Punctuation
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punctuation. Colons & semicolons. colons. To the left of the colon, you must have a complete sentence/independent clause. I need to purchase the following items: parsnips; carrots; bread, both rye and wheat; and lettuce.

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Punctuation

punctuation


Colons semicolons

Colons & semicolons


Colons

colons

  • To the left of the colon, you must have a complete sentence/independent clause.

  • I need to purchase the following items: parsnips; carrots; bread, both rye and wheat; and lettuce.

  • Don’t put a colon if there’s a verb to the immediate left because that guarantees that you don’t have a sentence to the left.

  • INCORRECT: I need to purchase:

  • INCORRECT: My favorites are:


Semicolons

SEMIcolons

  • To the left and right of the semicolon, you must have complete sentences/independent clauses.

  • My son, Samuel, is an amazing mathematician; however, I am terrible at math.

  • My son, Samuel, is an amazing mathematician; I am terrible at math.

  • Use semicolons to separate items in a series if even one item has a comma.

  • I need to purchase the following items: parsnips; carrots; bread, both rye and wheat; and lettuce.


Commas

commas


Commas in a series

Commas in a series

  • Ex. Jack bought a cute and fluffy and sweet puppy.

  • Jack bought a cute, fluffy and sweet puppy.

  • BUT . . .

  • Jack bought a seven-month-old puppy.

  • (The puppy is not seven, and month and old.)


Commas with non restrictive elements

Commas with non-restrictive elements

  • Ex. Patricia Garza, my accountant, is on vacation.

  • (“My accountant” is not necessary to clarifying who Patricia Garza is. “Patricia Garza” is sufficiently specific. )

  • Ex. My oldest sister, Susan, is my best friend.

  • (“Susan” is not necessary to clarifying who my oldest sister is. I can only have one oldest sister.)


Commas with restrictive elements

Commas with restrictive elements

  • Ex. Accountants who rob their clients should not be able to go on vacation.

  • (“who rob their clients” IS necessary to clarifying which accountants we’re discussing. Not ALL accountants, but rather only those who rob their clients. We cannot frame this clause with commas.)

  • Ex. Sisters in the Effinger family are often best friends.

  • (“In my family” IS necessary to clarifying which sisters we’re discussing. Not ALL sisters.)


Commas with city and state

Commas with CITY AND STATE

  • Ex. I am from Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, where my family still lives.

  • (Place a comma after the city AND the state.)


Commas with introductory phrases clauses

Commas with introductory phrases/clauses

  • Ex. When our taxes are due, we have to file our returns.

  • (“When our taxes are due” is an introductory clause that needs to be set off from the main sentence (subj: “we” and verb “have.”)

  • (“When our taxes are due” is a dependent clause, and “we have to file our returns” is an independent clause, so DC, IC.)


Commas when joining two complete sentences with a coordinating conjunction

Commas when joining two complete sentences with a coordinating conjunction

  • Coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or yet, so (FANBOYS)

  • Ex. Our taxes are due, so we have to file our returns.

  • Ex. Our taxes are due, and we have to file our returns.


Apostrophes

apostrophes


Apostrophes1

apostrophes

  • Ex. The children’s toys are not exclusively boys’ toys or girls’ toys, but they are everyone’s toys.

  • The toys of the children = children’s toys

  • The toys of the boys = boys’ toys

  • The toys of the girls = girls’ toys

  • The toys of everyone = everyone’s toys


Quotation marks

QUOTATION MARKs


Quotation marks1

Quotation marks

  • Question marks and exclamation marks go inside & outside quotation marks, depending on the context.

  • Joe asked, “Where are the flowers?”

  • Where are the “rug rats”?

  • Periods and commas go inside quotation marks. Always.

  • According to Smith, “we should ‘wear our notions of identity lightly.’”

  • “You are not the baby’s father,” Felicia said, “nor am I the baby’s mother.”

  • Semicolons and colons go outside quotation marks. Always.

  • My grandmother always said, “success depends on hard work”; “when life gives you lemons, make lemonade”; and “stop whining and get to work.”


Hyphens

hyphens


Hyphens1

hyphens

  • Hyphenate compound adjectives—adjectives you have built by joining two or more words.

  • Joe bought a seven-month-old puppy.

  • Joe bought a six- to seven-month-old puppy.

  • The task must be done by him- or herself.

  • Do not hyphenate adverbs modifying adjectives.

  • The clothing we donated was lightly worn.

