splash screen
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Splash Screen

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 45

Splash Screen - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 98 Views
  • Uploaded on

Splash Screen. Globes and Maps Map Projections Location Hemispheres Parts of a Map Using Scale Types of Maps Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams. Handbook Menu. Globes and Maps. What is a Globe?.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Splash Screen' - abel-herman


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
handbook menu

Globes and Maps

Map Projections

Location

Hemispheres

Parts of a Map

Using Scale

Types of Maps

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Handbook Menu
globes and maps

Globes and Maps

What is a Globe?

A globe is a round model of the Earth that shows its shape, landforms, and directions as they truly relate to one another.

Globes and Maps
globes and maps1

Globes and Maps

What is a Map?

A map is a flat drawing of all or part of the Earth’s surface. Cartographers, or mapmakers, use mathematical formulas to transfer information from the round globe to a flat map.

Globes and Maps
globes and maps2

Globes and Maps

Globes and Maps

Globes and maps serve different purposes, and each has advantages and disadvantages.

Globes and Maps
map projections

Map Projections

When the Earth’s surface is flattened on a map, big gaps open up. Mapmakers stretch parts of the Earth to show either the correct shapes of places or their correct sizes. Mapmakers have developed different projections, or ways of showing the Earth on a flat piece of paper.

Map Projections
map projections1

Map Projections

Goode’s Interrupted Equal-Area Projection

A map with this projection shows continents close to their true shapes and sizes. This projection is helpful to compare land area among continents.

Map Projections
map projections2

Map Projections

Robinson Projection

The Robinson projection has minor distortions. Continents and oceans are close to their sizes and shapes, but the North and South Poles appear flattened.

Map Projections
map projections3

Map Projections

Mercator Projection

The Mercator projection shows land shapes fairly accurately but not size or distance. Areas that are located far from the Equator are quite distorted. The Mercator projection shows true directions, however, making it useful for sea travel.

Map Projections
map projections4

Map Projections

Winkel Tripel Projection

This projection gives a good overall view of the continents’ shapes and sizes. Land areas are not as distorted near the poles as they are in the Robinson projection.

Map Projections
location

Location

To locate places on Earth, geographers use a system of imaginary lines that crisscross the globe. These lines are called latitude and longitude.

Location
location1

Location

Latitude

  • Lines of latitude are imaginary circles that run east to west around the globe. They are known as parallels. These parallels divide the globe into units called degrees.
  • The Equator circles the middle of the Earth like a belt. It is located halfway between the North and South Poles. The Equator is 0° latitude.
  • The letter N or S that follows the degree symbol tells you if the location is north or south of the Equator. The North Pole, for example, is 90°N (north) latitude, and the South Pole is at 90°S (south) latitude.
Location
location2

Location

Longitude

  • Lines of longitude, also known as meridians, run from the North Pole to the South Pole. The Prime Meridian (also called the Meridian of Greenwich) is 0° longitude and runs through Greenwich, England.
  • The letter E or W that follows the degree symbol tells you if the location is east or west of the Prime Meridian.
  • On the opposite side of the Earth is the 180° meridian, also known as the International Date Line.
Location
location3

Location

Absolute Location

A place’s exact location can be identified when you use both latitude and longitude. For example, Tokyo, Japan, is 36°N latitude and 140°E longitude.

Location
hemispheres

Hemispheres

The Equator divides the Earth into Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Everything north of the Equator is in the Northern Hemisphere. Everything south of the Equator is in the Southern Hemisphere.

Hemispheres
hemispheres1

Hemispheres

The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Everything east of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees is in the Eastern Hemisphere. Everything west of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees is in the Western Hemisphere.

Hemispheres
using scale

Using Scale

All maps are drawn to a certain scale.The scale of a map is the size of the map compared to the size of the actual land surface. Thus, the scale of a map varies with the size of the area shown.

Using Scale
using scale1

Using Scale

Small-Scale Maps

A small-scale map, like this political map of Mexico, shows a large land area but little detail.

