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Job Requirements. HR Planning Learning Objectives. Discuss Job Requirements and Relationships to other HR Functions Describe Job Analysis Methods Explain Job Descriptions List Factors in Job Design Describe How to Maximize Employee Contributions. Job. Group of Related Activities and Duties

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hr planning learning objectives
HR Planning Learning Objectives
  • Discuss Job Requirements and Relationships to other HR Functions
  • Describe Job Analysis Methods
  • Explain Job Descriptions
  • List Factors in Job Design
  • Describe How to Maximize Employee Contributions
slide3
Job
  • Group of Related Activities and Duties
  • Many Jobs Within an Organization
  • Many Employees do a Certain Type of Job
  • Facilitate the Organization\'s Goals
specific position
Specific Position
  • Duties
  • Responsibilities
  • One Employer Per Position
position
Position

- The different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee.

job changes
Job Changes
  • Evaluate Content Regularly
  • Review Relationship
job reengineering
Job Reengineering
  • Redesign Tasks in a Process
  • Review Work Team
  • Adjust Time Commitment
  • Enhance Productivity
slide8

Is a

Job/Position

a Property Right

for

an Employee?

job requirements
Job Requirements
  • Duties
  • Tasks
  • Responsibilities
job description
Job Description

- Statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job to be performed.

job specification
Job Specification

- Statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities of the person who is to perform the job.

relationship of job requirements to other hrm functions

RECRUITMENT

SELECTION

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT

LABOR RELATIONS

Relationship of Job Requirementsto Other HRM Functions

Determine recruitment qualifications.

Provide job duties and job specifications for selection process.

Determine training needs and develop instructional programs.

J

O

B

R

E

Q

U

I

R

E

M

E

N

T

S

Provide performance criteria for evaluating employees.

Provide basis for determining employee’s rate of pay.

May help to determine bargaining units.

class project write a job description
Class Project:Write a Job Description
  • Job Identification (Facts)
  • Job Statement - Major Duties
  • Job Duties and Responsibilities
  • Job Specification
the job title
The Job Title
  • Defines Duties
  • Indicate Level Within Organization (junior, etc.)
  • Qualifiers on Same Job (I, II, III, etc.)
job identification section
Job Identification Section
  • Department
  • Reporting Relationship
  • Date of Last Review
  • Classification Level
job duties
Job Duties
  • Each Task Define
  • Start with a Verb
  • Rank in Order of Importance
  • Usually 8-20 1 to 3 line Statements
  • See Examples
characteristics of job descriptions
Characteristics of Job Descriptions
  • No set format
  • Basic Parts (Title, ID, Duties, Specifications)
  • Qualifications, Separate Section
qualities of a good job description
Qualities of a Good Job Description
  • Direct Statements
      • Terse
      • Direct
  • Begin Statements with Verbs
      • Maintains
      • Supervises
      • Performs
  • Umbrella Statement:
      • "Other duties as assigned"
  • Simple
  • Concise
  • Coordinates
  • Operates
  • Directs
preparing the job description

Supervisor

Interview

Questionnaire

Employees

Interview

Questionnaire

Observation

Preparing the Job Description

Job Analyst

Securing

consensus

Final

Draft

Combine and

reconcile data

Tentative

draft

Alternative/optional

key elements of the job description
Key Elements of the Job Description

JOB TITLE

  • Ideally three words or less
  • Non-sexist
  • Indicates job duties and organizational level

STATEMENT OF THE JOB

  • Distinguishes job from all other jobs

ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS (JOB DUTIES)

  • Listed in the order of importance or time required
  • Indicate:
    • weight or value of the duties
    • results to be accomplished
  • Start phrases with active verbs; subject implied
job analysis
Job Analysis

- Process of obtaining information about jobs determining what the duties, tasks, or activities of jobs are.

sources of data
Sources of Data
  • Employee
  • Supervisor
  • HRM Job Analyst
methods of collecting data
Methods of Collecting Data
  • Interviews
  • Questionnaires
  • Observations
  • Past Records
  • Standardized Descriptions (DOT)
  • Job Diaries
job data
Job Data
  • Tasks
  • Performance Standards
  • Responsibilities
  • Knowledge Required
  • Skills Required
  • Experience Needed
  • Job Context (Relationship)
  • Duties
  • Equipment Used
determining job requirements

JOB DESCRIPTION

  • Summary statement of the job
  • List of essential functions of the job

JOB SPECIFICATION

  • Personal qualifications required in terms of:
    • Skills
    • Education
    • Experience
Determining Job Requirements

Nature of:

Basis for:

