Introducing a New Concept:  National Technology Strategy   The case of nanotechnology for Iran

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introduction. rapid development of emerging technologies in recent decadesCore role of these technologies in economic development As a result: policy makers have become particularly interested in planning to development of high technologies as well as applications of these technologies for econom

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Introducing a New Concept: National Technology Strategy The case of nanotechnology for Iran

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1. Introducing a New Concept:  National Technology Strategy The case of nanotechnology for Iran Sepehr Ghazinoory Associate Professor of S&T Policy,Tarbiat Modares University,Iran Adviser for Center of Innovation & Technology Cooperation (Iran’s Presidency) 1

2. introduction rapid development of emerging technologies in recent decades Core role of these technologies in economic development As a result: policy makers have become particularly interested in planning to development of high technologies as well as applications of these technologies for economic growth and development 2

3. introduction (continued) There are many techniques to extracting strategies of technological progress at the national level. these techniques are generally defined as “national policy for science and technology”. National technology policies formulated for some primary high technologies (such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information technology) 3 - Development of strategies for technological progress at the national level includes an extensive range of techniques and mechanisms which are generally defined under the rubric of “national policy for science and technology”. - National technology policies consist of aggregate planning which pays particular attention to some primary high technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information technology, among others- Development of strategies for technological progress at the national level includes an extensive range of techniques and mechanisms which are generally defined under the rubric of “national policy for science and technology”. - National technology policies consist of aggregate planning which pays particular attention to some primary high technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information technology, among others

4. Introduction (continued) each of these high-technologies consists of different areas.(for example, nanotechnology consist of ….) Therefore: Deploying a single technology policy is not optimal for all. countries should carefully adopt a set of technology policies. each policy is aimed at addressing the specific requirements of a specific high-tech area. 4 However, each of these technologies consists of different areas, and therefore adopting a single technology policy is not optimal for all. Accordingly, countries should carefully adopt a set of technology policies so that each policy is aimed at addressing the specific requirements of a specific high-tech category.However, each of these technologies consists of different areas, and therefore adopting a single technology policy is not optimal for all. Accordingly, countries should carefully adopt a set of technology policies so that each policy is aimed at addressing the specific requirements of a specific high-tech category.

5. Integration of 2 concepts: National technology policy: a set of government actions that affect the generation, acquisition, adaptation, diffusion, and use of technological knowledge in a way that the government deems useful for the society rather than individuals 5

6. firm technology strategy: is a model of managerial decisions. pertains to the use of principal technology instruments. goals in achieving the business objectives. prioritizes future corporate technological plans. 6

7. But, The new concept of: national technology strategy: isn't a well-known term. Some author's use of the term implies “national technology policy”. other usage of the term implies national priorities of technologies. 7

8. national technology strategy is not “firm technology strategy” at the national level. “strategy” is synonym of “path selecting” and for the policy, viable options may not exist. national technology strategy is not only as a country's priority. 8

9. By integrating 2concpts (national technology policy, technology strategy of firm), We define: National technology strategy: is a portfolio of desired related technology areas that receive governmental supports in the form of specialized goals for each branch of technology. This strategy assigns well-defined tasks and responsibilities for the pertinent government agencies that are responsible for implementing the goals for each technology areas. 9

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11. Implementing this concept for Nanotechnology in Iran 11

12. nanotechnology policy development in Iran: Iranian policy makers have placed special emphasis on rapid development nanotechnology. The former president confirmed Center of Innovation &Technology Cooperation (CITC) as responsible for coordination of nano’s developmental activities. CITC recommended the creation of council to define nanotechnology development direction in Iran (2003). Proposing Iranian Nanotechnology Initiative Program (NINI) (approved 2005 by the Cabinet) 12

