Punctuation lecture
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Punctuation Lecture . TECM 4190 Dr. Lam. Some definitions. Clauses - must contain subject and predicate Subject= noun or something noun-y Predicate= something about subject but MUST have a verb “The student slept in class” Independent (main)- can stand alone grammatically as a sentence

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Punctuation Lecture

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Punctuation lecture

Punctuation Lecture

TECM 4190

Dr. Lam


Some definitions

Some definitions

  • Clauses- must contain subject and predicate

    • Subject= noun or something noun-y

    • Predicate= something about subject but MUST have a verb

    • “The student slept in class”

  • Independent (main)- can stand alone grammatically as a sentence

  • Dependent (subordinate)- cannot stand alone as a sentence


Some definitions1

Some definitions

  • Dependent clauses= subordinating conjunction OR relative pronoun + subject + predicate

    • “After the party was thrown”

  • Conjunction- Word that joins two clauses

  • Coordinating conjunction join two independent clauses or sentence elements (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)

  • Subordinating conjunctions join independent clause with a dependent clause


Some definitions2

Some definitions

  • Relative pronouns- relate to an already named noun; introduce dependent clauses (that, what, which, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose)


How many clauses and what are they

How many clauses and what are they?

  • The dog barked.

  • The dog barked, and the owner woke up.

  • Although the dog barked, the owner didn’t wake up.

  • The dog that heard the robbers barked; however, the owner still didn’t wake up.


Sentence types

Sentence types

  • Simple- one independent clause

    • The dog barked.

  • Compound- two independent clauses

    • The dog barked, and the owner woke up.

  • Complex- one independent clause plus one dependent clause

    • Although the dog barked, the owner didn’t wake up.

  • Compound-complex- two independent clauses plus a dependent clause

    • The dog that heard the robbers barked; however, the owner still didn’t wake up.


Basic comma rules

Basic Comma Rules

Use commas:

  • to separate elements in a series.

    • He went to class, dinner, and then home.

  • to connect two independent clauses. However, it must be connected with coordinating conjunction immediately following the comma.

    • He went to class, but he fell asleep.

  • to set off introductory elements (clauses, phrases, and words).

    • Because he was tired, he fell asleep in class.


Basic comma rules cont

Basic Comma Rules, cont.

4. to offset non-essential information (we’ll discuss more later when we distinguish restrictive vs. nonrestrictive clauses)

  • John went to class, which was boring, and fell asleep.

    5. to separate coordinate adjectives (adjectives that describe the same noun). If you can add “and” between them, they’re usually coordinate adjectives.

  • John has a long, arduous commute (coordinate).

  • John has a white frame house. (non-coordinate)

    6. to separate geographical items


Common comma mistakes

Common comma mistakes

  • Using a comma to separate a noun and verb

    • The most important aspect of class, is completing the readings.

  • Using a comma between two verbs in a compound predicate

    • John turned the corner, and ran into the light pole.

  • Using a comma between to nouns

    • The music teacher from your highschool, and the football coach are married.


That vs which

That vs. Which

  • That and which are relative pronouns used to introduce phrases.

  • There are two kinds of phrases you need to know about. See the next slide.


Restrictive phrases

Restrictive Phrases

  • A restrictive phrase restricts the meaning of the sentence. These never have commas.

  • Ex: The dog that had three legs won the race.

  • Had three legs restricts the meaning of dog to one specific dog.


Non restrictive phrases

Non-restrictive Phrases

  • Non-restrictive phrases provide information that is nice to have, but don’t fundamentally change the meaning of the sentence.

  • They are surrounded by commas.

  • Ex: The dog, which had the long coat, won the race.

  • Which had the long coat could be excluded and the sentence’s original meaning remains intact.


Choosing that vs which

Choosing That vs. Which

  • As you may have noticed from the examples:

  • That begins restrictive phrases.

  • Which begins non-restrictive phrases.


How do i tell the difference

How do I tell the difference?

  • Restrictive phrases provide information that is vital to the sentence. Non-restrictive phrases provide info that is nice to have, but not necessary.

  • To tell the difference, use the thumb rule (see next slide).


Thumb rule

Thumb Rule

  • Stick your thumb over the phrase you wonder about.

  • If the sentence is fundamentally different, the phrase is probably restrictive. Begin the phrase with that.

  • If the sentence is pretty much the same, but missing some descriptive info, it’s non-restrictive. Begin the phrase with which and surround it with commas.


Let s try it

Let’s try it.

  • The Crazy Horse Monument ______ was dedicated in 1984 attracts visitors from all over the world.

  • The college _______ Sonja has decided to attend is located in Michigan.


It s all contextual

It’s all contextual…

  • The dessert made with fresh strawberries was delicious”

  • "The dessert, made with fresh strawberries, was delicious"?


