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1920-1929. The Jazz Age. The Jazz Age (1920-1929). Time of Turmoil. Essential Question. How did prejudice and labor strife affect the nation following WWI?. The Red Scare. After WWI, Americans grew more suspicious of foreigners and those holding views different than their own

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The Jazz Age

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1920 1929

1920-1929

The Jazz Age


The jazz age 1920 1929

The Jazz Age (1920-1929)

Time of Turmoil


Essential question

Essential Question

  • How did prejudice and labor strife affect the nation following WWI?


The red scare

The Red Scare

  • After WWI, Americans grew more suspicious of foreigners and those holding views different than their own

  • 1917 – Bolshevik Revolution set up a Communist state in Russia

    • Urged workers around the world to overthrow Capitalism

  • Government under Herbert Hoover arrested and/or deported more than 10,000 suspected communists

    and anarchists


Strikes sweep the country

Strikes Sweep the Country

  • Industrial workers went on strike for better working hour, wages and union rights

  • Employers saw them as “Red agitators” (Communists/Bolsheviks) and many strikes ended violently


Racial unrest

Racial Unrest

  • In the North, many whites resented African American competition for factory jobs

  • Racial tensions led to violence in the South

    • 1919 – More than 70 African Americans lynched

    • 1919 – Race riots and fighting between black and white street gangs left many dead and injured


Race riots

Race Riots


Strange fruit billie holiday

Strange Fruit – Billie Holiday

Southern trees bear strange fruit

Blood on the leaves and blood at the root

Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze

Strange fruit hanging from the popular trees

Pastoral scene of the gallant south

The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth

Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh

Then the sudden smell of burning flesh

Here is fruit for the crows to pluck

For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck

For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop

Here is a strange and bitter cry


Strange fruit billie holiday1

Strange Fruit – Billie Holiday

  • 1. What is “strange fruit”?

  • 2. What injustice is portrayed in “strange fruit”?

    3. What might have been the danger of Billie Holiday’s performance of this song during this era?


Making connections

Making Connections

  • How did prejudice and labor strife affect the nation following World War I?


The jazz age 1920 19291

The Jazz Age (1920-1929)

Desire for Normalcy


Essential question1

Essential Question

  • In what ways did the election of Harding and Coolidge reflect America’s changing mood?


Warren g harding

Warren G. Harding

  • Election of 1920 campaign slogan: “Return to normalcy”

  • Ohio Gang: Wilson gives jobs political supporters

  • Harding administration plagued by scandal although he was not directly involved

  • Dies of a heart attack while in office (1923)


Silent cal takes over

“Silent Cal” Takes Over

  • Laissez-faire approach to government

  • Cut spending and lowered taxes for the wealthy and large corporations

  • Overturned laws regulating women’s wages and child labor


Foreign policy

Foreign Policy

  • Harding and Coolidge both favored a limited role in foreign affairs

  • Many Americans supported this policy of isolationism

  • Promoted peace among foreign nations and the United States

    • Five Power Treaty

      • Signed by US, Britain, France, Italy and Japan

      • Agreed to limit the size of their navies

  • Coolidge negotiates a peace treaty with Mexico


Making connections1

Making Connections

  • In what ways did the election of Harding and Coolidge reflect America’s changing mood?

    • “RETURN TO NORMALCY”

    • Favored business over labor and promised this support would lead to prosperity


The jazz age 1920 19292

The Jazz Age (1920-1929)

A Booming Economy


Essential question2

Essential Question

  • How did technology and new forms of transportation change American life?


Growth in the 1920s

Growth in the 1920s

  • Recession after World War I

  • Shift to steady growth for most of the 1920s

    • GNP (1922) = $70 billion

    • GNP (1929) = $100 billion

  • Technology spurred rapid industrial growth

  • Electricity powered American industry


Management and workers

Management and Workers

  • Mass production techniques and assembly lines increase productivity and lowers prices

  • Business tried to build better relationships with workers

    • Safety programs lowered the risk of death or injury on the job

    • Some provided health and accident insurance

    • Other encouraged workers to buy stock in the company


The consumer economy

The Consumer Economy

  • People acquired electric appliances that cut time on household chores

    • Refrigerators

    • Stoves

    • Vacuum Cleaners

    • Radios


Stove

Stove


Radio

Radio


The automobile age

The Automobile Age

  • Henry Ford (Detroit, MI) responsible for making the automobile sturdy, reliable and inexpensive


