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Life Science NJ ASK Review. 8 th Grade Science. Animal vs. Plant Cell. Determine the similarities and differences. What is a food chain?. A food chain is “a sequence of organisms, each of which uses the next, lower member of the sequence as a food source 1 ” .

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Life science nj ask review

Life Science NJ ASK Review

8th Grade Science


Animal vs plant cell
Animal vs. Plant Cell

  • Determine the similarities and differences.


What is a food chain
What is a food chain?

  • A food chain is “a sequence of organisms, each of which uses the next, lower member of the sequence as a food source1”


Important facts about food chains
Important facts about food chains

  • In a food chain each organism obtains energy from the one at the level below.

  • Plants are called producers because they create their own food through photosynthesis

  • Animals are consumers because they cannot create their own food, they must eat plants or other animals to get the energy that they need.


Four types of consumer
Four types of consumer

  • Herbivores: animals that eat only plants

  • Carnivores: animals that eat only other animals.

  • Omnivores: animals that eat animals and plants.

  • Detritivores: Animals that eat dead materials and organic wastes


Other ways to classify consumers
Other Ways to Classify Consumers

  • Primary Consumers: Herbivores.

  • Secondary Consumers: Carnivores that eat herbivores.

  • Tertiary Consumers: Carnivores that eat other carnivores.




Organization of living organisms
Organization of Living Organisms

Cells

-basic unit of an animal’s structure

-become specialized

_______________________________

Tissues

-made of cells that work together to perform a specific function

__________________________________________

Organs

-made of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function

____________________________________________________

Organ Systems

-made of organs that work together to perform a specific function

_____________________________________________________________

Organisms


Genetics what are traits
Genetics - What are traits?

  • Physical Traits

    • Can be seen by others

    • Eye color, hair color, height, left handed

  • Acquired Traits

    • Learned skills

    • Playing a sport, riding a bike, playing a musical instrument

  • Behavioral Traits

    • Instinctual actions

    • Nest building and migration


Review terms used in modern genetics
Review Terms Used in Modern Genetics

  • Genotype

    • The particular alleles (genes) an individual carries

    • They are inherited from your biological parents

    • Genes control your traits

  • Phenotype

    • An individual’s observable traits

      • What people can SEE when they look at you

  • An individual with non-identical alleles of a gene is heterozygous for that gene

    • Examples: Bb, Tt, Aa

  • An individual with identical alleles of a gene is homozygous for that gene

    • Examples: BB or bb, TT or tt


Terms used in modern genetics
Terms Used in Modern Genetics

  • An allele is dominant if its effect masks the effect of a recessive allele paired with it

    • Capital letters (A) signify dominant alleles; lowercase letters (a) signify recessive alleles

    • Homozygous dominant (AA)

    • Homozygous recessive (aa)

    • Heterozygous (Aa)


Generation 1

B

B

b

b

In this case we have a dad with black fur and a mother with white fur. Because black is the dominant gene, we write it with a capital ‘B’. White fur is a recessive trait. It is written with a lowercase ‘b’. It does not matter what letter we choose to represent a gene, but capital letter is always dominant and lowercase is always recessive.


Tongue Curling

T=can curl

T=cannot curl

T

t

T

T

Copy into your notebook and complete the Punnett’s Square.

What percentage of offspring will be able to curl their tongue?


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