2010 2011 chemistry sol blitz
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2010-2011 Chemistry SOL Blitz. Question #1. Which of the following atoms contains 30 protons, 40 neutrons and 28 electrons? A: 70 Zn +2 B: 70 Zn -2 C: 40 Zn +2 D: 30 Zr -2. Answer to Q#1. Letter A: 70 Zn +2 is the answer. Why? The format for chemical symbols is A X charge

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2010-2011 Chemistry SOL Blitz

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2010 2011 chemistry sol blitz

2010-2011 Chemistry SOL Blitz


Question 1

Question #1

  • Which of the following atoms contains 30 protons, 40 neutrons and 28 electrons?

  • A: 70 Zn+2

  • B: 70 Zn-2

  • C: 40 Zn+2

  • D: 30 Zr-2


Answer to q 1

Answer to Q#1

  • Letter A: 70 Zn+2 is the answer.

  • Why? The format for chemical symbols is A Xcharge

    z

  • Remember, A = mass, which equals protons + neutrons

  • Z = atomic number = protons

  • Charge = protons – electrons


Question 2

Question #2

  • The element boron has only two stable isotopes. One stable isotope has a mass number of 10 and the other has a mass number of 11. Which of the following could be the atomic weight of the element?

  • A: 9.5

  • B: 10.8

  • C: 11.7

  • D: 12.4


Answer to q 2

Answer to Q#2

  • Letter B: 10.8 is the answer

  • Why? The mass of an element on the periodic table is the weighted average of all the isotopes of that element


Question 3

Question #3

  • An atom of Argon—40 contains—

  • A: 18 protons and 18 neutrons

  • B: 18 protons and 22 neutrons

  • C: 18 protons and 40 neutrons

  • D: 20 protons and 20 neutrons


Answer to q 3

Answer to Q#3

  • Letter B: 18 protons and 22 neutrons

  • Why? The 40 in Argon-40 is the mass of the isotope

  • Remember mass = protons + neutrons (electrons have no mass)

  • Argon has an atomic number of 18, so there 18 protons


Isotope ion quick review

Isotope/ Ion Quick Review

  • Isotopes of an element have the same atomic number (protons) but different masses (hence different neutrons)

  • Both protons and neutrons have a mass of 1

  • Electron’s mass is not taken into account in the mass of an atom

  • Ions are anything with an electrical charge

  • Positively charged ions have lost electrons

  • Negatively charged ions have gained electrons


Question 4

Question #4

  • A scientist comparing K and Ca would find that K has a—

  • A: lower electronegativity and a smaller atomic radius

  • B: higher electronegativity and a smaller atomic radius

  • C: lower electronegativity and a larger radius

  • D: higher electronegativity and a larger atomic radius


Answer to q 4

Answer to Q#4

  • Letter C: lower electronegativity and a larger atomic radius

  • Why? Electronegativity gets higher as you go across a period and atomic radius gets smaller as you go across a period

  • K is farther left so it must have a lower electronegativity and larger atomic radius


Question 5

Question #5

  • Which of the following elements is the most reactive?

  • A: Cs

  • B: Sr

  • C: Mg

  • D: Rb


Answer to q 5

Answer to Q#5

  • Letter A: Cs

  • Why? All these elements are metals—the most reactive metals are the largest

  • Atomic radius gets larger as you go down a group

  • Cs is farthest down so it is the largest and most reactive


Trends quick review

Trends Quick Review

  • Trends as you go down a group: larger atomic radius, lower electronegativity, lower and ionization energy (easier to lose an electron)

  • Trends as you go across a period: smaller atomic radius, higher electronegativity, and higher ionization energy (harder to lose an electron)

  • Remember IE is the energy it takes to lose an electron

  • Electronegativity is the ability to gain an electron


Quick review continued

Quick Review Continued

  • Metal reactivity: Largest metals = most reactive metals.

  • Remember metals like to lose electrons

  • Non-metal reactivity: smallest non-metals = most reactive non-metals.

  • Remember non-metals like gain electrons

  • Noble gases are non-reactive—they have a full valence shell


Question 6

Question #6

  • A bond between an element of group 2 and an element of group 17 will be:

  • A: ionic

  • B: Nonpolar covalent

  • C: Polar covalent

  • D: Metallic


Answer to q 6

Answer to Q#6

  • Letter A: Ionic

  • Why? Group 2 elements are metals (also known as alkaline earth metals) and group 17 (or 7) elements are non-metals (also known as halogens)

  • Metals + non-metals = ionic bonding


Bonding quick review

Bonding Quick Review

  • Covalent bonding = sharing of electrons between non-metals

  • Ionic bonding = transferring of electrons between metal + non-metal

  • Nonpolar covalent bond = equal sharing of electrons between non-metals

  • Polar covalent bond = unequal sharing of electrons between non-metals


Question 7

Question #7

  • What is the name for Cu2S?

