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Meta-Cognition, Motivation, and Affect. PSY504 Spring term, 2011 January 25, 2010. Self-Explanation. Self-Explanation.

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Meta cognition motivation and affect

Meta-Cognition, Motivation, and Affect

PSY504Spring term, 2011

January 25, 2010



Self explanation1
Self-Explanation

  • When the student explains the content or meaning of a text they have just read (or a result they have just obtained, or a step in a worked example, etc., etc.) to themselves, in their own words


Self explanation2
Self-Explanation

  • Does not include

    • monitoring statements

    • paraphrases

    • translations of individual words

    • bridging inferences (inferences that two sentences are referring to the same thing)


What are the effects of self explanation
What are the effectsof self-explanation?


What are the effects of self explanation1
What are the effectsof self-explanation?

  • Better understanding, controlling for prior knowledge

  • True for spontaneous self-explanation (which could be selection bias), from worked examples or on-demand hints(Chi et al., 1989; Pirolli & Recker, 1994; Shih, Koedinger, & Scheines, 2008)


What are the effects of self explanation2
What are the effectsof self-explanation?

  • Also true for when students are scaffolded in self-explaining (in experimental studies)(Bielaczyc & Recker, 1991; Chi et al., 1994; Conati & VanLehn, 2000; Aleven et al., 2002)


What characterizes good self explanation
What characterizes good self-explanation?


Self explanation3
Self-Explanation

  • “…Good students seem to generate explanations which relate to the principles stated in the text, as well as relating the consecutive example statements to each other” (Chi et al., 1989)


Qualities of good self explanation chi et al 1989 chi vanlehn 1991
Qualities of Good Self-Explanation(Chi et al., 1989; Chi & VanLehn, 1991)

  • Considering conditions under which specific actions are advisable

  • Inferring consequences of an action

  • Considering meaning of mathematical expression


Qualities of good self explanation renkl 1997
Qualities of Good Self-Explanation(Renkl, 1997)

  • Identifying the sub-goal achieved by each operator

  • Attempting to anticipate the next solution step


Qualities of bad self explanation chi et al 1989 renkl 1997
Qualities of Bad Self-Explanation(Chi et al., 1989; Renkl, 1997)

  • Simply re-phrasing the content

  • Making trivial inferences


Different kinds of self explainers
Different kinds of self-explainers?

  • Renkl (1997) argues that some self-explainers focus on principles, and others focus on attempting to understand and anticipate the goal structure

  • Both groups are successful

    • As compared to students who self-explain superficially or only to a minor degree




Why is self explanation beneficial1
Why is self-explanation beneficial?

  • Self-explanation helps fill in gaps in student knowledge that are not immediately clear from the text or worked example (Chi & Bassok, 1989)


Why is self explanation beneficial2
Why is self-explanation beneficial?

  • By self-explaining, the learner re-derives the process used to conduct the step, and can then make analogies to that process later (VanLehn et al., 1991)


Why is self explanation beneficial3
Why is self-explanation beneficial?

  • Self-explanation is targeted to exactly what a student is struggling to comprehend (Chi, 2000)


Why is self explanation beneficial4
Why is self-explanation beneficial?

  • Self-explanation leads to revision of incorrect or incomplete mental models (Chi, 2000)



Which
Which…

  • Which of these explanations do you think are true? Why?


However
However…

  • Many students do not self-explain even when they need to (Chi et al., 1989; Renkl, 1997; Chi, 2000)

  • Leading to the question




Chi et al 1994
Chi et al., 1994

“The following is a chapter on the human circulatory system which was taken from a high school text book. We are trying to learn more about how students read and learn from a textbook, as well as what makes some textbooks better than others. In order for us to assess what information the text book is good at making understandable, it is important that you read every line very carefully–as if studying for an exam. The text is presented one sentence at a time so that you will have time to really think about what information each sentence provides and how I this relates to what you've already read. We would like you to read each sentence out loud and then explain what it means to you. That is, what new information does each line provide for you, how does it relate to what you've already read, does it give you a new insight into your understanding of how the circulatory system works, or does it raise a question in your mind. Tell us whatever is going through your mind–even if it seems unimportant. You may need to go back and re-read parts of the text to really understand all the material. Also, some people find it helpful, when reading difficult material, to draw a picture or take notes. Please feel free to do what is best for you–please use these transparencies for this purpose. Let me know when you'd like to start a new transparency”


Chi et al 19941
Chi et al., 1994

  • Combined with prompts to explain

    • “Why?”