JOB ANALYSIS

  • What the employee does
  • How the employee does it
  • Why the employee does it
  • Determining job requirements
  • Employee orientation
  • Employee instruction
  • Disciplinary action
  • Recruitment
  • Selection
  • Development
job specifications
Job Specifications
  • Skill Requirement
  • Physical Demands
  • Social Skills
  • Education Level
  • Personal Qualities
  • Interests
dictionary of occupational titles dot
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)
  • U.S. Employment Service
  • “Comprehensive Descriptions of 20,000+ Jobs”
approaches to job analysis
Approaches to Job Analysis
  • Functional Job Analysis (FJA)
      • Inventory of Work Activities
      • Assumes Every Job Performs Certain Functions
  • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
  • Critical Incident Method (CIM)
functional job analysis fja
Functional Job Analysis (FJA)
  • Quantitative approach to job analysis that utilizes a complied inventory of the various functions of work activities that can make up any job and that assumes that each job involves three broad worker functions:
      • data
      • people
      • things
position analysis questionnaire paq
Position Analysis Questionnaire(PAQ)
  • 194 Different Tasks
  • 5 Point Scale (Nominal, Occasional, Moderate, Considerable, Substantive)
  • 6 Divisions:
      • Information Input
      • Mental Process
      • Work Output
      • Relationships
      • Job Context
      • Other Characteristics
position analysis questionnaire paq1
Position Analysis Questionnaire(PAQ)

- Questionnaire covering 194 different tasks which, by means of a five-point scale, seeks to determine the degree to which different tasks are involved in performing a particular job.

critical incident method cim
Critical Incident Method (CIM)

- Job analysis method by which important job tasks are identified for job success.

critical incident method cim1
Critical Incident Method (CIM)
  • Identify Critical Job Tasks
  • Most Important Duties and Responsibilities
  • Describe the Job (What, Where, When, How, etc.)
  • Start Task with Verb
  • 5-10 Task Statement
  • Compare Other Job to the Key Jobs
job design
Job Design
  • Structuring Jobs
  • Focus on Employee Satisfaction
  • Integrate Technology
  • Consider Human Characteristics
four most important design techniques
Four Most ImportantDesign Techniques
  • Job Enlargement (Horizontal Loading)
  • Job Rotation (Variety)
  • Job Enrichment (Vertical Expansion-Delayering)
  • Job Empowerment
behavioral considerations
Behavioral Considerations
  • Avoid Problems
      • Overspecialization
      • Work Simplification
      • Division of Labor
  • Focus on Psychological Rewards
      • Interesting Tasks
      • Challenging Projects
      • Reduce Boredom
      • Quality
      • Pride in Job
job enrichment
Job Enrichment

- Enhancing a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties to make the work more rewarding or satisfying.

five enrichment factors
Five Enrichment Factors
  • Achievement
  • Recognition
  • Growth
  • Responsibility
  • Complete Product/Service
employee teams
Employee Teams

- An employee contributions technique whereby work functions are structured for groups rather than for individuals and team members are given discretion in matters traditionally considered management prerogatives, such as process improvements, product or service development, and individual work assignments.

employee participation teams
Employee Participation Teams
  • Joint Decision Making
  • Intrinsically Fulfilling
  • Team Develops Loyalty
  • Builds Pride of Ownership
  • Involved in the Result
employee empowerment
Employee Empowerment

- Granting employees power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they do.

increasing organizational commitment
Increasing Organizational Commitment
  • Increase job challenge through enriched jobs with high autonomy, feedback and responsibility.
  • Use work teams where appropriate.
  • Clarify job responsibilities through effective communication.
  • Emphasize the long-run opportunities with the organization.
  • Encourage employees to use their unique talents to improve the organization.
  • Provide employees with a sense of power and control over their jobs by encouraging participation.
alternate work schedules
Alternate Work Schedules
  • Four Day Week
  • Flextime
  • Telecommuting
  • Job Sharing
  • Shift Work
four day week
Four Day Week
  • 10 Hour Workday
  • Long Weekend
  • Reduced Commuting
  • Lower Costs
  • Problem on Serving
  • Customers
flextime
Flextime

- Flexible working hours that permit employees the option of choosing daily starting and quitting times, provided that they work a set number of hours per day or week.

flextime1
Flextime
  • Flexible Start and Ending Ties
  • Core Mid-day Period
  • Lower Tardiness and Absenteeism
  • Higher Morale and Productivity
  • Not Suited to all Jobs
  • Increased Overhead Costs
telecommuting
Telecommuting

- Use of microcomputers, networks, and other communications technology such as fax machines to do work in the home that is traditionally done in the workplace.

job sharing
Job Sharing
  • 2 Part-Timers Make one Full-Time Position
  • Accommodate Special Needs
  • Provides Back-up Redundancy
  • Extra Training Costs
  • Increase Morale and Productivity
shift work
Shift Work
  • Used Where Continuous Operation Required
      • 7:00 a.m. - 3:00 p.m.
      • 3:00 - 11:00 p.m.
      • 11:00 p.m. - 7:00 a.m.
  • Rotate Employees (Seniority-Desire)
job requirements summary
Job Requirements Summary
  • Relationships to all HRM functions
  • Defined Job Families
  • The Job Description
  • Job Analysis
  • Job Design
job description examples
Job Description Examples

Amoco Facility Manager

Amoco Sales Manager

Amoco Sales Operations Manager

Emery Sales Representative

Marathon Marketing Representative

position analysis questionnaire
Position Analysis Questionnaire

Indiana University PAQ

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