FISH & SHELLFISH. Classifications (types & structures) Nutritive value Selection and storage Preparation Cooking. Textbook Pg 113-117. Structures of Fishes. Less connective tissues than meat & no elastin Not tough as muscle fibres are short & held together by connective tissues
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Textbook Pg 113-117
Saltwater fish - more distinctive flavors than freshwater fish
Oily fish - more flvaour than the white lean varieties
Fish protein has a high biological value
as that of land animals; 18-20% of protein.
white fish 10% with energy value 50-80 Kcal/100g
Roe 30% protein.
Fish meal & fish flour - excellent nutrient content, prepared from small whole fish for animal feeds while some are added into human foods such as cereals, bread and noodles.
Lean fish - less than 1% of fat
Oily fish - 8-15% fat, hence higher energy value 80-160 kcal/100g
Shellfish - little fat & energy value 50kcal, high cholesterol esp
lobsters and crabs, cuttlefish and moderately high in prawns
Fish -Vit A and D in oily fish. Why?
-some vit. B groups e.g. thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid (present in small amounts)
Shellfish – Vit. A content is good in some shellfish. B groups vitamins are present in all shellfish
MineralFish-good source of phosphorus-good source of calcium when eaten with bonesShell Fish- calcium, iron and iodine- e.g. cockles are esp. rich in iron & iodine
Fish - white fish 80%
- Oily fish 67%
Shellfish – high water content
Oysters are the richest food source for zinc
Selection and storage
Fresh finfish- firm fins & body, tight scales, gills are red & eyes are bright and not sunken. Pressure on the body does not leave an indentation, except frozen/ thawed. Body not slimy and does not have an unpleasant stale smell.
Storage- Fresh fish should be kept in freezer
Mollusks should be refrigerated in containers covered loosely with a clean damp cloth.
Preparing Shellfish for Cooking
Thaw fish over night in the refrigerator
Fish are less tasty than meat. Good cooks uses a variety of
sauces, garnishes, herbs and spices to make fish interesting
Cooking methods used depend on whether fish is oily or white.
Oily fish grilled, baked or pan-fried so that natural flavour is conserved
White fish deep fried so that it will tastes better
Shellfish- moist-heat generally satisfactory.
Lobsters- parboiled in salted water, over done
toughens the meat
soluble proteins & extractives are lost to the liquid, fish tends to be tasteless
therefore usually eaten with a sauce, which may be made from the liquid the fish is cooked in to prevent wastage of soluble nutrients