Clean Coal Technology Developments & the move towards CO2 Capture
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Clean Coal Technology Developments & the move towards CO2 Capture Dr John Topper IEA Clean Coal Centre, London STEP-TREC Programme,Trichy , December, 2013. Membership status of the IEA Clean Coal Centre at October 2013. Japan. Italy. Poland. Germany. Republic of Korea. CEC. S Africa.

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Clean Coal Technology Developments & the move towards CO2 Capture

Dr John Topper

IEA Clean Coal Centre, London

STEP-TREC Programme,Trichy,

December, 2013


Membership status of the iea clean coal centre at october 2013
Membership status of the IEA Clean Coal Centre at October 2013

Japan

Italy

Poland

Germany

Republic of Korea

CEC

S Africa

Canada

UK

Acentre of excellence for all aspects of clean coal knowledge transfer

Austria

USA

Australia

Anglo American Thermal Coal

Beijing ResearchInstitute of Coal Chemistry

Glencore Xstrata

Electric Power Planning & Engineering Institute of China

Suek

Coal Association NZ

Eletrobras

Banpu

BHEL


Coal Supply and Demand to 2035 2013

Examples of Best Practice Today in Coal Fired Power

Efficient Clean Power Tomorrow?

Status of Carbon Capture


World Energy Outlook 2013

Published by IEA November 2012

All views expressed are the speaker’s and not necessarily the IEA’s


Iea weo 2012 incremental world primary energy demand by fuel 2001 2011
IEA WEO 2012 2013Incremental world primary energy demand by fuel, 2001-2011

1 750

Mtoe

1 500

Renewables

1 250

1 000

Oil

750

500

Natural

gas

250

0

Total non-coal

Coal

Since the start of the 21st century, coal has dominated the global energy demand

picture, alone accounting for 45% of energy demand growth over 2001-2011


Iea weo 2012 world primary energy demand by fuel
IEA WEO 2012 2013World primary energy demand by fuel

5 000

2010

Mtoe

2035

4 000

3 000

2 000

1 000

0

Oil

Coal

Gas

Renewables

Nuclear

Fossil fuels account for 60% of the overall increase in demand,remaining the principal sources of energy worldwide


Iea weo 2012 a power shift to emerging economies
IEA WEO 2012 2013A power shift to emerging economies

Change in power generation, 2010-2035

Coal

Gas

Nuclear

Renewables

China

India

United States

European Union

Japan

2 000

3 000

4 000

5 000

6 000

-1 000

0

1 000

TWh

TWh

The need for electricity in emerging economies drives a 70% increase in worldwide demand, with China & India accounting for over half of the global growth


Countries with the largest population without access to electricity in 2010
Countries with the largest population 2013without access to electricity in 2010

350

70%

Developing Asia

Million

300

60%

Sub-Saharan Africa

250

50%

Cumulative

share of global

total (right axis)

200

40%

150

30%

100

20%

50

10%

0

0%

India

Kenya

Nigeria

Uganda

Tanzania

Ethiopia

Pakistan

Indonesia

DR Congo

Bangladesh

Over 95% of those without electricity are in developing Asia or sub-Saharan Africa

& nearly two-thirds are in just ten countries (IEA WEO 2012)



Torrevaldaliga nord
Torrevaldaliga 2013 Nord

USC, boilers supplied by Babcock Hitachi , using bituminous coal

  • 3 units at 660MWe = 1980MWe station

  • Low conventional emissions (NOx <100 mg/m3, sulphur oxides <100 mg/m3, particulates 15 mg/m3, at 6% O2, dry); full waste utilisation

  • Highest steam conditions: 604C/612C at turbine: 25 MPa

  • Operating net efficiency >44.7% LHV

  • Wet scrubber based limestone/gypsum FGD

  • NOx abatement SCR

  • Particulates removal Bag filters

  • New sea port for coal delivery

  • Solids handling all enclosed


Niederaussem k germany
Niederaussem 2013 K, Germany

USC, tower boiler, tangential wall firing, lignite of 50-60% moisture, inland

  • Highlyefficient lignite-fired plant

  • Operating net efficiency 43.2% LHV/37% HHV

  • High steam conditions 27.5 MPa/580C/600C at turbine; initial difficulties solved using 27% Cr materials in critical areas

  • Unique heat recovery arrangements with heat extraction to low temperatures – complex feedwater circuit

  • Low backpressure: 200 m cooling tower, 14.7C condenser inlet

  • Lignite drying demonstration plant being installed to process 25% of fuel feed to enable even higher efficiency

  • NOx abatement Combustion measures

  • Particulates removal ESP

  • Desulphurisation Wet FGD


Isogo new units 1 2 japan highlights
Isogo New Units 1 & 2, Japan – highlights 2013

USC, tower boiler, opposed wall firing, international bituminous coal and Japanese coals, warm sea water

  • Near zero conventional emissions (NOx 20 mg/m3, sulphur oxides 6 mg/m3, particulates 1 mg/m3, at 6% O2, dry); full waste utilisation

  • Highest steam conditions: 25.0 MPa/600C/610C at turbine: ASME CC 2328 steels in S/H; P122 for main steam pipework

  • Operating net efficiency >42% LHV/40.6% HHV

  • Efficiency tempered slightly by 21C CW, fewer FW heating stages

  • Dry regenerable activated coke FGD (ReACT)

  • NOx abatement: Combustion measures and SCR

  • Particulates removal: ESP

  • Isogo New Unit 2 uses ReACT specifically for multi-pollutant control, including mercury



Sasan umpp madhya pradesh
Sasan 2013UMPP, Madhya Pradesh

Reliance Power, 6 x 660 MW supercritical units.

