Chapter nine water and minerals
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Chapter Nine: Water and Minerals. Identify the functions of water Describe the process by which the body regulates water intake and water excretion Identify normal causes of water loss List causes of additional (less usual) water losses. Chapter Eight, Cntd.

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Chapter Nine: Water and Minerals

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Chapter nine water and minerals

Chapter Nine: Water and Minerals

  • Identify the functions of water

  • Describe the process by which the body regulates water intake and water excretion

  • Identify normal causes of water loss

  • List causes of additional (less usual) water losses

Chapter eight cntd

Chapter Eight, Cntd.

  • Name the major minerals and the functions and deficiencies of those at risk

  • Explain osteoporosis and the risk factors that contribute to its development

  • Name the trace minerals and their functions and deficiencies of those at risk

  • Explain how the use of alcohol affects nutritional status

Water and body fluids

Water and Body Fluids

  • Adult body is comprised of 60% water

  • Water functions

    • Transports nutrients and waste products

    • Participant in chemical reactions (metabolism)

    • Solvent for water soluble nutrients

    • Maintains blood pressure and body temperature

Water functions cntd

Water Functions, Cntd.

  • Lubricant and cushioning for joints

  • Shock absorber for eyes, spinal, and placenta

Water balance

Water Balance

  • Regulators

    • Thirst—outward sign of dehydration

      • Diminished with age

    • Hypothalamus monitors lack or excess

      • Triggers pituitary to release ADH (antidiuretic hormone) when salts are too high and volume of blood or blood pressure is too low

      • Kidneys respond by excreting or withholding fluids

Water losses

Water Losses

  • Losses normally occur from:

    • Urine—water required to excrete urine and body wastes

    • Lungs as vapor

    • Feces

    • Skin in the cooling process

    • About 2½ quarts per day

Recommended water intake

Recommended Water Intake

  • 8-12 cups per day (pale yellow urine indicates appropriate dilution)

  • Water, milk and juices are best sources

  • Alcoholic beverages and those containing caffeine act as diuretics

  • Fruits, vegetables, meats and cheese also contribute to water intake

Fluid and electrolyte balance

Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

  • Mineral salts when dissolved in water contain electrical charges and are known as electrolytes

  • Electrolytes and water are the most vital to life—electrolytes hold water in compartments where needed

  • Electrolytes outside the cell are sodium and chloride

  • Electrolyte inside the cell is potassium

Electrolyte and fluid balances

Electrolyte and Fluid Balances

  • Balances can be upset by large fluid losses

    • Vomiting

    • Diarrhea

    • Heavy sweating

    • Fever

    • Burns

    • Wounds causing blood loss

  • Electrolytes also help maintain the acidity pH of body fluids

Major minerals

Major Minerals

  • Needed in larger amounts in the body

  • Sodium:

    • Principle electrolyte in the extracellular fluid outside the cell

    • Maintains acid-base balance—muscle contraction and nerve transmission

  • Sources: processed foods, salt added while cooking (select iodized salt)

Major minerals cntd

Major Minerals, Cntd.

  • Sodium

    • Average intake is about 3300 mg and Daily Value recommendation is 2400 mg

    • Risks of too much are high blood pressure or hypertension

    • Choose and prepare foods with less salt—U.S. Dietary Goal

Major minerals cntd1

Major Minerals, Cntd.

  • Chloride:

    • Extracellular electrolyte

    • Usually associated with either sodium or potassium

    • Part of HCL acid found in the stomach

    • Best source in table salt

Major minerals cntd2

Major Minerals, Cntd.

  • Potassium

    • Principal charged electrolyte found inside the cell

    • Critical to keeping the heartbeat steady

    • Diets low in potassium can contribute to elevated blood pressure

    • Sources: fresh food of all kinds, especially fruits and vegetables—oranges & bananas

Major minerals cntd3

Major Minerals, Cntd.

  • Calcium

    • Necessary for growth of a healthy skeleton and prevention of bone disease later in life

    • Most abundant mineral in the body

    • 99% of calcium found in the bones and teeth—provides rigidity

    • 1% found in body fluids—vital to life

      • Regulate muscle contractions

      • Transmits nerve impulses

Major minerals cntd4

Major Minerals, Cntd.

  • Blood clotting

  • Cofactor to several enzymes

  • Deficiencies:

    • Osteoporosis

      • Porous, thin, fragile bones found mostly in older women

    • Can also correlate with high blood pressure

  • Absorption can vary between 30-75%

  • Major minerals cntd5

    Major Minerals, Cntd.

    • Sources:

      • Best are in the daily group (2-3 cups per day of fluid milk or their equivalents)

      • Vegetables: mustard greens, kale, parsley, watercress, and broccoli

      • Meat group: particularly sardines, including bones and poultry

    Major minerals cntd6

    Major Minerals, Cntd.

    • Phosphorus

    • 2nd most abundant mineral in the body

    • Excess in the diet can cause excretion of calcium—carbonated beverages and high protein diet, especially from meat sources

    Trace minerals

    Trace Minerals

    • Needed in smaller amounts in the body

    • Iron:

      • Absorption is limited—10-15% absorbed from dietary sources—can increase with good Vitamin C sources eaten together

      • Function: component of the protein hemoglobin that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues

    Trace minerals cntd

    Trace Minerals, Cntd.

    • Deficiency—Iron deficiency anemia—most prevalent in children and pre-menopausal women

    • RDA is 10-15 mg per day

    • Sources: Most absorbable sources are meats, poultry and fish, esp. organ meats; plant sources are less absorbable

    • Toxicity: can cause death, especially in small children

    Trace minerals cntd1

    Trace Minerals, Cntd.

    • Zinc:

      • Multiple metabolic functions

      • Deficiency can cause growth retardation and affects immune function

      • Sources are high protein foods

    • Iodine:

      • Integral part of the thyroid hormone, thyroxin

    Trace minerals cntd2

    Trace Minerals, Cntd.

    • Deficiency causes mental and physical retardation

    • Problem in underdeveloped countries who don’t have access to iodized salt

    • Sources: Iodized salt or foods grown in iodine rich soil; high mountain areas have little in the soil

    Trace minerals cntd3

    Trace Minerals, Cntd.

    • Fluoride

      • Necessary for normal bone and tooth development

      • Teeth are more resistant to decay

      • Sources: drinking water either naturally or from fluoridated water

    Nutrition and alcohol abuse

    Nutrition and Alcohol Abuse

    • Sources of Alcohol:

      • Wine, wine coolers, beer, and hard liquor

      • Nutritional deficiencies can result from

        • Depression of appetite—less food eaten

        • Interference with digestion, absorption, metabolism and excretion of nutrients

        • Vitamins and minerals necessary for normal metabolism interfered with so fewer nutrients are available from food

    Test questions


    • Water is involve in all of the following EXCEPT:

      • A. Regulation of body temperature

      • B. conversion of lipids to amino acids

      • C. Lubricant around joints

      • D. Solvent for minerals and vitamins

    Test questions1

    Test Questions

    • Which of the following body processes in NOT dependent upon the presence of calcium in the body fluids?

      • A. Blood clotting

      • B. Muscle contraction

      • C. Transmission of nerve impulses

      • D. Transportation of oxygen in the bloodstream

    Test questions2

    Test Questions

    • A deficiency of _________ is one of the world’s most common preventable causes of mental retardation

    • A. Zinc

    • B. Selenium

    • C. Magnesium

    • D. Iodine

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