Industries affected by the automobile

Industries Affected by the Automobile

  • New roads and highways needed

  • Businesses along major roads profited

  • Steel industry

  • Rubber Industry

  • Glass Industry

  • Contributed to the spread of suburbs


Those left behind

Those Left Behind

  • Farmers

    • Had to compete with European agriculture after the war

    • Food prices fell and farm income dropped

    • Many lost their farms due to high debt

  • Railroad Workers

    • Trucks

    • Electricity used for power instead of coal

  • Textile Factories

    • Synthetic fibers begin to be used instead of cotton


Making connections2

Making Connections

1. Evaluate: Who benefited from the increased popularity of the automobile?

2. Analyzing: Discuss the pros and cons of installment buying for the American consumer.

3. Answer the Essential Question: How did new technology and forms of transportation change American life?


The jazz age 1920 19293

The Jazz Age (1920-1929)

The Roaring 20’S


Essential question3

Essential Question

  • How did social change affect the arts, the role of women and minorities?


Changes for women

Changes for Women

  • 1920 – Ratification of the 19th Amendment (Women’s right to vote)

  • Number of women working outside the home grew steadily

  • Flapper: the new “liberated” woman of the 1920’s

    • Carefree young woman

    • “bobbed” hair

    • Heavy make up

    • Short skirts

    • Many saw the flapper as a sign of changing morals and new freedoms


Movies and radio

Movies and Radio

  • Mass media reaches millions of people

  • Better technology gives people more leisure time to enjoy

    • Newspapers

    • Magazines

    • Phonograph records

    • The radio (brought entertainment into people’s homes)

    • Movies (movies with sound introduced in 1927)


Sports and fads

Sports and Fads

  • Radio added to the popularity of sports (Sports stars became heroes)

  • Fads like board games, crossword puzzles, flagpole sitting and dance marathons


Jazz and the harlem renaissance

Jazz and the Harlem Renaissance

  • Rooted in African American music

  • Uses dynamic rhythms and improvisation

    • Louis Armstrong

    • Duke Ellington

    • Bessie Smith

  • Harlem Renaissance (NYC)

    • Blossoming of culture

    • African American experience

      presented in novels poems and

      short stories (Langston Hughes,

      ZoraNeale Hurston)


A clash of cultures

A Clash of Cultures

  • ***During the 1920s, American society was divided by a clash between traditional and modern values***

  • "Boys and girls in the three upper years of high school marked the number of times they go out on school nights and the hour they get in at night more frequently than any other sources of friction with their parents. …"

  • Robert and Helen Lynd


Eighteenth amendment prohibition 1919

Eighteenth Amendment: Prohibition (1919)

  • A total ban on the manufacture, sale and transportation of alcohol in the United States

  • Had little support in the cities

  • Continuing demand for alcohol led to widespread law breaking

    • Speakeasies: illegal bars and clubs where alcohol was sold

    • Many states in the east eventually stopped enforcing Prohibition

    • Organized crime including bootlegging and gangsters like Al Capone

  • 1933: Twenty-first Amendment repeals Prohibition


Nativism

Nativism

  • Belief that native born Americans are superior to foreigners and their way of life

  • Revival of the Ku Klux Klan

    • Terror Tactics

    • Lynching

    • Anti-immigration

  • 1921 – Congress responds to nativist fears with a quota system

    • Limit on the number of immigrants who could enter the country


The scopes trial 1925

The Scopes Trial (1925)

  • Cultural clash involving the role of

    religion in society

  • Tennessee Christian fundamentalists passed a law making it illegal to teach evolution in schools

  • High School teacher John Scopes deliberately broke the law to bring it to trial

  • William Jennings Bryan: Lawyer who defended the law

  • Clarence Darrow: Defended Scopes

  • Law was overturned based on the idea that it imposed specific religious beliefs on the entire state


Election of 1928

Election of 1928

  • Herbert Hoover (“dry” candidate) vs. Alfred E. Smith (“wet” candidate)

  • Hoover wins by a landslide

    • Worked to promote cooperation between government and business


The jazz age

  • "Boys and girls in the three upper years of high school marked the number of times they go out on school nights and the hour they get in at night more frequently than any other sources of friction with their parents. …"

  • Robert and Helen Lynd


Making connections3

Making Connections

  • What forms of art and entertainment became popular during the 1920s?

  • Answer the Essential Question: how did social change affect the arts, the role of women and minorities?


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