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PENGUINS PowerPoint PPT Presentation

PENGUINS Class Aves 17-18 living species 32 extinct species…. WHY? fossil records show increased number of seals and small whales Compete for the same food Penguins BECAME food! Fossil record date back 38-42 million years ago - 4-6 FEET tall - 198-298 pounds Habitat and distribution

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PENGUINS

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Penguins l.jpg

PENGUINS

Class Aves


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  • 17-18 living species

  • 32 extinct species…. WHY?

  • fossil records show increased number of seals and small whales

  • Compete for the same food

  • Penguins BECAME food!

  • Fossil record date back 38-42 million years ago - 4-6 FEET tall - 198-298 pounds


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Habitat and distribution

  • ALL found in Southern Hemisphere

  • Islands & remote continental regions – near nutrient rich cold water that provides an abundant supply of food

  • Range from tropical islands at the equator to Antarctica


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Physical characteristics

  • Sizes range from 16 inches – 4 feet

  • Fusiform/streamline body shape

  • Short wedge shapes tail

  • Webbed feet

  • countershading

  • Nictitating membrane


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Reproduction

  • Sexually dimorphic

  • Monogamous

  • Molt once a year after breeding

  • Male incubates the egg on his feet.


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Emperor

Baby Penguins!


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Feed their young by regurgitating.

A CLUTCH is a nest of eggs.

They can live 15-20 years

50% starvation rate in the winter

90% mortality within the first year


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PREDATORS!!

  • Leopard seal

  • Sea lion

  • Sharks

  • Killer whales

  • Foxes

  • Snakes

  • Feral dogs & cats

  • Stoats (weasel family)

  • Predatory birds

  • Human interaction


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  • Bill shape varies according to prey – fish, squid, krill

  • Glands in the bill help eliminate excess salt

  • Can dive for 1-7 minutes as deep as 230 feet.

Galapagos Penguin


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Adelie

Rockhoppers

Rockhopper

Macaroni


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Chinstrap

Fairy

Emperor

Royal

Gentoo


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