    • “Why would you say that?”


Renkl et al 1998
Renkl et al., 1998

“On the basis of a first warm-up problem, hints to self-explain the rationale of the presented solution steps were given. The hints in this conditions focused on the subgoalof each step and the operator used to achieve it (i.e., explication of goal-operator combinations). Afterward, the learners had to try to self-explain the solution of a second warm-up problem on their own, coached by the experimenter. The coaching procedure consisted primarily of two elements: (a) If important self-explanations were omitted, this was indicated and the learners were asked to supplement the missing explanations; (b) the learners’ questions concerning the self-explanations they were expected to provide were answered… When the learners stopped self-explaining for more than 15 seconds, the experimenter asked them to go on in self-explaining”



Conati vanlehn 2000
Conati & VanLehn, 2000


Conati vanlehn 20001
Conati & VanLehn, 2000


Conati vanlehn 20002
Conati & VanLehn, 2000


Conati vanlehn 20003
Conati & VanLehn, 2000

  • Student model is used to infer which steps student does not understand

    • Student is required to self-explain those steps


Aleven koedinger 2002
Aleven & Koedinger, 2002


Aleven koedinger 20021
Aleven & Koedinger, 2002

  • Student is required to self-explain all steps


Input modality
Input modality

  • In Conati & VanLehn (2002) and in Aleven & Koedinger (2002), students select a rule or theorem from a list

  • In (Aleven et al., 2004), having students self-explain in natural language did not improve learning


One interesting aspect of aleven conati
One interesting aspect of Aleven, Conati

  • They flag incorrect self-explanations

  • Why might this be a good idea?


Which approach seems most effective
Which approach seems most effective?

  • What are the benefits and limitations of each approach?


Fit hypothesis hausmann et al 2008
Fit Hypothesis(Hausmann et al., 2008)

  • Students will have different learning needs in different situations

  • Different types of SE are beneficial in different situations

  • By matching SE prompts to student needs, we can improve learning


Fit hypothesis hausmann et al 20081
Fit Hypothesis(Hausmann et al., 2008)

  • a. Justification-based Prompts (Conati & VanLehn, 2000)

    • What principle is being applied on this step?

    • This choice is correct because…

    • What is the justification for this step? Why is it correct?

    • What law, definition, or rule allows one to draw that conclusion?

  • b. Meta-cognitive Prompts (Chi, et al., 1994)

    • What new information does each step provide for you?

    • How does it relate to what you've already seen?

    • Does it give you a new insight into your understanding of how to solve the problems?

    • Does it raise a question in your mind?


However1
However

  • Thus far, the fit hypothesis has not been confirmed

  • Hausmann et al., 2008 found that the meta-cognitive prompts were less effective across the board

    • Students appeared to ignore them

    • Bad theory or bad implementation of prompts?



Measurement methods
Measurement Methods

  • Think-aloud studies (Chi et al., 1994)

  • Examining contents of self-explanations given in scaffolded interface (Conati & VanLehn, 2000; Aleven et al., 2002, 2004)

  • Looking for pauses at the right times in log files (Shih et al., 2008)

    • E.g. immediately after the student has read a hint


Thoughts on these types of measurement
Thoughts on these types of measurement?

  • Any other plausible measurements?


Next class
Next Class

  • Wednesday, January 26

  • 4am-6:10pm

  • Help-Seeking

  • Aleven, V., Stahl, E., Schworm, S., Fischer, F., Wallace, R. (2003) Help Seeking and Help Design in Interactive Learning Environments. Review of Educational Research, 73 (3), 277-320.

  • Karabenick, S.A. (2004) Perceived Achievement Goal Structure and College Student Help Seeking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96 (3), 569-581.

  • Aleven, V., McLaren, B., Roll, I., Koedinger, K.R. (2006) Toward Meta-Cognitive Tutoring: A Model of Help-Seeking with a Cognitive Tutor. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 16, 101-130.


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