Theories and models of language
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 31

Theories and Models of Language PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 161 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Theories and Models of Language. Oral Language and Written Language. “Reading seems to depend on a set of language processes that are common to both reading and listening.” (Daneman, 1991, p.56)” …internally reading and auding are the same language (Sticht & James, 1984, p. 303).

Download Presentation

Theories and Models of Language

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Theories and models of language

Theories and Models of Language


Oral language and written language

Oral Language and Written Language

  • “Reading seems to depend on a set of language processes that are common to both reading and listening.” (Daneman, 1991, p.56)”

  • …internally reading and auding are the same language (Sticht & James, 1984, p. 303).


Definition of oral language

Definition of Oral Language

  • Primary means of human communication

  • A system for representing human thought

  • Use of abstract symbols (sounds) to represent concepts

  • Use of a finite number of sounds to create an infinite number of words

  • Involves genetic and environmental bases

  • Acquired through active participation: listening, speaking, evaluating responses


Language and thought possibilities

Language and Thought: Possibilities

  • Thought depends on language

  • Language depends on thought

  • Language and thought are interactive


Components of language

Components of Language

  • Phonology

  • Morphology

  • Syntax

  • Semantics

  • Pragmatics


The sounds of language phonology

The Sounds of Language: Phonology

  • The English language has 44 sounds represented in writing by only 26 letters: cough, tough, bough, through, though

  • Linguists categorize sounds by the place and manner of articulation.


Speech production

Speech Production

  • We push air from the lungs up through the vocal tract and manipulate:

    • Vibration of vocal cords

    • Raising the velum (air is forced through the mouth) and lowering the velum (some air escapes through the nose)

    • Stopping or impeding the air flow

    • /p//t/ /k//m/


Morphology

Morphology

  • Morphemes are units of meaning.

  • A word may contain one or more morphemes: hunt; hunts; hunted; hunter; hunters.

  • Morphemes can be free (cat) or bound (s, ing, ed).

  • The same morpheme can carry multiple meanings in English: cats, wants.


Syntax

Syntax

  • Syntax refers to sentence construction.

  • The vyakum flannered down the quettiful voth with maggle tome. Despite zathers, Cneb ackered the sestuaga and planella. He iffered and hathered for bromes and bromes.


Semantics

Semantics

  • Word Meaning: Fat, rich, soft, suet, weighty

  • Word Choice: Fat, plump, overweight, chunky, chubby, stout, obese

  • Word Combinations: fat cat, fat of the land, chew the fat; fat farm; fat chance; fat wallet; fat lip


Pragmatics

Pragmatics

  • “For pity’s sake, will you shut up so I can get a word in edgewise?”

  • “Excuse me for interrupting but I really need to offer a comment.”

  • “Stuff it!”


Units of language

Units of Language

  • Phoneme

  • Syllable

  • Morpheme

  • Word

  • Phrase

  • Clause

  • Sentence

  • Genre or discourse


Communicative competence

Communicative Competence

  • Grammatical competence: Word formation; word meaning; pronunciation; sentence formation

  • Pragmatic or sociolinguistic competence: Producing and understanding language in different contexts; considering factors as participants, purposes and conventions of the interaction


Communicative competence1

Communicative Competence

  • Discourse Competence: Combining linguistic units into meaningful wholes

  • Strategic Competence: manipulating language to achieve goals; use of gestures and voice tone


Language functions

Language Functions

  • Instrumental

  • Regulatory

  • Interactional

  • Personal

  • Imaginative

  • Heuristic

  • Informative

  • Metalinguistic


How children learn language skinner

How Children Learn LanguageSkinner

  • Language is a set of associations learned through relating a stimulus to a response

  • Language is learned through imitation, practice and reinforcement

  • Criticized because of low rate of parental reinforcement; attention to accuracy as opposed to grammatical correctness and low use of imitation in children


How children learn language chomsky

How Children Learn Language Chomsky

  • Language is innate and part of biological makeup: LAD

  • Each language has a limited set of basic sentence structures and transformations of these structures

  • Speed of language development would be impossible without innate structures


How children learn language phonology

How Children Learn Language: Phonology

  • Emerges without teaching

  • Learning to make sounds occurs before learning to make words

    • Sounds are learned in a pattern

  • The first stage in babbling or spontaneous vocalizing


How children learn language morphology

How Children Learn Language: Morphology

  • Learn irregular forms: came, men, mice,feet

  • Overgeneralize to other words: camed, mens, mices, feets

  • Learn rules and relearn exceptions


How children learn syntax

How Children Learn Syntax

  • One word stage

  • Two word stage

  • Telegraphic stage


How children learn vocabulary

How Children Learn Vocabulary

  • Overextension and underextension

  • Age I year, 8 months: 50 words

  • Age 5: 15/20 words per day

  • Age 8: 18,000 basic words


Language myths

Language Myths

  • Some languages are simpler and easier to learn

  • Some languages are primitive

  • Some dialects are better than others

  • Some languages are superior to others


Language myths1

Language Myths

  • Other people have accents

  • Language should be correct

  • Children learn languages more easily than adults

  • English spelling is irregular and idiosyncratic ghoti = fish


Two theoretical perspectives

Two Theoretical Perspectives

  • Cognitive Science Perspective

  • Sociocultural Perspective


Cognitive science perspective

Cognitive Science Perspective

  • An empirically based effort to answer questions concerned with the nature of knowledge, its components, its development and its use.

  • The individual is regarded as a processor of environmental input.


Cognitive science perspective1

Cognitive Science Perspective

  • There is little innate higher knowledge.

  • Lower level learning mechanisms lead to higher level concepts and behavior.

  • Cognitive science focuses on the processes individuals use to make sense of and integrate information.


Sociocultural perspective

Sociocultural Perspective

  • Human knowledge is embedded in social and physical contexts and cannot be examined in decontextualized manner.

  • Social experience plays a critical role in the development of language and literacy.


Contrasting perspectives

Contrasting Perspectives

Cognitive Science

  • Learning: acquisition

  • Capability: skill

  • Mind: rational

  • Unit of Analysis: the individual

Sociocultural

  • Learning: participation

  • Capability: practice

  • Mind: evaluative

  • Unit of Analysis: social participation in context


Contrasting perspectives language

Contrasting Perspectives Language

Cognitive Science

  • Interest in grammar

  • Stress on complex rule systems and cognitive constraints

  • Word meaning analyzed as components features

Sociocultural

  • Interest in meaning and pragmatics

  • Stress on social dynamics

  • Context analyzed in determining meaning


Contrasting perspectives language1

Contrasting Perspectives Language

Cognitive Science

  • Language is a knowledge system that must be acquired by means of a processing system.

Sociocultural

  • Language is a system of social and cultural practices into which a child must be socialized.


Study team digestion time

Study Team Digestion Time

  • What were the most important new concepts that you learned?

  • What did you find interesting, controversial, confusing, alarming, comforting, etc.?

  • Be prepared to share with the class.


  • Login