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Welcome to Unit 2 Any Questions?. Getting Ready For Project 1: Unit 3. Read assignment carefully Review Rubric and use as checklist Proof read carefully. Don’t depend on Spell Check alone! Use APA writing style. See sample paper in Doc Sharing.

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Welcome to Unit 2 Any Questions?

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Welcome to unit 2 any questions

Welcome to Unit 2Any Questions?


Getting ready for project 1 unit 3

Getting Ready For Project 1: Unit 3

  • Read assignment carefully

  • Review Rubric and use as checklist

  • Proof read carefully. Don’t depend on Spell Check alone!

  • Use APA writing style. See sample paper in Doc Sharing.

  • Use KU Library, rather than the Internet to find your articles. If you aren’t familiar with the library, click on the link and take the orientation tour.

  • Questions?


Applied behavior analysis is grounded in principles of learning

Applied Behavior Analysis is grounded in Principles of Learning

  • Learning

    • any process through which experience at one time can alter an individual’s behavior at a future time

    • A relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge that is due to past experience


Welcome to unit 2 any questions

  • The study of LEARNING formed the basis for the approach in Psychology known as Behaviorism


Behaviorism is

BEHAVIORISM IS:

  • The attempt to understand observable activity in terms of observable stimuli and observable responses

  • IMPORTANT TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIORAL THEORY

    • PAVLOV

    • WATSON

    • THORNDIKE

    • SKINNER


Types of learning

Types of Learning

Respondent or Classical Conditioning

Operant Learning

BF Skinner

Behavior that is shaped by consequences

I study hard for this test and get a high grade, so I study hard next test too.

I come to work all week and get paid, so I keep coming to work

The more projects I complete, the more I get paid, so I work as fast as I can

  • Ivan Pavlov

  • Behavior that is reflexive elicited by a stimulus)

  • When I smell food, I salivate

  • When I smell bad food, I gag

  • When A puff of air is blown in my face, I blink


Important terms

Important Terms

Ivan Pavlov: Founder of the practice of Classical Conditioning

Respondent Conditioning: Synonymous term for Classical Conditioning.

Unconditioned Stimulus: A stimulus that naturally produces a response

Unconditioned Response: A response that is naturally produced by the subject.

Neutral Stimulus: A stimulus which normally does not elicit the response.

Conditioned Stimulus: The formerly neutral stimulus which after pairing produces the response

Conditioned Response: The response when produced by the Conditioned Stimulus (formerly neutral stimulus).

Involuntary behavior: Behavior that can be modified through the use of Classical Conditioning.


Welcome to unit 2 any questions

Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936)

Russian Physiologist

Won a Nobel Prize for studying digestion in dogs


Pavlov and classical conditioning

Pavlov and Classical Conditioning

Conditioning:

The process of learning associations between environmental events (stimuli) and responses

PAVLOV’S DOGS (re-enactment, of course)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpoLxEN54ho


Pavlov s dogs

Pavlov’s Dogs

  • Digestive reflexes and salivation

  • Psychic secretion


Neutral stimulus bell

Neutral Stimulus—Bell

Does not normally elicit a response or reflex action by itself

  • a bell ringing

  • a color

  • a furry object


Unconditioned stimulus food

Unconditioned Stimulus—Food

Always elicits a reflex action: an unconditioned response

  • food

  • blast of air

  • noise


Unconditioned response salivation

Unconditioned Response —Salivation

A response to an unconditioned stimulus—naturally occurring

  • Salivation at smell of food

  • Eye blinks at blast of air

  • Startle reaction in babies


Conditioned stimulus bell

Conditioned Stimulus—Bell

  • The stimulus that was originally neutral becomes conditioned after it has been paired with the unconditioned stimulus

  • Will eventually elicit the unconditioned response by itself


Conditioned response

Conditioned Response

The original unconditioned response becomes conditioned after it has been elicited by the neutral stimulus


Welcome to unit 2 any questions

  • JOHN B. WATSON (1878-1958)

  • "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select–doctor, lawyer, artist–regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors" (p. 104)

  • WATSON, JOHN B. 1930. Behaviorism, revised edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xt0ucxOrPQE


Welcome to unit 2 any questions

  • BEFORE CONDITIONING

    Rat (NS)No Fear response

    Loud NoiseFear Response

    DURING CONDITIONING

    Rat + Loud NoiseFear Response

    AFTER CONDITIONING

    RatFear Response


Ethical issues

Ethical Issues

  • Not likely this study would be done today!!


Welcome to unit 2 any questions

Rescorla, Robert A. (1988). Pavlovian Conditioning: It’s not what you think it is. American Psychologist, Vol 43(3),151-160.

  • Consideration of Rescorla Article

    • The circumstances that produce Pavlovian conditioning are not as simple and automatic as an introductory discussion might lead you to believe

    • Conditioning involves more than contiguous pairing that produces associations between stimuli

    • Rather Conditioning involves learning relations between events

    • Multiple associations may be made during conditioning

    • Ultimately associations represent useful information that is coded in the organism

    • Not all stimuli are equally associable and some types conditioning happens more quickly


Any questions

Any Questions?


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