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Meta-Cognition, Motivation, and Affect. PSY504 Spring term, 2011 April 18, 2011. Class Notes. Topic paper is due WEDNESDAY. Class Notes. Topic paper is due WEDNESDAY If you have any questions, . Class Notes. Topic paper is due WEDNESDAY

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Meta-Cognition, Motivation, and Affect

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Meta cognition motivation and affect

Meta-Cognition, Motivation, and Affect

PSY504Spring term, 2011

April 18, 2011


Class notes

Class Notes

  • Topic paper is due WEDNESDAY


Class notes1

Class Notes

  • Topic paper is due WEDNESDAY

  • If you have any questions,


Class notes2

Class Notes

  • Topic paper is due WEDNESDAY

  • If you have any questions, last week was the time to ask them


Class notes3

Class Notes

  • Topic paper is due WEDNESDAY

  • If you have any questions, last week was the time to ask them

  • But I’ll take them any time up until Wednesday


Off task behavior

Off-Task Behavior

  • When a student completely disengages from the learning environment and task to engage in an unrelated behavior.

  • Examples:

    • Talking to other student about Inception


Off task behavior1

Off-Task Behavior

  • When a student completely disengages from the learning environment and task to engage in an unrelated behavior.

  • Examples:

    • Talking to other student about Inception

    • Reading a magazine about Inception


Off task behavior2

Off-Task Behavior

  • When a student completely disengages from the learning environment and task to engage in an unrelated behavior.

  • Examples:

    • Talking to other student about Inception

    • Reading a magazine about Inception

    • Surfing the web to read blog posts on Inception


Off task behavior3

Off-Task Behavior

  • When a student completely disengages from the learning environment and task to engage in an unrelated behavior.

  • Examples:

    • Talking to other student about Inception

    • Reading a magazine about Inception

    • Surfing the web to read blog posts on Inception

    • Playing an online Inception video game


Off task behavior4

Off-Task Behavior

  • When a student completely disengages from the learning environment and task to engage in an unrelated behavior.

  • Examples:

    • Talking to other student about Inception

    • Reading a magazine about Inception

    • Surfing the web to read blog posts on Inception

    • Playing an online Inception video game

    • Sleeping…


Off task behavior5

Off-Task Behavior

  • When a student completely disengages from the learning environment and task to engage in an unrelated behavior.

  • Examples:

    • Talking to other student about Inception

    • Reading a magazine about Inception

    • Surfing the web to read blog posts on Inception

    • Playing an online Inception video game

    • Sleeping… and dreaming about Inception


Off task behavior6

Off-Task Behavior

  • When a student completely disengages from the learning environment and task to engage in an unrelated behavior.

  • Examples:

    • Talking to other student about Inception

    • Reading a magazine about Inception

    • Surfing the web to read blog posts on Inception

    • Playing an online Inception video game

    • Sleeping… and dreaming about Inception(but is it really a dream?)


History of off task behavior plato 600 bc the madeuppias

History of off-task behavior(Plato, ~600 BC, The Madeuppias)

  • Gorgias: I must admit, Socrates, that on some occasions, my students do not pay attention to me while I am lecturing.

  • Socrates: And what do you do in these sitatuations?

  • Gorgias: I often utilize verbal reprimands.

  • Socrates: And does that eliminate the off-task behavior then, Gorgias?

  • Gorgias: No, Socrates, it does not.

  • Socrates: Can off-task behavior be considered the most complete, the ideal form of classroom disengagement?

  • Gorgias: I am not certain, Socrates.

  • Socrates: And what would you do to reduce off-task behavior, Alcibiades?

  • Alcibiades: I would sell the city of Athens to Xerxes, king of the Persians.


History of off task behavior

History of off-task behavior

  • First cited as a problem in classrooms in 1884(Currie, 1884)


Time on task hypothesis carroll 1963 bloom 1976

Time-on-Task Hypothesis(Carroll, 1963; Bloom, 1976)

  • Off-task behavior reduces the total time spent learning the material, thereby reducing learning


Assessing off task behavior

Assessing off-task behavior

  • Quantitative field observations (Lahaderne, 1968; Cobb, 1972; McKinney et al, 1975; Fredrick et al., 1979; Karweit& Slavin, 1981, 1982; Lloyd & Loper, 1986; Chase & Mueller, 1989; Weisz et al., 1995; Lee, Kelly, & Nyre, 1999; Baker et al., 2004; Rodrigo et al., 2007, 2008, 2009)

    • Typically excellent inter-rater reliability

  • Automated detectors, built from field observations (Baker, 2007; Cetintas et al., 2009)


Off task behavior7

Off-Task Behavior

  • Occurs 15-25% of time in middle school and high school (Baker, 2007; Lee, Kelly, & Nyre, 1999; Lloyd & Loper, 1986)

  • Occurs 30-50% of time in elementary school (Karweit & Slavin, 1981; Fisher et al., in preparation)


Off task behavior8

Off-Task Behavior

  • Associated with poorer learning in traditional classrooms

    (Lahaderne, 1968; Cobb, 1972; McKinney et al, 1975; Karweit & Slavin, 1981, 1982; Caldwell, Huitt, & Graeber, 1982; Goodman, 1990; Lee, Kelly, & Nyre, 1999)

  • And in individual use of educational software

    (Baker, Corbett, Koedinger, & Wagner, 2004; Baker, 2007; Cocea, Hershkovitz, & Baker, 2009)


Off task behavior9

Off-Task Behavior

  • Associated with poorer performance on later standardized exams

    (Karweit & Slavin, 1982; Rossmiller, 1986, cited in Berliner, 1990)