  • A: Copper sulfide

  • B: Copper (I) sulfide

  • C: Dicopper sulfide

  • D: Dicopper monosulfide


Answer to q 7

Answer to Q#7

  • Letter B: Copper (I) sulfide

  • Why? Copper is a transition (d block) metal, so you must use roman numerals to indicate its charge

  • Look behind S for the charge of Cu.

  • Charge is +1 so copper (I) sulfide


Question 8

Question #8

  • Which of the following is the formula for carbonic acid?

  • A: HC

  • B: HCO

  • C: HO

  • D: H2CO3


Answer to q 8

Answer to Q#8

  • Letter D: H2CO3

  • Why? It’s an acid so H must come first. Carbonic = carbonate = CO3-2

  • H+1 + CO3-2 = H2CO3


Question 9

Question #9

  • What is the molecular formula of tetraphosphorus decoxide?

  • A: PO

  • B: P4O

  • C: P4O10

  • D: PO10


Answer to q 9

Answer to Q#9

  • Letter C: P4O10

  • Why? Tetra = 4 and deca = 10

  • So P4O10

  • Remember, when using prefixes don’t switch—simply write what’s given


Naming quick review

Naming Quick Review

  • Must use roman numerals to indicate charge of a transition metal

  • Only use prefixes when the compound is all non-metals

  • If an acid has hydro prefix then it’s H+element

  • If no hydro prefix for an acid then it’s H+polyatomic


Question 10

Question #10

___C3H4 + ___O2 ___CO2 + ___H2O

  • When the equation above is balanced, what is the sum of the coefficients?

  • A: 4

  • B: 5

  • C: 8

  • D: 10


Answer to q10

Answer to Q10

  • Letter D: 10

  • Why? C3H4 + 4O2 3CO2 + 2H2O; so 1+4+3+2 = 10

  • Don’t forget the law of conservation of mass says the reactants side = products side


Question 11

Question #11

  • Which of the following is an example of a decomposition reaction?

  • A: 2AgCl  2Ag + Cl2

  • B: CuO + H2O  Cu(OH)2

  • C: AgCl + Mg  MgCl2 + Ag

  • D: HCl + Na(OH)  H2O + NaCl


Answer to q 11

Answer to Q #11

  • Letter A: 2AgCl  2Ag + Cl2

  • Why? Decomposition is when you start with one reactant and break into 2 products

  • Letter B = synthesis; letter C = single replacement and letter D = neutralization reaction


Question 12

Question #12

  • 12 x 403 =

  • What is the answer to the above problem expressed with proper sig figs?

  • A: 5,000

  • B: 4800

  • C: 4830

  • D: 4836


Answer to q 12

Answer to Q#12

  • Letter B: 4800

  • Why? When multiplying or dividing, you use lowest # of sig figs for your answer

  • 12 only has two sig figs, so your answer can only have two


Question 13

Question #13

  • How many atoms of Na are in 0.300 moles of Na?

  • A: 0.0131 atoms

  • B: 7.86x1021 atoms

  • C: 1.81x1023 atoms

  • D: 6.02x1023 atoms


Answer to q 13

Answer to Q#13

  • Letter C: 1.81x1023 atoms

  • Why? 0.300 moles Na x 6.02x1023atom

    1 mole

    = 1.81x1023 atoms


Question 14

Question #14

  • How many moles are in a 342grams of CaO?

  • A: 6.10 moles

  • B: 56.1 moles

  • C: 1.92x104 moles

  • D: 3.67x1024 moles


Answer to q 14

Answer to Q#14

  • Letter A: 6.10 grams

  • Why? 342g x 1mole CaO = 6.10 moles

    56.08 grams

  • 56.08 grams is the molar mass of CaO from the Periodic Table


Moles quick review

Moles Quick Review

  • When multiplying/dividing use lowest # of sig figs for answer

  • When adding/ subtracting use lowest # of decimal places for answer

  • MassMoles use mass of Periodic Table = 1 mole

  • Moles Particles use 1 mole = 6.02x1023 particles

  • Moles Liters at STP use 1 mole = 22.4 L


Question 15

Question #15

Be + 2HCl  BeCl2 + H2

  • Using the above reaction, what mass of beryllium was consumed in the reaction if 4.0 moles of HCl were used?

  • A: 2.0grams

  • B: 9.0 grams

  • C: 18.0 grams

  • D: 36.0 grams


Answer to q 15

Answer to Q#15

  • Letter C: 18.0 grams

  • Why?

  • 4.0molsHCl x 1mols Be x 9.01gBe

    2 mols HCl 1 mole Be

    = 18.0 grams Be


Letter 16

Letter #16

2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O

  • In an experiment, 0.500 mols of C2H6 were reacted with 1.50 moles of oxygen gas. Which of the following is the limiting reactant in this experiment?

  • A: C2H6

  • B: O2

  • C: CO2

  • D: H2O


Answer to q 16

Answer to Q #16

  • Letter B: O2

  • Why? 0.500molsC2H6 x 4mols CO2

    2 mols C2H6

    = 1.00 mols CO2

  • 1.50molsO2x4mols CO2 = 0.857molsCO2

    7 mols O2

  • Since O2 produces less CO2, it must be the limiting reactant

  • C and D shouldn’t even be choices b/c they are products!