The oxford or serial comma

The Oxford or Serial Comma


Lists

Lists

  • There are two grammatically correct ways to punctuate lists in sentences.

  • The items are a, b, and c.

    or

  • The items are a, b and c.


One reduces ambiguity

One reduces ambiguity

  • How many departments are in this sentence?

  • We’ve received budgets from Finance, Sales, Public Relations, Design and Development.


If you always use a serial comma

If you always use a serial comma. .

  • There’s no ambiguity.

  • We’ve received budgets from Finance, Sales, Public Relations, Design, and Development.


The semicolon

The Semicolon


The semi colon

The Semi-Colon ;

  • Two ways to use this one.

  • To combine sentences.

  • To separate items with internal commas in a list.


To combine sentences using a semi colon

To combine sentences using a semi-colon:

Rules:

  • The statements on both sides of the semi-colon must be independent clauses (sentences).

  • The second statement is not capitalized.


Suggestion 1 for using a semi colon

Suggestion #1 for using a semi-colon.

  • Generally, you want both sentences to be of equal “weight”—essentially, they should be the approximately the same length.

  • Matt recently started a job at Google developing front-end interfaces for several new initiatives including the new mobile YouTube interface; he likes it.


Suggestion 2 for using a semi colon

Suggestion #2 for using a semi-colon.

  • Also, the second sentence should be related to the first.

  • Matt recently updated the interface to include a tabbed interface; his salary is competitive.


When is a semi colon useful

When is a semi-colon useful?

  • To change the “rhythm” of a paragraph

  • You can combine sentences with a semi-colon if you follow the previous rules.

  • Ex: Matt’s educational experiences really helped him in gaining technical knowledge of programming languages; however, his internship experience in which he worked on actual projects also were quite valuable.


Punctuating list items with internal commas

Punctuating List Items with Internal Commas

  • First, let me show you what I’m talking about.

    Mark Cuban, the CEO, John Smith, the head of IT, Dirk Nowitzki, and the VP of Sales were in the meeting.


Could be 4 could be 6

Could be 4, could be 6.

  • Mark Cuban, the CEO;John Smith, the head of IT; Dirk Nowitzki;and the VP of Sales were in the meeting.

  • Mark Cuban;the CEO;John Smith;the head of IT;Dirk Nowitzki;and the VP of Sales were in the meeting.


When to use the semi colon

When to Use the Semi-colon

  • So, instead of commas, use a semi-colon when list items have internal commas.

  • The only rule is that once you begin using semi-colons to separate items, they ALL must be separated by semi-colons—even if they don’t have an internal comma.


Let s look at that again

Let’s look at that again.

  • Mark Cuban;the CEO;John Smith,the head of IT;Dirk Nowitzki;and the VP of Sales were in the meeting.


The colon

The Colon


Colon

Colon

  • Introduces a list after an independent clause

  • Rules:

    • Use a colon only after a complete sentence

    • Use a colon to introduce a list when introductory words aren’t used (for example, namely, etc.).

      Correct: You’ll need to bring four things to class: homework, pencil, paper, and red pen.

      Incorrect: You’ll need to bring things to class. For example: homework, pencil, paper, and red pen to class.


Other uses of colon

Other uses of colon

  • Connect two independent clauses, the second MUST illustrate or amplifie- generally conveys the sense of “as follows” (Acts like a semicolon)

    • The procedural manual make one thing clear: it is not appropriate to come to work late.

  • To introduce a series of related sentences (acts like a period)

    • The students faced a dilemma: They could finish the project as planned. Or, they could start from scratch and deliver a better final project.


Hyphens and dashes

Hyphens and Dashes


Hyphens vs en dash vs em dash

Hyphens vs. en dash vs. em dash

  • Hyphen used to combine two words that function as a unit

    • Well-received lecture; Self-serving attitude

  • En dash (width of an “n”) used to separate periods of time and instead of a hyphen when combining two compounds.

    • July 12–July 15

    • Southern Texas – Mexico border

  • Em dash (width of an “M”) used in place of commas, semicolons, colons, and parentheses (use sparingly in formal writing)

    • The dog chewed the sofa —he was left alone too long.


Em dash en dash or hyphen

Em dash, en dash, or hyphen?

  • Dr. Lam’s grammar lesson_?_it had already been interrupted by three violent demonstrations_?_was concluded promptly.

  • My professor looks forty_?_six years old.

  • TECM 3200 runs from 2:00pm_?_3:20pm.


Em dash en dash or hyphen1

Em dash, en dash, or hyphen?

  • Dr. Lam’s grammar lesson—it had already been interrupted by three violent demonstrations—was concluded promptly. (Em dash)

  • My professor looks forty-six years old. (Hyphen)

  • ENTW 4190 runs from 2:0pm–3:20pm. (En dash)


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