Off task behavior10

Off-Task Behavior

  • Predicts later drop-out

    (Finn, 1989; Tobin & Sugai, 1999)


However

However

  • Not all studies found this pattern

  • Some null effects (Fredrick et al., 1979; Karweit & Slavin, 1981)

  • Some positive correlations to learning (Kreijns, 2004; Kumar et al., 2004)


Hypotheses

Hypotheses

  • Difference in methodology between studies (Karweit & Slavin, 1982)

  • Lack of statistical power (Karweit & Slavin, 1982)

  • Only large amounts of off-task behavior depress learning (Lee, Kelly, & Nyre, 1999)


Another hypothesis

Another hypothesis

  • Unpublished

  • Not all studies report all aspects of classroom behavior and the classroom situation

  • The two studies that reported positive correlations between off-task behavior and learning were different from the other studies


Another hypothesis1

Another hypothesis

  • Unpublished

  • Not all studies report all aspects of classroom behavior and the classroom situation

  • The two studies that reported positive correlations between off-task behavior and learning were different from the other studies

    • Collaborative learning


Off task behavior and collaborative learning

Off-Task Behavior and Collaborative Learning

  • Off-task behavior is associated with better learning within collaborative learning settings (Kreijns, 2004; Kumar et al., 2007)

  • Mediated by improved inter-personal relationships (Kreijns, 2004)

  • And (hypothesized) improved help-seeking and help provision


Off task behavior and collaborative learning1

Off-Task Behavior and Collaborative Learning

  • Students in collaborative learning switch rapidly between off-task and on-task conversations (Yonge & Stables, 1998)

  • When pedagogical agents engage collaborating students in off-task social conversation

    • Increases amount of help provision, reduces help denials, improves learning(Kumar et al., 2007)


Disruptive behavior

Disruptive Behavior

  • A special case of off-task behavior (Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969; Stage & Quiroz, 1997; Ziemek, 2006)

  • Disrupts not just the off-task student but other students


Brief and extended off task behavior

Brief and extended off-task behavior

  • Karweit & Slavin (1982) observed that 82% of off-task behavior lasts 30 seconds or less

  • They note that the relationship between off-task behavior and learning does not significantly change whether this brief off-task behavior is counted as off-task or not

  • However, the correlations to learning for each type of off-task behavior are not reported


Why do students go off task

Why do students go off-task?

  • Test anxiety (Nottelmann & Hill, 1987)

  • Disliking the subject matter (Baker, 2007)

  • Passive-aggressiveness (Baker, 2007)

  • Boredom (Baker et al., under review)

  • The student’s perception that their teacher is unsupportive or favors performance goals over learning goals (Ryan & Patrick, 2001)

    • Note that off-task behavior not associated with whether the student themself has performance or learning goals (Baker, 2007)


Off task behavior in east asia

Off-Task Behavior in East Asia

  • Off-task behavior is significantly less frequent in East Asian countries than in the USA (Chase & Mueller, 1989; Weisz et al., 1995; Rodrigo et al., 2007, 2008, 2009)

    • Japan

    • Thailand

    • Philippines

  • Ironically, teachers in Thailand believe that off-task behavior is very common (Weisz et al., 1995)


Comments questions

Comments? Questions?


Carelessness

Carelessness

  • Two definitions

  • Making an error despite knowing a skill (Newman, 1977; Clements, 1982)

  • Not exercising conscientiousness when attempting to answer a question; answering impulsively (Maydeu-Olivares & D’Zurilla, 1995; Rodriguez-Fornells & Maydeu-Olivares, 2000)


Assessment

Assessment

  • During testing: getting a skill correct, making an error on the same skill, and then getting the skill correct again (Clements, 1982)

  • Bayesian prediction of the probability that an error was due to a slip rather than not knowing the skill (Baker & Gowda, 2010; San Pedro et al., in press; Hershkovitzet al., in press)

  • Questionnaire measures (Maydeu-Olivares & D’Zurilla, 1995; Rodriguez-Fornells & Maydeu-Olivares, 2000)


Questionnaire impulsivity carelessness style maydeu olivares d zurilla 1995

Questionnaire“Impulsivity/Carelessness Style”(Maydeu-Olivares & D’Zurilla, 1995)

  • #22. After carrying out a solution to a problem, I do not usually take the time to evaluate all the results carefully.

  • #30. I think that I am too impulsive when it comes to making decisions.


Carelessness1

Carelessness

  • Associated with reduced test performance among middle school students (Clements, 1982)

  • Associated with poorer course grades among freshman college students (Rodriguez-Fornells & Maydeu-Olivares, 2000)


Why do students become careless

Why do students become careless?

  • High confidence (Clements, 1982; Hershkovitz et al., in preparation)

  • Affective state of engaged concentration (San Pedro et al., under review)


Comments questions1

Comments? Questions?


Next class april 19

Next Class (APRIL 19)

  • Educational Games/Serious Games

  • Adam Nakama

  • Readings

  • Lepper, M. R., & Malone, T. W. (1987). Intrinsic motivation and instructional effectiveness in computer-based education. In R. E. Snow & M. J. Farr (Eds.), Aptitude, learning, and instruction (Vol. 3, pp. 107-141). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

  • Sweetser, P., Wyeth, P. (2005) GameFlow: A Model For Evaluating Player Enjoyment in Games. ACM Computers in Entertainment, 3 (3), 1-24.

  • Habgood, M.P.J & Ainsworth, S.E (in press). Motivating children to learn effectively: Exploring the value of intrinsic integration in educational games. Journal of the Learning Sciences.


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