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Job Requirements. HR Planning Learning Objectives. Discuss Job Requirements and Relationships to other HR Functions Describe Job Analysis Methods Explain Job Descriptions List Factors in Job Design Describe How to Maximize Employee Contributions. Job. Group of Related Activities and Duties

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Hr planning learning objectives
HR Planning Learning Objectives

  • Discuss Job Requirements and Relationships to other HR Functions

  • Describe Job Analysis Methods

  • Explain Job Descriptions

  • List Factors in Job Design

  • Describe How to Maximize Employee Contributions


  • Group of Related Activities and Duties

  • Many Jobs Within an Organization

  • Many Employees do a Certain Type of Job

  • Facilitate the Organization's Goals

Specific position
Specific Position

  • Duties

  • Responsibilities

  • One Employer Per Position


- The different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee.

Job changes
Job Changes

  • Evaluate Content Regularly

  • Review Relationship

Job reengineering
Job Reengineering

  • Redesign Tasks in a Process

  • Review Work Team

  • Adjust Time Commitment

  • Enhance Productivity

Is a


a Property Right


an Employee?

Job requirements
Job Requirements

  • Duties

  • Tasks

  • Responsibilities

Job description
Job Description

- Statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job to be performed.

Job specification
Job Specification

- Statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities of the person who is to perform the job.

Relationship of job requirements to other hrm functions







Relationship of Job Requirementsto Other HRM Functions

Determine recruitment qualifications.

Provide job duties and job specifications for selection process.

Determine training needs and develop instructional programs.
















Provide performance criteria for evaluating employees.

Provide basis for determining employee’s rate of pay.

May help to determine bargaining units.

Class project write a job description
Class Project:Write a Job Description

  • Job Identification (Facts)

  • Job Statement - Major Duties

  • Job Duties and Responsibilities

  • Job Specification

The job title
The Job Title

  • Defines Duties

  • Indicate Level Within Organization (junior, etc.)

  • Qualifiers on Same Job (I, II, III, etc.)

Job identification section
Job Identification Section

  • Department

  • Reporting Relationship

  • Date of Last Review

  • Classification Level

Job duties
Job Duties

  • Each Task Define

  • Start with a Verb

  • Rank in Order of Importance

  • Usually 8-20 1 to 3 line Statements

  • See Examples

Characteristics of job descriptions
Characteristics of Job Descriptions

  • No set format

  • Basic Parts (Title, ID, Duties, Specifications)

  • Qualifications, Separate Section

Qualities of a good job description
Qualities of a Good Job Description

  • Direct Statements

    • Terse

    • Direct

  • Begin Statements with Verbs

    • Maintains

    • Supervises

    • Performs

  • Umbrella Statement:

    • "Other duties as assigned"

    • Simple

    • Concise

    • Coordinates

    • Operates

    • Directs

    Preparing the job description








    Preparing the Job Description

    Job Analyst





    Combine and

    reconcile data




    Key elements of the job description
    Key Elements of the Job Description


    • Ideally three words or less

    • Non-sexist

    • Indicates job duties and organizational level


    • Distinguishes job from all other jobs


    • Listed in the order of importance or time required

    • Indicate:

      • weight or value of the duties

      • results to be accomplished

    • Start phrases with active verbs; subject implied

    The job analysis collecting facts

    The Job Analysis(Collecting Facts)

    Job analysis
    Job Analysis

    - Process of obtaining information about jobs determining what the duties, tasks, or activities of jobs are.

    Sources of data
    Sources of Data

    • Employee

    • Supervisor

    • HRM Job Analyst

    Methods of collecting data
    Methods of Collecting Data

    • Interviews

    • Questionnaires

    • Observations

    • Past Records

    • Standardized Descriptions (DOT)

    • Job Diaries

    Job data
    Job Data

    • Tasks

    • Performance Standards

    • Responsibilities

    • Knowledge Required

    • Skills Required

    • Experience Needed

    • Job Context (Relationship)

    • Duties

    • Equipment Used

    Determining job requirements


    • Summary statement of the job

    • List of essential functions of the job


    • Personal qualifications required in terms of:

      • Skills

      • Education

      • Experience

    Determining Job Requirements

    Nature of:

    Basis for:


    • What the employee does

    • How the employee does it

    • Why the employee does it

    • Determining job requirements

    • Employee orientation

    • Employee instruction

    • Disciplinary action

    • Recruitment

    • Selection

    • Development

    Job specifications
    Job Specifications

    • Skill Requirement

    • Physical Demands

    • Social Skills

    • Education Level

    • Personal Qualities

    • Interests

    Dictionary of occupational titles dot
    Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)

    • U.S. Employment Service

    • “Comprehensive Descriptions of 20,000+ Jobs”

    Approaches to job analysis
    Approaches to Job Analysis

    • Functional Job Analysis (FJA)

      • Inventory of Work Activities

      • Assumes Every Job Performs Certain Functions

  • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

  • Critical Incident Method (CIM)