13. nanotechnology policy development in Iran goals of NINI: Goal 1.Gaining access to a fair share of international trade that involve the use of nano-materials or use of nanotechnology. Goal 2. Forming the appropriate foundation for acquiring the benefits of nanotechnology with the aim of improving the quality of life of people in Iran. Goal 3. Institutionalizing sustainable, dynamic development of nanoscience, nanotechnology, and nano industry. 13 Given the pivotal role NINI plays in the development of nanotechnology in Iran, we state the goals of the Initiative below and present the strategies in Appendix B [3]: Goal 1.Gaining access to a fair share of international trade ofcommodities that involve theuse ofnano-materials or use ofnanotechnology. Goal 2. Forming the appropriate foundation for acquiring the benefits of nanotechnology with the aim of improving the quality of life of people in Iran. Goal 3. Institutionalizing sustainable, dynamic development of nanoscience, nanotechnology, and nano industryGiven the pivotal role NINI plays in the development of nanotechnology in Iran, we state the goals of the Initiative below and present the strategies in Appendix B [3]: Goal 1.Gaining access to a fair share of international trade ofcommodities that involve theuse ofnano-materials or use ofnanotechnology. Goal 2. Forming the appropriate foundation for acquiring the benefits of nanotechnology with the aim of improving the quality of life of people in Iran. Goal 3. Institutionalizing sustainable, dynamic development of nanoscience, nanotechnology, and nano industry

14. A result of NINI: Nano-published paper of iran 14

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16. NINI Limitations: lacks of required strategies for implementing the goals. Missing strategies. requiring an optimal set of national nanotechnology strategies 16 -the NINI lacks the required strategies for successful implementation of the goals in specific branches of nanotechnology. - The strategies are missing because the initiative was formulated based on the model of national technology policy. - However, successful implementation of these goals requires an optimal set of national nanotechnology strategies-the NINI lacks the required strategies for successful implementation of the goals in specific branches of nanotechnology. - The strategies are missing because the initiative was formulated based on the model of national technology policy. - However, successful implementation of these goals requires an optimal set of national nanotechnology strategies

17. A suggested model for formulation of “national technology strategy” The suggested mechanism includes three general steps: before strategy formulation (precedence) input analysis and strategy formulation strategy finalization (after strategy formulation) 17

18. A suggested model for formulation of “national technology strategy” 18 The mentioned processes are summarized in FigureThe mentioned processes are summarized in Figure

19. A suggested model for formulation of “national technology strategy” The first step, before strategy formulation (precedence), Activities: Categorizing the technology strategy of different countries under study. includes the country's vision of technological development and general policies categorization of technology areas. 19 The technology strategy of different countries under study , which preceded strategy formulation phase is categorized under precedence's title, and in general includes the country's vision of technological development and general policies. The categorization of technology areas is another step which precedes strategy formulation phase. Therefore, in this phase, the vision and technology policies of country and government's objectives are formulated. The list of different areas of technology is prepared by technology experts. Hence, the following findings are used as input for the next phase: 1. Country's technological vision. 2. Country's technological objectives and macro-policies. 3. The technology areas listThe technology strategy of different countries under study , which preceded strategy formulation phase is categorized under precedence's title, and in general includes the country's vision of technological development and general policies. The categorization of technology areas is another step which precedes strategy formulation phase. Therefore, in this phase, the vision and technology policies of country and government's objectives are formulated. The list of different areas of technology is prepared by technology experts. Hence, the following findings are used as input for the next phase: 1. Country's technological vision. 2. Country's technological objectives and macro-policies. 3. The technology areas list

20. A suggested model for formulation of “national technology strategy” The second step, input analysis and strategy formulation, Activities: Strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis Capability–Attractiveness evaluation 20 This step contains two general parts which are parallel to each other, and are carried out for the sake of strategy formulation Strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and Capability–Attractiveness evaluation This step contains two general parts which are parallel to each other, and are carried out for the sake of strategy formulation Strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and Capability–Attractiveness evaluation

