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PENGUINS Class Aves 17-18 living species 32 extinct species…. WHY? fossil records show increased number of seals and small whales Compete for the same food Penguins BECAME food! Fossil record date back 38-42 million years ago - 4-6 FEET tall - 198-298 pounds Habitat and distribution

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penguins

PENGUINS

Class Aves

slide2
17-18 living species
  • 32 extinct species…. WHY?
  • fossil records show increased number of seals and small whales
  • Compete for the same food
  • Penguins BECAME food!
  • Fossil record date back 38-42 million years ago - 4-6 FEET tall - 198-298 pounds
habitat and distribution
Habitat and distribution
  • ALL found in Southern Hemisphere
  • Islands & remote continental regions – near nutrient rich cold water that provides an abundant supply of food
  • Range from tropical islands at the equator to Antarctica
physical characteristics
Physical characteristics
  • Sizes range from 16 inches – 4 feet
  • Fusiform/streamline body shape
  • Short wedge shapes tail
  • Webbed feet
  • countershading
  • Nictitating membrane
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Sexually dimorphic
  • Monogamous
  • Molt once a year after breeding
  • Male incubates the egg on his feet.
slide7
Feed their young by regurgitating.

A CLUTCH is a nest of eggs.

They can live 15-20 years

50% starvation rate in the winter

90% mortality within the first year

predators
PREDATORS!!
  • Leopard seal
  • Sea lion
  • Sharks
  • Killer whales
  • Foxes
  • Snakes
  • Feral dogs & cats
  • Stoats (weasel family)
  • Predatory birds
  • Human interaction
slide9
Bill shape varies according to prey – fish, squid, krill
  • Glands in the bill help eliminate excess salt
  • Can dive for 1-7 minutes as deep as 230 feet.

Galapagos Penguin

rockhoppers

Adelie

Rockhoppers

Rockhopper

Macaroni

slide11

Chinstrap

Fairy

Emperor

Royal

Gentoo

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