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Migration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Migration. Why do people migrate?. A combination of push and pull factors influences migration decisions Most people migrate for economic reasons. United States (a land of migrants). About 70 million people have migrated since 1820

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Why do people migrate?

  • A combination of push and pull factors influences migration decisions

  • Most people migrate for economic reasons

United States(a land of migrants)

  • About 70 million people have migrated since 1820

  • U.S. has more foreign born residents than any other country (about 35 million)

Global Migration

Three major push and pull factors

  • Economic

  • Cultural

  • Environmental

Which type of migration factor is it?Environmental, Cultural, Economic Push or Pull

Hurricane Katrina leveled the Gulf Coast and New Orleans

Environmental Push

In 1979, Iran’s government became an Islamic Theocracy unfriendly to other religious groups

Cultural Push

The American colonies offered persecuted people in Europe religious freedom

Cultural Pull

Economic Push

The Ford plant in Flint, MI closed down, laying off hundreds of workers

States like Florida and Arizona have warm weather that many retirees enjoy

Environmental Pull

Kuwait has difficulty filling all of its jobs in the oil industry

Economic Pull

During the Rwandan genocide refugees fled to neighboring countries like Tanzania and DRC

Cultural Push

Record floods in Pakistan this summer destroyed fields and swamped homes

Environmental Push

Which type of migration factor is it?Environmental, Cultural, Economic Push or Pull

African Americans had to live under the Jim Crow laws in the South

Cultural Push

In the 1840s blight destroyed the potato crop in Ireland

Economic Push

Universities in the U.S. offer many foreign students better opportunities than their own countries

Economic Pull

Cultural Push

The Turkish government banned the Kurdish language for many years

The U.S. allows refugees to apply for political asylum

Cultural Pull

Millions of jobs have become available in coastal Chinese cities in recent years

Economic Pull

The Maldives are low-lying islands in the Indian Ocean threatened by rising seas.

Environmental Push

Many Afghanis who worked as translators for the U.S. fear retribution from the Taliban

Cultural Push

Which type of migration factor is it?Environmental, Cultural, Economic Push or Pull

Farms in California employ many seasonal migrant farm workers from Mexico

Economic Pull

The civil war between the north and south in Sudan created many refugees.

Cultural Push

Countries with aging populations may have guest worker programs.

Economic Pull

Cultural Pull

Before the Berlin Wall fell, West Germany offered more freedoms than East Germany.

Sharecropping in the South was a system designed to keep African Americans poor.

Economic Push

Colorado has several great ski resorts and many “ski bums.”

Environmental Pull

The Sahara Desert is expanding southward due to desertification.

Environmental Push

Natural gas drilling in the Marcelus Shale is a new booming industry in PA.

Economic Pull

E. G. Ravenstein(Fellow of the Royal Geographic Society)

  • Geography has no comprehensive theory of migration. Contemporary geographic migrations studies based on Ravenstein’s Laws

    • The reasons why migrants move

      • Push/pull factors

    • The characteristics of migrants

    • The distance migrants typically move

Ravenstein’s LawsCharacteristics of Migrants

  • Most long-distance migrants were male

  • Most long-distance migrants were adult individuals rather than families with children

  • Since the late 20th century these have changed

    • Women and children now make up the majority of migrants

    • In U.S. the gender pattern reversed in 1990’s – women 55%

      • Changing role of women in Mexican society (some join husbands or brothers most seek work)

    • In U.S. the pattern of most immigrants being adults continues – most immigrants are between the ages of 25 -39 (less likely to be elderly)

      • However an increasing percentage of U.S. children are immigrants (more women coming to U.S. bring their children)

  • Ravenstein’s LawsDistance of Migration

    • Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country (Ravenstein)

    • Long-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity (Ravenstein)

    • International (less numerous…distance decay)

      • Voluntary /forced

      • Guest workers,

    • Internal

      • Intraregional

      • Interegional

    Migration Transition

    • Geographer Wilbur Zelinsky identified a “migration transtion”, which consists of changes in a society comparable to those in the demographic transition.

      • A society in stage 1 of DTM has high daily or seasonal mobility in search of food

      • International migration is primarily a phenomenon of countries in stage 2 of DTM.

      • Internal migration is more important in stages 3 and 4 of DTM

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