Plankton Culture for Feeding Larval Fish and Shellfish
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Plankton Culture for Feeding Larval Fish and Shellfish

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Shellfish Larval Culture. . . Larval Rearing. TrocophoreSize 50-60 microns6-12 hours post-fertilizationD-Hinge or Straight HingeSize 70-80 microns24-48 hours post-fertilizationBivalve ShellVelum - Swimming and Feeding organ. Larval Rearing. Veliger or Umbo LarvaeSize 80-300 micronsStage last 8-12 days Well defined umboPediveliger or
Plankton Culture for Feeding Larval Fish and Shellfish

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1. Plankton Culture for Feeding Larval Fish and Shellfish LaDon Swann Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium Auburn University

2. Shellfish Larval Culture

3. Larval Rearing Trocophore Size 50-60 microns 6-12 hours post-fertilization D-Hinge or Straight Hinge Size 70-80 microns 24-48 hours post-fertilization Bivalve Shell Velum - Swimming and Feeding organ

4. Larval Rearing Veliger or Umbo Larvae Size 80-300 microns Stage last 8-12 days Well defined umbo Pediveliger or ?Eyed? Larvae Size >300 microns Pigmented eye-spot Muscular foot

5. Phytoplankton Production Feeding Larvae Cell Size 4-8 microns Species Isochrysis galbana Chaetoceros gracilis Nannochloris sp. Chlorella sp. Pavlova lutheri

6. Pavlova lutheri Morphology Golden brown Spherical with 2 flagella 3-6 ?m Salinity 8-32 ppt Temperature 11-26 ?C Culture media Guillards f/2 Proximate Analysis 52% Protein 24% Carbs 29% Fat

7. Isochrysis galbana Morphology Tahiti (T-Iso strain) Golden brown Cells spherical with 2 flagella 5-6 ?m length, 2-4 ?m wide Salinity 8-32 ppt Temperature 23 - 28?C Culture media Guillards f/2 Proximate Analysis 47% Protein 24% Carbs 17% Fat

8. Chaetoceros gracilis Morphology Golden brown diatom Medium-size 12 ?m wide, 10.5 ?m long Cells united in chains Salinity 26 - 32 ppt Temperature 28 - 30?C Culture media Guillards f/2 with Si Proximate Analysis 28% Protein 23% Carbs 9% Fat

9. Plankton for Shellfish Broodstock and Spat Cell Size 10-24 microns Species Tetraselmis sp. Green Thalassiosra sp. Diatom

10. Tetraselmis sp. Morphology Ovoid green cells 14 to 23 ?m L X 8 ?m W 4 flagella Salinity 28-36 ppt Temperature 22-26?C Culture media Guillards f/2 Proximate Analysis 55% Protein 18% Carbs 14% Fat

11. Thalassiosra sp. Morphology Golden brown diatom Cells united in chains Barrel-shaped Non-motile 4 ?m Salinity 26 ? 32 ppt Temperature 22-29 ?C Culture media Guillards f/2 with Si Other characteristics

12. Micro Algae Culture Culture Water Sterilization Nutrient Enrichment Inoculation Cell Counts Harvest and Feeding Stock Culture

13. Culture Water Sources Seawater Saltwater wells Prepared seawater Salinity 26-32 ppt

14. Sterilization Methods Heat Pasteurization 80 C and cool naturally Autoclave Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach) 0.5 ml/L (10 drops) Neutralize: 10-15 ml sodium thiosulfate (248 g/L) per liter Hydrochloric acid (muriatic) 0.2 ml/L (4 drops) Neutralize: Na2CO3 0.4-0.9 g/L

15. Nutrient Enrichment Guillard?s f/2 Part A and B 0.5 ml/L each part Na2Si03 for diatoms

16. Inoculation Culture vessels 1,000 ml flask 18.7 L (5 gal.) Carboy (glass) 178 L (47 gal) Transparent Tank Add enough algae to give a strong tint to the water 100,000-200,000/ml Lighting Types Sunlight Fluorescent VHO fluorescent Metal halide Highest Densities: 24/7

17. Cell Counts Peak Algae Density I. Galbana 10-12 million cells/ml 10-14 days 2 wk stability T. pseudonana 4 million cells/ml 3 days 5 day stability Hemacytometer Count total in centermost 1 mm Multiply by 10,000 Product = number/ml

18. Harvest and Feeding Algae Density Wk 1 = 50,000 cells/ml Wk 2+ = 100,000 cells/ml Onset of spatting = 200,000/ml Tank cleared in 24hrs Larvae Density 5-10 larvae/ml

19. Harvesting and Feeding Batch Total harvest occurs once or over several days Semi-Continuous Works well with diatoms Part of the algae remains in the vessel New media is added to replenish the algae removed

20. Stock Culture Purchase pure strain Avoid contamination No aeration Half filed container Redundancy Holding Test tubes Conical flasks Transfer 1 drop/wk for T. pseudonana 1 drop/2 wk for I. galbana

21. Marine Fish Larval Culture Relies on zooplankton

22. Marine Rotifer Brachionus plicatilis Culture units 40L plastic bags 40L cone-bottomed tanks Temperature 27-30 C Salinity 26 ppt

23. Rotifers Laboratory production 100 to 200+ mm size 2-3 week life span small size suitable as first food

24. Feeding Marine Fish Rotifers Typical first food in hatchery Feed algae or yeast Enrichment needed

25. Artemia Feeding of older larvae

26. Use of copepods


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