Chapter 8 water and minerals
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Chapter 8 Water and Minerals. Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney. Introduction. Minerals Major Trace Water Most indispensable nutrient. Minerals in a 60-Kilogram (132-Pound) Person (Grams). Water. Makes up about 60 percent of a person’s weight Roles Solvent

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Chapter 8 Water and Minerals

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Chapter 8 water and minerals

Chapter 8Water and Minerals

Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney


Introduction

Introduction

  • Minerals

    • Major

    • Trace

  • Water

    • Most indispensable nutrient


Minerals in a 60 kilogram 132 pound person grams

Minerals in a 60-Kilogram (132-Pound) Person (Grams)


Water

Water

  • Makes up about 60 percent of a person’s weight

  • Roles

    • Solvent

    • Cleansing agent

    • Lubrication and cushion

    • Coolant


Body s water balance

Body’s Water Balance

  • Water balance

    • Dehydration

      • Thirst

      • Signs

      • Groups at risk

    • Water intoxication

  • Body water varies by pounds

  • Thirst and satiety govern water intake

    • Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, kidneys


Water balance a typical example

Water Balance – A Typical Example


U s fluid sources

U.S. Fluid Sources


Safety and sources of drinking water

Safety and Sources of Drinking Water

  • Public water

    • Removal of many hazards

      • Disinfectants

    • Testing and reporting

    • Chlorination and cancer

  • Water sources

    • Surface water

    • Groundwater


Bottled water

Bottled Water

  • Regulation and safety

    • Sales across state lines

    • Standards

      • Less rigid than those for tap water

  • BPA

  • IBWA trademark

  • Water for nutrition’s sake

    • Fluoride


Body fluids and minerals

Body Fluids and Minerals

  • Water follows salt

    • Electrolytes

      • Water flows toward greater concentration

  • Fluid and electrolyte balance

    • Causes of imbalance

  • Acid-base balance

    • Hydrogen

    • Buffers


A bone

A Bone


Calcium

Calcium

  • Bone and tooth formation

    • Hydroxyapatite

      • Fluorapatite

    • Bone and tooth turnover


Calcium1

Calcium

  • In body fluids

    • 1 percent of body’s calcium

      • Roles

    • Blood calcium is tightly controlled

  • Calcium balance

    • Skeleton serves as a calcium bank

      • Bone density

    • Organs


Bone throughout life

Bone Throughout Life


Calcium snapshot

Calcium Snapshot


Phosphorus

Phosphorus

  • Second most abundant mineral in body

    • Majority found in bones with calcium

  • Roles in the body

  • Recommendations

    • Deficiencies are unlikely

  • Food sources


Phosphorus snapshot

Phosphorus Snapshot


Magnesium

Magnesium

  • “Major mineral”

    • Dietary requirement

  • Bones and kidneys

  • Roles in the body

    • Works with calcium

  • Deficiency

  • Toxicity

  • Recommendations


Magnesium snapshot

Magnesium Snapshot


Sodium

Sodium

  • Roles

    • Major part of fluid and electrolyte balance

    • Acid-base balance

  • Deficiency

  • “Water Weight”

  • Recommendations

    • Intakes


Sodium1

Sodium

  • Blood pressure

    • Hypertension

      • Measures

      • Types

    • Sodium intakes increases blood pressure

      • Heart damage

    • DASH diet

  • Controlling salt intakes


How to cut sodium from a barbeque lunch

How to Cut Sodium from a Barbeque Lunch


Potassium

Potassium

  • Positively charge ion inside the cells

  • Roles

    • Fluid and electrolyte balance

    • Heartbeat

  • Deficiency

    • Dehydration

  • Toxicity

  • Recommendations


Potassium snapshot

Potassium Snapshot


Iodine

Iodine

  • Body’s work is done by iodide

  • Roles

    • Thyroxine

  • Deficiency

    • Goiter

    • Cretinism

  • Toxicity

  • Food sources


Chapter 8 water and minerals

Iron

  • Every living cell contains iron

  • Two proteins

    • Hemoglobin

    • Myoglobin

  • Roles

    • Carry oxygen

    • Make new cells, amino acids, hormones, & neurotransmitters


Chapter 8 water and minerals

Iron

  • Iron stores

    • A mineral to be hoarded

    • Iron losses

    • Special proteins transport and store iron

  • Absorbing iron

    • Forms of iron in food

    • MFP factor

    • Impairing iron absorption


Normal and anemic blood cells

Normal and Anemic Blood Cells


Iron snapshot

Iron Snapshot


Chapter 8 water and minerals

Zinc

  • Works with proteins in every organ

    • Roles

  • Expression of deficiency

    • Groups at greatest risk for deficiency

  • Vegetarians


Zinc snapshot

Zinc Snapshot


Fluoride

Fluoride

  • Not essential to life

  • Roles in the body

    • Roles in the body

  • Deficiency

    • Dental decay

  • Toxicity

    • Fluorosis

  • Sources


U s population with access to fluoridated water through public water systems

U.S. Population with Access to Fluoridated Water Through Public Water Systems


Food sources of calcium in the u s diet

Food Sources of Calcium in the U.S. Diet


Calcium absorption from food sources

Calcium Absorption from Food Sources


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