24.7 MPa/565/593

Plant connected to the grid in September 2012



What are hele technologies hele high efficiency low emissions
What are 2013HELE technologies? (HELE=high Efficiency Low Emissions)

HELE

CCS

*Efficiency improvement*

Reduce non-GHG emissions

Reduce CO2emissions

Efficiency improvement reduces specific fuel consumption and also reduces specific pollutant emissions.


Age distribution of existing power plants
Age distribution of existing power plants 2013

Ageing infrastructure is the challenge in many OECD countries. Emerging economies have a growing demand for electricity.


Improve efficiency then deploy ccs
Improve efficiency, then deploy CCS 2013

Decrease generation from subcritical

Install CCS*on plants over supercritical

Increase generation from high-efficiency technology (SC or better)

*CCS (Post-combustion, Oxyfuel, Pre-combustion CO2 capture)

Subcritical

Global coal-fired electricity generation (TWh)

HELE Plants with CCS*

USC

IGCC

Supercritical

* CCS fitted to SC (or better) units.

Three processes essential to achieve a low-carbon scenario


Impact of efficiency improvement on co 2 abatement
Impact of efficiency improvement 2013on CO2 abatement

Efficiency in 2DS

37%

42%

33%

43%

34%

Efficiency improvement

CO2 abatement by CCS

Average CO2 intensity factor in 2DS (gCO2/kWh)

Share of CCS (1=100%)

Share of CCS

Raising efficiency significantly reduces the CO2/kWh emitted.


Average 2013worldwide

hard coal

EU av hard coal

33%

38%

47%

50%

1015 gCO2/kWh

881 gCO2/kWh

711 gCO2/kWh

669 gCO2/kWh

State-of-the art

PC/IGCC hard coal

Advanced R&D

Hard coal

>2030

CO2 emission reduction by key technologies

Latrobe Valley lignite (Australia)

28-29.0%

1400 gCO2/kWh

EU state-of-

the-art lignite

43-44%

930 gCO2/kWh

gCO2/kWh

Advanced lignite

55%

740 gCO2/kWh

but deep cuts

only by CCS

Data for hard coal-fired power plants from VGB 2007; data for lignite plants from C Henderson, IEA Clean Coal Centre; efficiencies are LHV,net

Energy Efficiency makes big change but deep cuts of CO2 emission can be done only by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)


The challenge of advanced usc
The challenge of advanced USC 2013

700-760°C

Boiler

tube/piping

700-760°C

Steam turbine

rotor/shaft

700°C/ 30 - 35MPa

~

Boiler

Steam turbine

Generator

- Nickel-based super-alloys

- Ferrite/Austenitic alloys

Nickel-based super-alloys will enable plant components to withstand temperatures of 700ºC and beyond.



Moisture reduction important for some coals
Moisture reduction important for some coals 2013

Advanced lignite pre-drying in pulverised coal combustion

RWE Power

Vattenfall

The steam cycle is optimised for maximum efficiency.


Drax power in uk 500mw co firing facility

Drax is a pioneer in biomass direct injection technology 2013

New 500MW co-firing facility is largest in the world

Capacity to co-fire >1.5m tonnes pellets per year

Drax Power in UK - 500MW Co-firing Facility

24


PRENFLO Gasifier 2013

Coal preparation

ASU

Combined Cycle

New CO2 capture pilot plant

Sulphur Recovery

PSE-CO2 project : CO2 Capture Pilot Plant

Puertollano IGCC power plant and pilot plant location

Pilotplant general view

IGCC powerplant general view

Courtesy of Elcogas


http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/get-involved/in-focus/2013/10/global-status-ccs-2013http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/get-involved/in-focus/2013/10/global-status-ccs-2013


GCCSI – http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/get-involved/in-focus/2013/10/global-status-ccs-2013Report 2013

As reported in Power Engineering magazine


Gccsi summary report 2013 contribution of ccs to co2 emissions reduction
GCCSI – Summary Report 2013http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/get-involved/in-focus/2013/10/global-status-ccs-2013Contribution of CCS to CO2 emissions reduction


Gccsi summary report 2013 costs of co2 avoided in power sector
GCCSI - Summary Report 2013http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/get-involved/in-focus/2013/10/global-status-ccs-2013Costs of CO2 avoided in Power Sector


Gccsi summary report 2013 lsips progress since 2010
GCCSI – Summary Report 2013http://www.globalccsinstitute.com/get-involved/in-focus/2013/10/global-status-ccs-2013LSIPS Progress since 2010


THE ENDhttp://www.globalccsinstitute.com/get-involved/in-focus/2013/10/global-status-ccs-2013

THANK YOU ALL FOR LISTENING

[email protected]


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