Using Scale
using scale2

Using Scale

Large-Scale Maps

A large-scale map, like this map of Mexico City, shows a small land area with a great amount of detail.

Using Scale
using scale3

Using Scale

How Do I Use a Scale Bar?

Use the scale bar to find actual distances on a map. The scale bar tells you how many kilometers or miles are represented in that length. You can use a ruler, then, to calculate distances based on the scale bar’s length.

About ½ an inch equals 300 miles. A little more than ½ a centimeter is equal to 300 kilometers.

Using Scale
types of maps

Types of Maps

General Purpose Maps

Maps are amazingly useful tools. You can use them to show information and to make connections between seemingly unrelated topics. Geographers use many different types of maps. Maps that show a wide range of information about an area are called general purposemaps. Two of the most common general purpose maps are physical maps and political maps.

Types of Maps
types of maps1

Types of Maps

Physical Maps

Physical maps call out landforms and water features. The map key explains what each color and symbol stands for.

Types of Maps
types of maps2

Types of Maps

Political Maps

Political maps show the names and political boundaries of countries, along with human-made features such as cities or transportation routes.

Types of Maps
types of maps3

Types of Maps

Special Purpose Maps

Some maps are made to present specific types of information. These are called thematic or special purpose maps. These maps usually show specific topics in detail. Special purpose maps may include information about

  • climate
  • vegetation
  • natural resources
  • population density
  • historical expansion
Types of Maps
types of maps4

Types of Maps

Historical Maps

Historical maps show events that occurred in a region over time. In the map to the right, you can see where Europeans settled in the North America continent in the past.

Types of Maps
types of maps5

Types of Maps

Contour Maps

A contour map has contour lines—one line for each major level of elevation. All the land at the same elevation is connected by a line. These lines usually form circles or ovals—one inside the other. If contour lines are close together, the surface is steep. If the lines are spread apart, the land is flat or rises gradually.

Types of Maps
types of maps6

Types of Maps

Vegetation Maps

Vegetation maps are special purpose maps that show the different types of plants that are found in a region.

Types of Maps
graphs charts and diagrams

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Graphs

Graphs present and summarize information visually. Each part of a graph provides useful information. To read a graph, follow these steps:

  • Read the graph’s title to find out its subject.
  • To understand bar and line graphs, read the labels along the axes—the vertical line along the left side of the graph and the horizontal line along the bottom of the graph. One axis will tell you what is being measured. The other axis tells you what units of measurement are being used.
Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
graphs charts and diagrams1

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Bar Graphs

Graphs that use bars or wide lines to compare data visually are called bar graphs.

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
graphs charts and diagrams2

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Circle Graphs

You can use circle graphs when you want to show how the whole of something is divided into its parts. Because of their shape, circle graphs are often called pie graphs. Each slide represents a part or percentage of the whole pie. The whole graph generally totals 100 percent.

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
graphs charts and diagrams3

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Line Graphs

Line graphs help show changes over a period of time. The amounts being measured are plotted on the grid above each year and then are connected by a line.

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
graphs charts and diagrams4

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Charts

Charts present related facts and numbers in an organized way. They arrange data, especially numbers, in rows and columns for easy reference.

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
graphs charts and diagrams5

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams

Diagrams

Diagrams are drawings that show steps in a process, point out the parts of an object, or explain how something works.

Graphs, Charts, and Diagrams
slide44

To use this Presentation Plus! product:

Click the Forwardbutton to go to the next slide.

Click the Previousbutton to return to the previous slide.

Click the Homebutton to return to the Chapter Menu.

Click the Transparency button from the Chapter Menu, Chapter Introduction, or Visual Summary slides to access the transparencies that are relevant to this chapter. From within a section, click on this button to access the relevant Daily Focus Skills Transparency.

Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation.

Click the Geography Online button to access online textbook features.

Click the Reference Atlas button to access the Interactive Reference Atlas.

Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show.

Click the Helpbutton to access this screen.

Links to Presentation Plus! features such as Graphs in Motion, Charts in Motion, and figures from your textbook are located at the bottom of relevant screens.

Help