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CHAPTER. 22. QUIT. Enlightenment and Revolution , 1550–1789. Chapter Overview. Time Line. The Scientific Revolution. 1. MAP. SECTION. The Enlightenment in Europe. 2. SECTION. The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas. 3. SECTION. GRAPH. American Revolution: The Birth of a Republic. 4.

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Enlightenment and Revolution , 1550–1789

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Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

CHAPTER

22

QUIT

Enlightenment and

Revolution, 1550–1789

Chapter Overview

Time Line

The Scientific Revolution

1

MAP

SECTION

The Enlightenment in Europe

2

SECTION

The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas

3

SECTION

GRAPH

American Revolution: The Birth of a Republic

4

SECTION

Visual Summary


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

CHAPTER

22

Chapter Overview

HOME

Enlightenment and

Revolution, 1550–1789

In Europe, scientists question old ideas and use reason to make discoveries about the natural world. Philosophers support the use of reason to reform government, religion, and society. Enlightenment ideas are used to create a federal government in the newly created United States.


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

CHAPTER

22

1789

1550

HOME

Enlightenment and

Revolution, 1550–1789

Time Line

1543Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory.

1628William Harvey describes heart function.

1690John Locke defines natural rights.

1762Catherine the Great rules Russia.

1609Galileo observes heavens through telescope.

1687Newton publishes law of gravity.

1748Montesquieu describes separation of powers.


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

1

HOME

The Scientific

Revolution

MAP

Key Idea

The Scientific Revolution begins as scientists replace old ideas with new theories. New approaches to science include using observation and experiments to develop theories. In astronomy, scientists challenge the earth-centered model of the universe.

Overview

Assessment


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

1

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

The Scientific

Revolution

MAP

Overview

•Scientific Revolution

•Nicolaus Copernicus

•heliocentric theory

•Johannes Kepler

•Galileo Galilei

•scientific method

•Francis Bacon

•René Descartes

•Isaac Newton

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

In the mid-1500s, scientists began to question accepted beliefs and make new theories based on experimentation.

Scientists’ questioning led to the development of the scientific method still in use today.

Assessment


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

1

1

Section

Assessment

Causes of the Scientific Revolution

HOME

The Scientific

Revolution

MAP

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain the events and circumstances that led to the Scientific Revolution.

Renaissance discovery of new classical manuscripts leads scholars to question accepted knowledge.

Discoveries of Copernicus and other scientists challenge accepted thinking.

The printing press spreads ideas.

Exploration broadens European horizons.

continued . . .


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

1

HOME

The Scientific

Revolution

MAP

1

Section

Assessment

2. “If I have seen farther than others,” said Newton, “it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.” Who were the giants to whom Newton was referring? Could this be said of any scientific accomplishment? Explain.

ANSWER

Giants were Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. Yes, scientific discoveries give scientists a clearer understanding of how the world works. New discoveries lead to further questions for investigation and more discoveries.

Possible Response:

End of Section 1


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

2

HOME

The Enlightenment

in Europe

Key Idea

Enlightenment philosophers admire scientists’ use of reason to understand the natural world. These philosophers promote the use of reason to understand government, religion, education, and economics. They advocate government reform and social improvement.

Overview

Assessment


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

2

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

The Enlightenment

in Europe

Overview

•Enlightenment

•social contract

•John Locke

•natural rights

•philosophe

•Voltaire

•Montesquieu

•separation of powers

•Jean Jacques Rousseau

•Mary Wollstonecraft

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

A revolution in intellectual activity changed Europeans’ view of government and society.

Freedoms and some forms of government in many countries today are a result of Enlightenment thinking.

Assessment


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

2

2

Section

Assessment

Key Idea

Thinker

HOME

The Enlightenment

in Europe

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the important ideas of Hobbes, Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Beccaria, and Wollstonecraft.

Hobbes

Social contract

Locke

Consent of the governed

Voltaire

Tolerance

Montesquieu

Separation of powers

Rousseau

Government by general will

Beccaria

Abolition of torture

Wollstonecraft

Access to education for women

continued . . .


