Causes. Using prior knowledge, try to think of one to two SPECIFIC examples for each. What do you think the Social (people) causes of the revolution were? What do you think the Economic reasons were that caused the Revolution? What Political problems caused the Revolution?.
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Beginnings of Revolution
Even in Enlight. The Old Regime stood
1st:Clergy( less than1%)
2nd: Nobles (2%)
3rd: Rest (98%)
Crushing taxes and poverty
-Bad Harvests in 1780s = increase of food prices
-What did he call for?
Weak leader, not in touch w/ people
Marie Antoinette disliked by people
May 5, 1789 meeting of Estates-General b/c of ineffectiveness.
How do you think the Estates General would react?
-only delegates with land could vote
-wanted votes to be counted “by head”
Abbe Sieyes, “What is the Third Estate? Everything.
What has it been up to now in the political order? Nothing.
What does it demand? To become something herein.”
Some members of 1st and 2nd Estates join the National Assembly Swiss mercenaries hired out of fear panic
July 14, 1789 Parisians storm Bastille in search of weapons.
Led to peasant rebellions throughout country
What does the Bastille symbolize?
Oct. 5, 1789 riot over bread led to march on Versailles.
Return of monarchy to Paris (Held hostage)
-could make laws, collect taxes, declare war or peace
What form of Government did the Sans-Culottes call for?
-April 1792 L.A. declares war on Austria. Prussia joins in. Why?
Fighting was from 1792 and lasted on and off until 1815
Initialheavy losses by French paved way for innovation later.
National Convention abolishes monarchy. All males have right to vote.
Louis tried for treason and convicted by Jacobins.
Jan. 21, 1793 Louis beheaded by guillotine.
Marie Antoinette was executed in October.
Louis’ execution angered Europe’s leaders. Aus, Prus, Sp, Port, UK, Neth, all joined forces to undo Revolution
Desperate times lead to C.O.P.S. led by 12 men (Jacobin leadership)
COPS designated France as a Rep. Of Virtue based upon reason/thought.
Slavery abolished, price controls attempted, gov’t. agents, etc. tried but failed bc of lack of support by whom?
De-Christianization attempted, move toward reason, new calendar, etc. Unsuccessful why?
Total war effort
Over 1 million soldiers. All parts of society involved with the army. “People’s Wars”
1794 wars come to an end. Rep. Of Virtue and COPS is questioned. The fear is gone and people start thinking rationally.
New constitution/gov’t. setup
Bi-cameral leg elected by “electors”.
5 chosen as executive (Directors)
Corruption, money problems, war, etc.
People unhappy, Napoleon stages a coup d’etat.