  • Functional job analysis fja
    Functional Job Analysis (FJA)

    • Quantitative approach to job analysis that utilizes a complied inventory of the various functions of work activities that can make up any job and that assumes that each job involves three broad worker functions:

      • data

      • people

      • things

    Position analysis questionnaire paq
    Position Analysis Questionnaire(PAQ)

    • 194 Different Tasks

    • 5 Point Scale (Nominal, Occasional, Moderate, Considerable, Substantive)

    • 6 Divisions:

      • Information Input

      • Mental Process

      • Work Output

      • Relationships

      • Job Context

      • Other Characteristics

    Position analysis questionnaire paq1
    Position Analysis Questionnaire(PAQ)

    - Questionnaire covering 194 different tasks which, by means of a five-point scale, seeks to determine the degree to which different tasks are involved in performing a particular job.

    Critical incident method cim
    Critical Incident Method (CIM)

    - Job analysis method by which important job tasks are identified for job success.

    Critical incident method cim1
    Critical Incident Method (CIM)

    • Identify Critical Job Tasks

    • Most Important Duties and Responsibilities

    • Describe the Job (What, Where, When, How, etc.)

    • Start Task with Verb

    • 5-10 Task Statement

    • Compare Other Job to the Key Jobs

    Job design
    Job Design

    • Structuring Jobs

    • Focus on Employee Satisfaction

    • Integrate Technology

    • Consider Human Characteristics

    Four most important design techniques
    Four Most ImportantDesign Techniques

    • Job Enlargement (Horizontal Loading)

    • Job Rotation (Variety)

    • Job Enrichment (Vertical Expansion-Delayering)

    • Job Empowerment

    Behavioral considerations
    Behavioral Considerations

    • Avoid Problems

      • Overspecialization

      • Work Simplification

      • Division of Labor

  • Focus on Psychological Rewards

    • Interesting Tasks

    • Challenging Projects

    • Reduce Boredom

    • Quality

    • Pride in Job

  • Job enrichment
    Job Enrichment

    - Enhancing a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties to make the work more rewarding or satisfying.

    Five enrichment factors
    Five Enrichment Factors

    • Achievement

    • Recognition

    • Growth

    • Responsibility

    • Complete Product/Service

    Employee teams
    Employee Teams

    - An employee contributions technique whereby work functions are structured for groups rather than for individuals and team members are given discretion in matters traditionally considered management prerogatives, such as process improvements, product or service development, and individual work assignments.

    Employee participation teams
    Employee Participation Teams

    • Joint Decision Making

    • Intrinsically Fulfilling

    • Team Develops Loyalty

    • Builds Pride of Ownership

    • Involved in the Result

    Employee empowerment
    Employee Empowerment

    - Granting employees power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they do.

    Increasing organizational commitment
    Increasing Organizational Commitment

    • Increase job challenge through enriched jobs with high autonomy, feedback and responsibility.

    • Use work teams where appropriate.

    • Clarify job responsibilities through effective communication.

    • Emphasize the long-run opportunities with the organization.

    • Encourage employees to use their unique talents to improve the organization.

    • Provide employees with a sense of power and control over their jobs by encouraging participation.

    Alternate work schedules
    Alternate Work Schedules

    • Four Day Week

    • Flextime

    • Telecommuting

    • Job Sharing

    • Shift Work

    Four day week
    Four Day Week

    • 10 Hour Workday

    • Long Weekend

    • Reduced Commuting

    • Lower Costs

    • Problem on Serving

    • Customers


    - Flexible working hours that permit employees the option of choosing daily starting and quitting times, provided that they work a set number of hours per day or week.


    • Flexible Start and Ending Ties

    • Core Mid-day Period

    • Lower Tardiness and Absenteeism

    • Higher Morale and Productivity

    • Not Suited to all Jobs

    • Increased Overhead Costs


    - Use of microcomputers, networks, and other communications technology such as fax machines to do work in the home that is traditionally done in the workplace.

    Job sharing
    Job Sharing

    • 2 Part-Timers Make one Full-Time Position

    • Accommodate Special Needs

    • Provides Back-up Redundancy

    • Extra Training Costs

    • Increase Morale and Productivity

    Shift work
    Shift Work

    • Used Where Continuous Operation Required

      • 7:00 a.m. - 3:00 p.m.

      • 3:00 - 11:00 p.m.

      • 11:00 p.m. - 7:00 a.m.

  • Rotate Employees (Seniority-Desire)

  • Job requirements summary
    Job Requirements Summary

    • Relationships to all HRM functions

    • Defined Job Families

    • The Job Description

    • Job Analysis

    • Job Design

    Job description examples
    Job Description Examples

    Amoco Facility Manager

    Amoco Sales Manager

    Amoco Sales Operations Manager

    Emery Sales Representative

    Marathon Marketing Representative

    Position analysis questionnaire
    Position Analysis Questionnaire

    Indiana University PAQ