21. A suggested model for formulation of “national technology strategy” Capability–Attractiveness evaluation 21 In this step, first, by considering country's macro objectives and policies, indicators for both attractiveness of technology and country's capability in the development as well as application of such technologies are identified. Next, these indicators, which are listed below are used in the evaluation of each of technology areas. Finally, using surveys and the identified indicators, different technology areas are investigated. The results are used to compute attractiveness and capability factors for each of these areas. Considering such factors, technology areas are categorized in the Attractiveness–Capability matrix that appears in Figure and the general strategy specific to each area is determined Scanning strategy is assigned to technologies that do not have a high attractiveness and at the same time the country does not have an appropriate capability in such fields. To scan an area of technology means that although there is not any commercializing tendencies in these technology field, instead of abandoning them, researchers and experts of such field should be encouraged to stay abreast of latest development in the field and maintain their expertise on the subject, without government's allocation of large financial resources for research and development in the field. In cases where technology areas are relatively less attractive, the strategy should be replacement of those technologies with more attractive domestic or foreign ones. Nevertheless, such technology areas are potentially beneficial and sale of such technologies to other countries should be considered. Inception and development category includes technologies that have a high degree of attractiveness, although using only the existing capabilities, there is no possibility of development and exploitation of these techniques within the country. In such technology areas, first, causes and factors related to technology deficiency should be recognized and appropriate plans should be developed to increase country's technological ability. The simultaneous exploitation of other countries' abilities and the maximum use of existing capabilities within country should be considered. Position protection. category identifies the technology areas that form the foundation of country's development in the technology under the consideration and play pivotal role in obtaining the long term technological goals of the country. The general strategy associated with these technologies is investment for position protection. In other words, countries should protect their position in these kinds of technologies at all costs. Of course the position protection strategy should harmonize domestic technological changes in the field with the technological advances abroad on the subject, and even aim to initiate major technological breakthrough in the field. In this step, first, by considering country's macro objectives and policies, indicators for both attractiveness of technology and country's capability in the development as well as application of such technologies are identified. Next, these indicators, which are listed below are used in the evaluation of each of technology areas. Finally, using surveys and the identified indicators, different technology areas are investigated. The results are used to compute attractiveness and capability factors for each of these areas. Considering such factors, technology areas are categorized in the Attractiveness–Capability matrix that appears in Figure and the general strategy specific to each area is determined Scanning strategy is assigned to technologies that do not have a high attractiveness and at the same time the country does not have an appropriate capability in such fields. To scan an area of technology means that although there is not any commercializing tendencies in these technology field, instead of abandoning them, researchers and experts of such field should be encouraged to stay abreast of latest development in the field and maintain their expertise on the subject, without government's allocation of large financial resources for research and development in the field. In cases where technology areas are relatively less attractive, the strategy should be replacement of those technologies with more attractive domestic or foreign ones. Nevertheless, such technology areas are potentially beneficial and sale of such technologies to other countries should be considered. Inception and development category includes technologies that have a high degree of attractiveness, although using only the existing capabilities, there is no possibility of development and exploitation of these techniques within the country. In such technology areas, first, causes and factors related to technology deficiency should be recognized and appropriate plans should be developed to increase country's technological ability. The simultaneous exploitation of other countries' abilities and the maximum use of existing capabilities within country should be considered. Position protection. category identifies the technology areas that form the foundation of country's development in the technology under the consideration and play pivotal role in obtaining the long term technological goals of the country. The general strategy associated with these technologies is investment for position protection. In other words, countries should protect their position in these kinds of technologies at all costs. Of course the position protection strategy should harmonize domestic technological changes in the field with the technological advances abroad on the subject, and even aim to initiate major technological breakthrough in the field.

22. A suggested model for formulation of “national technology strategy” 22

23. 23

24. A suggested model for formulation of “national technology strategy” Strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis STEEP analysis, (considering social, technological, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP) aspects of technology). Determining strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Extracting strategies. In this analysis, objectives and policies of the country's technology are applied as guidelines. 24 in SWOT analysis: First, required data dealing with social, technological, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP) aspects of technology are gathered for use in STEEP analysis . The results of such studies can determine (SWOT) relating to the technology under investigation. Then, using SWOT results, strategies are extracted. In STEEP and SWOT analyses, objectives and policies of the country's technology are applied as guidelines. These strategies are related to the technology as a whole, and are not different for different technology areas in SWOT analysis: First, required data dealing with social, technological, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP) aspects of technology are gathered for use in STEEP analysis . The results of such studies can determine (SWOT) relating to the technology under investigation. Then, using SWOT results, strategies are extracted. In STEEP and SWOT analyses, objectives and policies of the country's technology are applied as guidelines. These strategies are related to the technology as a whole, and are not different for different technology areas