  • Hyphenate numbers between twenty-one and ninety-nine.

  • Next Thursday, my grandmother will be eighty-nine. For an eighty-nine-year-old woman, she is quite spry.


Dashes

dashes


Dashes1

dashes

  • Dashes are used to set off parentheticals. As such, they usually come in pairs.

  • I love writers—Hemingway and Faulkner, among others—because their work brings me such pleasure.

  • Do not include the second dash if the sentence ends where the second dash would go.

  • I love writers—Hemingway and Faulkner, among others.


Punctuation quiz

PUNCTUATION QUIZ

  • #1: Dogs who do not have their up-to-date shots should not be allowed in the dog park and their owner(s) should be fined.

  • Place a comma after "dogs."

  • Remove the hyphens in "up-to-date."

  • Place a comma after "park."

  • Correct as written.


Punctuation quiz1

PUNCTUATION QUIZ

  • #2: Dr. Wilson was born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on a dark and stormy night, but she now lives in San Marcos, Texas, where "the sun always shines, and everyone is happy".

  • Remove the commas after "Oklahoma" and "Texas."

  • Insert a comma after "dark."

  • Place the period inside the quotation mark.

  • Correct as written.


Punctuation quiz2

PUNCTUATION QUIZ

  • #3: Betsy Roof, painter extraordinaire, has produced her greatest masterpiece to date: a seascape featuring dolphins, whales, and manatees, all frolicking together--like children playing--in the moonlight.

  • Remove the colon after "date."

  • B. Replace the commas after dolphins, whales, and manatees with semicolons.

  • C. Replace the dashes with comma.

  • D. CORRECT AS WRITTEN.


Punctuation quiz3

PUNCTUATION QUIZ

  • #4: Despite the delay due to bad weather, the volunteers from San Marcos, Texas, finally delivered to the victims of the Moore tornado a donation of lightly used children's toys, to which the children exclaimed, "Thank you, Texas"!

  • Hyphenate "lightly used."

  • "Children's" should be "childrens.'"

  • The exclamation point should go inside the quotation mark.

  • D. Correct as written


Punctuation quiz4

PUNCTUATION QUIZ

  • #5: Whenever I am writing five long papers for my courses, I wish professors who require twenty-five-page papers could be required to write their own; however taxing that may be.

  • Place commas after "professors" and "papers.”

  • Remove the hyphen between "five" and "page.”

  • Remove the semicolon.

  • Correct as written.


Punctuation quiz5

PUNCTUATION QUIZ

  • #6: My mother-in-law Charlene, is coming for a visit on July 4, 2013, but no one in my household, except me, will be there, so I, and I alone, must now think of fun activities that do not require going outside, spending money, or eating spicy food.

  • Place a comma after "law.”

  • Remove the comma after "2013.”

  • Remove the comma after "there.”

  • Correct as written.


Punctuation quiz6

PUNCTUATION QUIZ

  • #7: At the neighborhood party, the wind blew so hard that the ladies' hats flew away, the children's kites broke their lines, and everyone's day was ruined.

  • "Ladies'" should be "Lady's"

  • B. "Children's" should be "childrens'”

  • C. "everyone's" should be "everyones'"

  • D. Correct as written


Punctuation quiz7

PUNCTUATION QUIZ

  • #8: Even in the twenty-first century, some people continue to own old, outdated and fuel guzzling cars that pollute the air, waste fuel and waste money, but these idiots do not seem to care; I, however, find their actions reprehensible.

  • Place a hyphen between "first" and "century.”

  • B. there should be a hyphen between "fuel" and "guzzling."

  • C. The semicolon after "care" should be a period.

  • D. Correct as written.


Punctuation quiz8

PUNCTUATION QUIZ

  • #9: The requirements for becoming a member of the Kiwanas are: payment of the $200 dues, which is reduced to $150 after a five-year membership; attendance at the orientation that is always scheduled for the first week of August; and a recommendation from another Kiwana.

  • Remove the colon after "are."

  • B. Replace the semicolons with commas.

  • C. Place a comma after "orientation."

  • D. Correct as written.


Punctuation quiz9

PUNCTUATION QUIZ

  • #10: Wrestlers, who bite their opponents, should be fined; however, the sport, as well as the wrestlers themselves, is so popular that no one enforces the rules, and the violence continues.

  • Remove the comma after "wrestlers."

  • B. Remove the commas after "wrestlers" and "opponents."

  • C. Replace the semicolon with a comma.

  • D. Correct as written.


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