Stoich quick review

Stoich Quick Review

  • Mass A  Mols A Mols B  Mass B

  • Go from mols A  mols B using mol to mol ratio from coefficients of balanced equation

  • Limiting reactant is the one used up first. It also produces the smaller amount of product

  • % yield = (actual/theoretical) x100

  • Can also use stoich to go from mass/mols of A to liters of B; use 22.4 L = 1mol at STP


Question 17

Question #17

  • Which of the following is NOT a part of the kinetic molecular theory?

  • A: Gases move in a straight, continual motion

  • B: Gases have no volume themselves

  • C: Gases participate in inelastic collisions

  • D: Kinetic energy is directly related to temperature

  • E: Gases feel no attractive forces


Answer to q 17

Answer to Q#17

  • Letter C: Gases participate in inelastic collisions

  • Why? Gases actually participate in elastic collisions.

  • The other 4 parts are all TRUE


Gas laws quiz review

Gas Laws Quiz Review

  • Boyle’s Law  P1V1 = P2V2, where P and V are inversely related.

  • Charles’ Law  V1/T1 = V2/T2

  • Gay-Lusac  P1/T1 = P2/T2

  • Combined Gas Law  (P1V1)/T1 = (P2V2)/T2

  • Ideal Gas Law  PV = nRT, where R = 0.0821 (L*atm)/(mol*K)


More gas laws review

More Gas Laws Review

  • Must always convert temperature from celsius to KELVIN!

  • Absolute zero is -273C or 0K!

  • Absolute zero is the point where all motion slows down and stops

  • Dalton’s Law  P1+P2+P3… = Ptotal


Question 18

Question #18

  • Which of the following phase changes occurs at the arrow?

  • A: Sublimation

  • B: Melting

  • C: Evaporation

  • D: Condensation


Answer to q 18

Answer to Q#18

  • Letter B: melting

  • Why? Graph always goes S, L, G—look at pic on right

  • The arrow points to line b/w solid and liquid

  • Only phase changes there are melting (SL) or freezing (LS)


Phases quick review

Phases Quick Review

  • 6 phases changes

    • Melting (SL)--Freezing (LS)

    • Evaporation (LG) --Condensation (GL)

    • Sublimation (SG) --Deposition (GS)

  • Molar heat of fusion = amount of energy needed to melt 1 mole of a substance

  • Molar heat of vaporization = amount of energy needed to evaporate 1 mole of a substance

  • Specific heat capacity = amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1˚C use q = mxCpxΔT


Imf quick review

IMF Quick Review

  • Four different intermolecular forces

    • London dispersion (weakest) = nonpolar covalent molecules

    • Dipole-dipole = polar molecules

    • Hydrogen bonding = H connected to N, O or F bonding to another O, N or F

    • Ionic (strongest) = metal + non-metal

  • Don’t forget to do the arrow test to determine polarity of a molecule


Question 19

Question #19

  • How many moles of MgCl2 are present in 3.00 liters of a 0.150M MgCl2 solution?

  • A: 0.0500 moles

  • B: 0.450 moles

  • C: 1.35 moles

  • D: 20.0 moles


Answer to q 19

Answer to Q#19

  • Letter B: 0.450 moles

  • Why? Molarity (M) = mols/liters

  • So 0.150 M = x/3.00 L

  • (0.150M)(3.00L) = x

  • X = 0.450 moles


Solutions quick review

Solutions Quick Review

  • Molarity(M)=mols of solute/L of solution

  • Molality(m)=mols of solute/kg of solvent

  • Freezing point depression:

    ΔTf=(-Kf) (m)(n)

  • Boiling point elevationΔTB=(Kb)(m)(n)

  • Remember if the solute is covalent, n = 1


Equilibrium quick review

Equilibrium Quick Review

  • Write K expressions as products over reactants. Remember the coefficients in the balanced equation are used as exponents in the K expressions

  • Solids and liquids are not included!

  • Catalysts lower the activation energy of a reaction

  • Enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) determine the spontaneity of a reaction

  • - ΔH (exothermic) and +ΔS (more disorder) means a spontaneous reaction


Question 20

Question #20

  • PCl5(g) + heat  PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)

  • Which of the following will cause an increase in the equilibrium concentration of Cl2 gas?

  • A: The addition of PCl3 gas

  • B: The removal of PCl5 gas

  • C: A decrease in temperature

  • D: An increase in temperature


Answer to q 20

Answer to Q#20

  • Letter D: An increase in temperature

  • Why? Heat is a reactant, so increase reactant side, equilibrium shifts to product side

  • Letter A causes shift to L; letter B causes shift to L; and letter C causes shift to L


Acid base quick review

pH = -log[H+]

pOH = -log [OH-]

pH + pOH = 14

[H+][OH-] = 1x10-14

[H+] = 10^(-pH)

[OH-] = 10^(-pOH)

pH < 7 = acid

pH > 7 = base

Acid/Base Quick Review


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