25. A suggested model for formulation of “national technology strategy” Integrating the general strategies with SWOT results : 25 At this stage, using the capability–attractiveness matrix and strategies obtained via SWOT analysis, we identify strategies that should be applied for each nanotechnology areas in Iran. This selection process is based on the definition of national technology strategy we have developed in this paper which in essence identifies the required tasks that should be implemented in each area. When determining these strategies and assigning them to different areas, general strategies identified in attractiveness–capability matrix are used as a general guideline. Strategies resulted from SWOT are assigned to different sections of evaluation matrix and in fact to nanotechnology areas in each section Table shows the results of these analyses, and displays the adopted strategies regarding each nanotechnology area in Iran. It further shows the relationship of these strategies with the strategies delineated in the National Iranian Nanotechnology Initiative (NINI).At this stage, using the capability–attractiveness matrix and strategies obtained via SWOT analysis, we identify strategies that should be applied for each nanotechnology areas in Iran. This selection process is based on the definition of national technology strategy we have developed in this paper which in essence identifies the required tasks that should be implemented in each area. When determining these strategies and assigning them to different areas, general strategies identified in attractiveness–capability matrix are used as a general guideline. Strategies resulted from SWOT are assigned to different sections of evaluation matrix and in fact to nanotechnology areas in each section Table shows the results of these analyses, and displays the adopted strategies regarding each nanotechnology area in Iran. It further shows the relationship of these strategies with the strategies delineated in the National Iranian Nanotechnology Initiative (NINI).

26. A suggested model for formulation of “national technology strategy” The third step, strategy finalization (after strategy formulation), Activities: Deriving strategies from the two previous steps. SWOT and attractiveness–capability evaluation, should be combined to formulate strategies. validating strategies (by comparing them with other countries' technology strategies). 26 In this step, first the derived strategies from the two previous steps, SWOT and attractiveness–capability evaluation, should be combined so that separate strategies related to technology as a whole as well as those relating to different technology areas may be formulated. Finally, strategies should be validated by comparing them with other countries' technology strategies, and the formulated strategies should be further modified and adjusted accordinglyIn this step, first the derived strategies from the two previous steps, SWOT and attractiveness–capability evaluation, should be combined so that separate strategies related to technology as a whole as well as those relating to different technology areas may be formulated. Finally, strategies should be validated by comparing them with other countries' technology strategies, and the formulated strategies should be further modified and adjusted accordingly

27. Model validity Comparative study of adopted strategies with nanotechnology strategies in other countries 27 Based on the available information, and similarity of nanotechnology development in China , Israel and Taiwan , nanotechnology strategies of these countries are studied in this paper. We compare the strategies of nanotechnology development of these countries in TableBased on the available information, and similarity of nanotechnology development in China , Israel and Taiwan , nanotechnology strategies of these countries are studied in this paper. We compare the strategies of nanotechnology development of these countries in Table

28. Thanks for your attention 28

29. A suggested model for formulation of “national technology strategy” Evaluation different nanotechnology areas : investigation of the nanotechnology policies and priorities of China, Iran, Israel, and Taiwan investigation of other Iranian emerging technology experiences using the following criteria for evaluating technological capability: Access to expert labor required in technology development Adequacy of the infrastructure in exploiting technology Access to technical knowledge and the required information in technology development; Access to the required equipment and hardware in technology development; Access to natural and mineral sources required in technology development; • Coordination with national technological priorities 29 After investigation of the nanotechnology policies and priorities of China ,Iran, Israel, and Taiwan and other Iranian emerging technology experiences as well as using the following criteria, this paper evaluates different nanotechnology areas in terms of Iranian technological capability: • Access to expert labor required in technology development; • Adequacy of the infrastructure in exploiting technology; Access to technical knowledge and the required information in technology development; • Access to the required equipment and hardware in technology development; • Access to natural and mineral sources required in technology development; • Coordination with national technological prioritiesAfter investigation of the nanotechnology policies and priorities of China ,Iran, Israel, and Taiwan and other Iranian emerging technology experiences as well as using the following criteria, this paper evaluates different nanotechnology areas in terms of Iranian technological capability: • Access to expert labor required in technology development; • Adequacy of the infrastructure in exploiting technology; Access to technical knowledge and the required information in technology development; • Access to the required equipment and hardware in technology development; • Access to natural and mineral sources required in technology development; • Coordination with national technological priorities

30. A suggested model for formulation of “national technology strategy” Evaluation different nanotechnology areas : using the following indictors for evaluating attractiveness: Ease of access to required natural and mineral resources; Having competitive advantage in production and exports; Quality improvement and customer satisfaction; Public perceptions of technological outcomes and their use by the general public; Coordination with government financial budget allocations for technology development; The time required to acquire technology and gain proficiency in using it; The comparative position of the new technology vis-à-vis the competitive technologies; The significance of national security issues in acquiring the technology. 30

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