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ENERGY SECURITY Vicepresidence for Sectors and Knowledge . Infrastructure and Environment Sector . Energy Division German Cruz December 2008 V Summit of the Americas 2009. Primary Energy. Crude oil is the more accessible and commercial form of primary energy around the world

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ENERGY SECURITYVicepresidence for Sectors and Knowledge . Infrastructure and Environment Sector . Energy DivisionGerman CruzDecember 2008V Summit of the Americas 2009


Primary energy
Primary Energy

  • Crude oil is the more accessible and commercial form of primary energy around the world

  • Petroleum derivates can be used for transportation sector o thermal power generation

  • Other fossil sources like gas, or coal are used fundamentally for thermal power generation.

  • Other sources supply of primary energy, like hydro, wind, or solar, can be used only for electric power generation


Primary energy supply
Primary Energy Supply

Source: OLADE SIEE, 2005




Western Hemisphere Oil Stocks (Bb)


Energy sector in latin america and the caribbean
Energy Sector in Latin America and the Caribbean

  • Energy production and consumption in the region is comparatively low, although these are rising.

  • The intensity of energy use and energy supply varies across the region.

  • Much of the region’s energy consumption is concentrated in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela.

  • Across the region, the sectors consuming the most energy are:

    • Industry (region-wide average of 38%)

    • Transportation (32% on average)



Energy supply lac 2004

Other non-

Unsustainable

Timber

renewables,

0.5%

2.2%

Nuclear,

1.6%

Coal,

4.8%

Oil,

41.7%

Renewable,

24.8%

Natural gas,

24.5%

Energy supply LAC- 2004

Source: Altamonte, 2006. ‘Renewable Energy Sources in LAC: 2 years after Bonn’


Renewable energy in lac
Renewable Energy in LAC*

  • Today, renewable sources of energy generate 24.8% of LAC’s electricity.

    • Studies indicate they could generate up to 47% of the electric demand estimated for 2030.

  • Biomass and biological wastes are another important source of renewable energy in the region

  • Central America and the Caribbean could replace between 10% and 50% of their gasoline consumption through the production of ethanol generated from sugar cane.

* LAC: Latin American and the Caribbean


Hydropower
Hydropower

  • The region as a whole relies heavily on hydroelectricity (Brazil, Colombia, etc.)

  • The region holds 21 % of global hydro-generation capacity.

  • Most countries in the region use already a good portion of their hydraulic potential to generate electricity.

  • Most countries operate on the multi-megawatt range. However, small hydropower should be exploited as a good alternative given the high rainfall indices and rough topography of many countries.

Source: Huacuz, J., 2003


Hydropower cont
Hydropower, cont.

Source: OLADE, 2005. ‘Energy Statistics Report 2005’


Solar energy
Solar Energy

  • Thanks to its low cost is becoming an attractive means of bringing electricity to isolated rural communities.

    • The first solar cells cost around $200 dollars per watt. Today they cost less than $3 dollars per watt.

  • Peru- Sustainable Rural Electrification: Installation of 12,500 Photovoltaic systems in rural households ill-suited for grid extension in four regions of the country.

  • Chile- Rural Electrification Program: IDB financed US$40 million. Nearly 1,000 one-house photovoltaic systems have been installed in isolated rural dwellings.


Geothermal energy
Geothermal Energy

  • Costa Rica generates 98 percent of its electricity through renewable sources, thanks in part to a growing reliance on geothermal energy.

  • Mexico is now the world’s third largest producer of geothermal electricity.

    • It generates 953 MW for around 6,600 GWh of geothermal energy per year, contributing 3.1% to the Mexico’s electricity supply (global geothermal supply is 0.442%).

    • Studies have shown a potential for 3,650 MW (20,460 GWh) that could provide more than 12% of total electricity generation.

Source: Gawell & Greenberg, 2007. ‘2007 Interim Report, Update on World Geothermal Dev.’


Wind energy
Wind Energy

  • Most commercial RE alternative in the developed world. Estimated $71 billion invested in RE worldwide in 2007, of which 47% was for wind.

  • Principal component for decarbonizing society since free of GHG emissions

  • New materials, turbine designs and new technologies have slashed the cost per watt


Wind energy lac
Wind Energy LAC

  • Good experiences with pilot projects at different levels: Costa Rica (commercial), Colombia (technical cooperation).

  • Brazil: Rapidly increasing its wind installed capacity:

    • 2006: 28MW

    • 2007: 237 MW

    • Expected increase from new projects: 1400 MW

  • Mexico - La Venta II: total installed capacity of 83.3 MW and 307,728 MWh estimated yearly average generation.

    • Expected increase 3000 MW for 2006-2014 according to the Mexican Wind Energy Association



Sustained Biofuels

  • Certain importing markets will require biofuels that meet certain sustainability standards.

  • LAC has the potential to be at the forefront of creating a sustainable biofuels industry.

  • IDB partners with the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels to increase investment in sustainable biofuels.

  • The IDB is currently :

  • - Developing internal sustainability guidelines for biofuels

  • - Developing a “scorecard” to promote only the most sustainable biofuels


What lies ahead
What lies ahead

  • Increase energy efficiency and reduce harmful pollution while also promoting economic development.

  • Investment needed in Energy in LAC (2005-2030)

    • The energy demand in LAC will increase 75% by 2030.

    • Required investments: US$ 1,600 billion

  • In the next decade alone, LAC will require a 50% increase in its installed capacity, more than 90GW


  • Towards the future supply and demand balance achieved through re and ee
    Towards the future:Supply and Demand balance achieved through RE and EE


    Renewable energy importance for poverty alleviation
    Renewable Energy: Importancefor Poverty Alleviation

    • Energy security has important implications on Poverty

    • Poverty is still higher than in 1980 in both relative and absolute terms

    • Approx. 10% of total population (50 million people) does not have electricity

    • Poverty relief linked to increased energy consumption

    • For the 16 countries which are net importers of oil, the price increase of hydrocarbons poses an increasing challenge.

    • Some of LAC’s major exporters are experiencing reduction in the productivity of their deposits

      Sustainable Energy: A priority for the IDB


    Challenges for the region
    Challenges for the Region

    • Achieve sustainability of energy supply and rational use of resources

    • Energy access for all the population

    • Within the region some countries face:

      • Energy security issues and high energy bills

      • Urban pollution problems and extreme vulnerability to climate change

    • Regulatory and institutional frameworks

    • Pre-investment resources to support project preparation and development


    Conclusions
    Conclusions

    • The Western Hemisphere is an energy net importer

    • The deficit originates from the energy gap of North America

    • With declining stocks, this gap will tend to widen with time.

    • Climate Change is likely to add extra strain to the energy deficit.

    • Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency will contribute to cover the energy deficit.

    • Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation are becoming part of Energy Security strategies.


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