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

2

HOME

The Enlightenment

in Europe

2

Section

Assessment

2. For each of the statements below, identify who said it and explain what it means. Then say how each viewpoint reflects Enlightenment ideas.

•“Power should be a check to power.”

•“Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”

•“Let women share the rights and she will emulate the virtues of men.”

ANSWER

“Power”—Montesquieu; each branch of government should limit power of other branches.

“Man”—Rousseau; civilization corrupted the state of nature.

“Let women”—Wollstonecraft; give women equal rights and they will display men’s goodness.

Possible Responses:

continued . . .


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

2

HOME

The Enlightenment

in Europe

2

Section

Assessment

3. Compare the views of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau on government. How do their differing ideas reflect their understanding of human behavior? THINK ABOUT

•how each philosopher viewed the “state of nature”

•what each considered the source of a government’s authority

ANSWER

Hobbes—humans are naturally selfish and wicked; governments keep order.

Locke—humans are naturally able to govern themselves; favored self-government.

Rousseau—people are naturally good; society corrupts them; power comes from the general will.

Possible Responses:

End of Section 2


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

3

HOME

The Spread of

Enlightenment Ideas

GRAPH

Key Idea

Enlightenment ideas circulate in pamphlets and formal discussions. The new ideals of order and reason are reflected in the arts and music. European monarchs make limited reforms based on Enlightenment ideas.

Overview

Assessment


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

3

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

The Spread of

Enlightenment Ideas

GRAPH

Overview

•salon

•baroque

•neoclassical

•enlightened despot

•Catherine the Great

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

Enlightenment ideas spread through the Western world and profoundly influenced the arts and government.

An “enlightened” problem-solving approach to government and society prevails in modern civilization today.

Assessment


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

3

Circulation of Ideas

Art and Literature

Spread of Enlightenment Ideas

Monarchy

HOME

The Spread of

Enlightenment Ideas

GRAPH

3

Section

Assessment

1. Give examples for each of the following topics related to the spread of Enlightenment: (a) circulation of ideas; (b) art and literature; and (c) monarchy.

Salons, Encyclopedia, books, letters, magazines, pamphlets

Neoclassical art, classical music, novel

Enlightened despots, Frederick the Great, Joseph II, Catherine the Great

continued . . .


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

3

HOME

The Spread of

Enlightenment Ideas

GRAPH

3

Section

Assessment

2. What advantages do you think salons had over earlier forms of communication in spreading new ideas?

THINK ABOUT

•who hosted the salons and where they were held

•who was invited to the salons

•church and state influence on publishing and education

ANSWER

Salons were hosted by wealthy middle-class women, who had an interest in educating themselves; many great artists and thinkers gathered to share ideas; salons were held in private homes, so guests could speak freely without the threat of jail or exile.

Possible Response:

End of Section 3


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

4

HOME

American Revolution:

The Birth of a Republic

Key Idea

Colonists resist the laws and taxes imposed by the British. Colonial leaders use Enlightenment ideas to justify independence from Britain, and, after winning the Revolution, create a federal government.

Overview

Assessment


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

4

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

American Revolution:

The Birth of a Republic

Overview

•Declaration of Independence

•Thomas Jefferson

•checks and balances

•federal system

•Bill of Rights

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

Enlightenment ideas helped spur the American colonies to create a new nation.

The revolution created a republic, the United States of America, that became a model for many nations of the world.

Assessment


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

4

Problem

Solution

HOME

American Revolution:

The Birth of a Republic

4

Section

Assessment

1. List problems faced by the Americans as colonists and in shaping their republic. Then, explain their actions and decisions to solve those problems.

Navigation Acts

Smuggling

Stamp Act

Boycott

Import tax on tea

Boston Tea Party

Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation

Constitutional Convention

Distrust of central government

Federal system

continued . . .


Enlightenment and revolution 1550 1789

4

HOME

American Revolution:

The Birth of a Republic

4

Section

Assessment

2. How does the opening statement from the Declaration of Independence reflect enlightened thinking?

ANSWER

It reflects the supremacy of reason, and shows a belief in human progress. It also includes the ideas that humans have natural rights, and that a government gets its power from the consent of the governed.

Possible Response:

End of Section 4


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