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Splash Screen. Globes and Maps Map Projections Location Hemispheres Parts of a Map Using Scale Types of Maps Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams. Handbook Menu. Globes and Maps. What is a Globe?.

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Handbook menu

Globes and Maps

Map Projections

Location

Hemispheres

Parts of a Map

Using Scale

Types of Maps

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Handbook Menu


Globes and maps

Globes and Maps

What is a Globe?

A globe is a round model of the Earth that shows its shape, landforms, and directions as they truly relate to one another.

Globes and Maps


Globes and maps1

Globes and Maps

What is a Map?

A map is a flat drawing of all or part of the Earth’s surface. Cartographers, or mapmakers, use mathematical formulas to transfer information from the round globe to a flat map.

Globes and Maps


Globes and maps2

Globes and Maps

Globes and Maps

Globes and maps serve different purposes, and each has advantages and disadvantages.

Globes and Maps



Map projections

Map Projections

When the Earth’s surface is flattened on a map, big gaps open up. Mapmakers stretch parts of the Earth to show either the correct shapes of places or their correct sizes. Mapmakers have developed different projections, or ways of showing the Earth on a flat piece of paper.

Map Projections


Map projections1

Map Projections

Goode’s Interrupted Equal-Area Projection

A map with this projection shows continents close to their true shapes and sizes. This projection is helpful to compare land area among continents.

Map Projections


Map projections2

Map Projections

Robinson Projection

The Robinson projection has minor distortions. Continents and oceans are close to their sizes and shapes, but the North and South Poles appear flattened.

Map Projections


Map projections3

Map Projections

Mercator Projection

The Mercator projection shows land shapes fairly accurately but not size or distance. Areas that are located far from the Equator are quite distorted. The Mercator projection shows true directions, however, making it useful for sea travel.

Map Projections


Map projections4

Map Projections

Winkel Tripel Projection

This projection gives a good overall view of the continents’ shapes and sizes. Land areas are not as distorted near the poles as they are in the Robinson projection.

Map Projections



Location

Location

To locate places on Earth, geographers use a system of imaginary lines that crisscross the globe. These lines are called latitude and longitude.

Location


Location1

Location

Latitude

  • Lines of latitude are imaginary circles that run east to west around the globe. They are known as parallels. These parallels divide the globe into units called degrees.

  • The Equator circles the middle of the Earth like a belt. It is located halfway between the North and South Poles. The Equator is 0° latitude.

  • The letter N or S that follows the degree symbol tells you if the location is north or south of the Equator. The North Pole, for example, is 90°N (north) latitude, and the South Pole is at 90°S (south) latitude.

Location


Location2

Location

Longitude

  • Lines of longitude, also known as meridians, run from the North Pole to the South Pole. The Prime Meridian (also called the Meridian of Greenwich) is 0° longitude and runs through Greenwich, England.

  • The letter E or W that follows the degree symbol tells you if the location is east or west of the Prime Meridian.

  • On the opposite side of the Earth is the 180° meridian, also known as the International Date Line.

Location


Location3

Location

Absolute Location

A place’s exact location can be identified when you use both latitude and longitude. For example, Tokyo, Japan, is 36°N latitude and 140°E longitude.

Location



Hemispheres

Hemispheres

The Equator divides the Earth into Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Everything north of the Equator is in the Northern Hemisphere. Everything south of the Equator is in the Southern Hemisphere.

Hemispheres


Hemispheres1

Hemispheres

The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Everything east of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees is in the Eastern Hemisphere. Everything west of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees is in the Western Hemisphere.

Hemispheres



Parts of a map

Parts of a Map

Parts of a Map


Parts of a map1

Parts of a Map

Parts of a Map



Using scale

Using Scale

All maps are drawn to a certain scale.The scale of a map is the size of the map compared to the size of the actual land surface. Thus, the scale of a map varies with the size of the area shown.

Using Scale


Using scale1

Using Scale

Small-Scale Maps

A small-scale map, like this political map of Mexico, shows a large land area but little detail.

Using Scale


Using scale2

Using Scale

Large-Scale Maps

A large-scale map, like this map of Mexico City, shows a small land area with a great amount of detail.

Using Scale


Using scale3

Using Scale

How Do I Use a Scale Bar?

Use the scale bar to find actual distances on a map. The scale bar tells you how many kilometers or miles are represented in that length. You can use a ruler, then, to calculate distances based on the scale bar’s length.

About ½ an inch equals 300 miles. A little more than ½ a centimeter is equal to 300 kilometers.

Using Scale



Types of maps

Types of Maps

General Purpose Maps

Maps are amazingly useful tools. You can use them to show information and to make connections between seemingly unrelated topics. Geographers use many different types of maps. Maps that show a wide range of information about an area are called general purposemaps. Two of the most common general purpose maps are physical maps and political maps.

Types of Maps


Types of maps1

Types of Maps

Physical Maps

Physical maps call out landforms and water features. The map key explains what each color and symbol stands for.

Types of Maps


Types of maps2

Types of Maps

Political Maps

Political maps show the names and political boundaries of countries, along with human-made features such as cities or transportation routes.

Types of Maps


Types of maps3

Types of Maps

Special Purpose Maps

Some maps are made to present specific types of information. These are called thematic or special purpose maps. These maps usually show specific topics in detail. Special purpose maps may include information about

  • climate

  • vegetation

  • natural resources

  • population density

  • historical expansion

Types of Maps


Types of maps4

Types of Maps

Historical Maps

Historical maps show events that occurred in a region over time. In the map to the right, you can see where Europeans settled in the North America continent in the past.

Types of Maps


Types of maps5

Types of Maps

Contour Maps

A contour map has contour lines—one line for each major level of elevation. All the land at the same elevation is connected by a line. These lines usually form circles or ovals—one inside the other. If contour lines are close together, the surface is steep. If the lines are spread apart, the land is flat or rises gradually.

Types of Maps


Types of maps6

Types of Maps

Vegetation Maps

Vegetation maps are special purpose maps that show the different types of plants that are found in a region.

Types of Maps



Graphs charts and diagrams

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Graphs

Graphs present and summarize information visually. Each part of a graph provides useful information. To read a graph, follow these steps:

  • Read the graph’s title to find out its subject.

  • To understand bar and line graphs, read the labels along the axes—the vertical line along the left side of the graph and the horizontal line along the bottom of the graph. One axis will tell you what is being measured. The other axis tells you what units of measurement are being used.

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams


Graphs charts and diagrams1

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Bar Graphs

Graphs that use bars or wide lines to compare data visually are called bar graphs.

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams


Graphs charts and diagrams2

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Circle Graphs

You can use circle graphs when you want to show how the whole of something is divided into its parts. Because of their shape, circle graphs are often called pie graphs. Each slide represents a part or percentage of the whole pie. The whole graph generally totals 100 percent.

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams


Graphs charts and diagrams3

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Line Graphs

Line graphs help show changes over a period of time. The amounts being measured are plotted on the grid above each year and then are connected by a line.

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams


Graphs charts and diagrams4

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Charts

Charts present related facts and numbers in an organized way. They arrange data, especially numbers, in rows and columns for easy reference.

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams


Graphs charts and diagrams5

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Diagrams

Diagrams are drawings that show steps in a process, point out the parts of an object, or explain how something works.

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams



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