Research Methods – Informal (Non-Experimental) & Formal (Experimental). Today’s session. How Research is Conducted!!. Lets play….. What Am I ??. Instructions:
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
You must define the behaviours that you aim to observe. For example, if you were going to observe children in a school playground to see how many behave aggressively, you’d have to decide what accounts for aggression.
This involves an operationalised definition (i.e. some specific, observable behaviours). You might say that “aggression is any physical act made with the intention of harming another person – i.e. punching and kicking etc”. But you have to be careful not to miss out anything important otherwise your definition may not be valid
i.e. aggression can also be verbal.
Makes sense interview, questionnaire and experimentRating behaviour…
The behaviours that you are interested in may be things that are a matter of degree, you might need to use a rating scale to classify behaviour. You could put each participants behaviour into one of several categories e.g. not aggressive, mildly aggressive or very aggressive. Or you could use a coding system where each participant is given a number e.g. between 1 and 10 to represent how aggressive they are, where a higher score indicates more aggression. However you still have to define what kinds of behaviour are included for each number on the scale e.g. 5 being pushing and 10 being kicking and punching more than once. Behaviour rated in this way provides quantitative data in the form of numbers.
But don’t forget sampling… interview, questionnaire and experimentSampling behaviour…
You have to decide how often and how long you’re going to observe the participants. Event sampling – this is when you only record particular events that your interested in (e.g. aggression shown by the children) and ignore other behaviours.
Advantages: Researchers know what behaviour they are looking for
Disadvantages: Potentially interesting behaviours could be ignored
Time – interval sampling – if the behaviours occur over a long period of time you might choose to observe for only set time intervals e.g. the first 10 minutes of every hour. The time intervals could be chosen randomly.
Advantages: Very convenient for the researchers to carry out
Disadvantages: If interesting behaviours occur outside the time sample they won’t be recorded
Oh yes…finally then with observation you must remember to interview, questionnaire and experiment
Have INTER-OBSERVER RELIABILITY.
That means having more then one observer watching people but using the same recording sheet.
Do I hear you ask WHYYYYY????? Well the answer is that it will make your study valid and give it a sense of reliability.
You know what they say………
2 brains are better than one……..a bit like mine!!
STARTER:What is it called when you choose a particular behaviour to observe? Why is it important to have more than 1 researcher observing?
STARTER:How does a structured observation differ from an unstructured? Give one strength and one weakness of doing an observation?
Read a selection of children’s books and pick out key themes such as:
Not Scientific (I.e. its hard to statistically prove anything)
Can’t really generalise
Reliability - how one person views the report/data may be different from someone else
Validity - the language is ambiguous and may be misinterpreted.
Written, face to face or via the internet. interview, questionnaire and experimentQuestionnaires…
Questionnaires interview, questionnaire and experiment need to be designed carefully. There are various things you need to consider when designing a questionnaire for a survey.Type of data…
Whether you want qualitative data and/or quantative data will affect whether you ask open and/or closed questions.
a) Open questions are questions such as What kind of music do you like? The participant can reply in any way, and in as much detail as they want. This gives detailed, qualitative information, although it may be hard to analyse, as the participants could give very difficult answers.
b) Closed questions limit the answers that could be given, e.g. which do you like: pop, rock or neither? They give quantitative data that is relatively easy to analyse – e.g. you can say exactly how many people liked each type of music. However, less detail is obtained about each participant.
You must think carefully about…. interview, questionnaire and experimentAmbiguity…
You have to avoid questions and answers which are not clearly defined, e.g. Do you listen to music frequently? What is meant here by “frequently”? – Once a day, once a week?
It’s best not to use these, since the participant may want to answer differently to each part. For example, Do you agree that modern music is not as good as the music from the 1960’s and that there should be more guitar – based music in the charts?
You must think carefully about….
Watch interview, questionnaire and experiment
You must think carefully about….Leading questions…
These are questions that lead the participant towards a particular answers, e.g. How old was the boy in the distance?They might have seen an older person, but by saying “boy” you’re leading them to describe the person as young. You’re also leading them to think that the person was male, but they might not have been sure. (It’s really important to avoid leading questions in eyewitness testimony).
NB:Category results use discrete bars of data not continuous!!
Structured interviews gave calm, annoy, angry and aggressive responses to aggressive scenario questionsfollow a set of fixed questions that are the same for all participants
Unstructured interviews may have a set of discussion topics but are less constrained about how the conversation goesInterviews…
Social Desirability bias- when the participant wants to please the experimenter or tries to guess the purpose of the research
GO!!.....See if you can do this without looking at your sheets.
Structured hawthorne open validity
deception double-barrelled closed
Unstructured categories correlation field
leading case-study laboratory ambiguous
Inter-observer attrition-rate opportunity
‘This method uses one single target person and studies aspects such as their IQ, brain imaging, personality, behaviour and physical health using a range of
Sampling: only one person being studied. Already been
Identified from their needs.
‘ This method has a weakness in that the results from a single person should not be generalised to the general population’