    • Roles in the body
  • Deficiency
    • Dental decay
  • Toxicity
    • Fluorosis
  • Sources
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