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Ground-Based Primary Transport . TOPICS: Conventional ground skidding equipment Mechanical felling, tree processing & forwarding equipment & systems Management alternatives for soil compaction Operational planning & principles in designing skid trail systems.

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Ground-Based Primary Transport

TOPICS:

Conventional ground skidding equipment

Mechanical felling, tree processing & forwarding equipment & systems

Management alternatives for soil compaction

Operational planning & principles in designing skid trail systems


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Ground-Based Primary Transport

COURSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

Harvesting process terminology;

Capabilities & limitations of equipment &

systems in a range of different silviculture

systems

Select/match ground-based equipment/

systems to different operating environments – considering equipment limitations, economics, environmental impact & social factors


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Ground-Based Primary Transport

ASSIGNMENT

(Due Monday, Oct. 11 @ 11:00 AM

Review SLC Video #850 (32 minutes) on

Soil Compaction on Forest Lands

Review SLC Video #903 (27 minutes) on

Designated Skid Trails

Submit a written summary of five alternatives for managing soil compaction


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Ground-Based Primary Transport

CONVENTIONAL GROUND SKIDDING ALTERNATIVES:

Animals

Track Skidders

- Rigid Track

- Flexible Track

Rubber Tire Skidders

- Line skidders

- Grapple skidders

Excavator Forwarder (shovel logging or hoe chucking)

Clambunk Skidders

Forwarders


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Ground-Based Primary Transport

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS (ALL EQUIPMENT/SYSTEMS):

  • Lower productivity & lower logging costs than cable systems

  • Soil disturbance/compaction is a more significant concern with ground-based logging systems

  • Several excellent planning and management alternatives are available for controlling soil disturbance/compaction

  • Some equipment is best matched with thinning; others for clearcutting; others for both

  • Downhill transport is preferred

  • Terrain limits are generally: Downhill <35% Uphill < 20%

    Sidehill <20%

  • Economic maximum transport distances range from 500 to 2000 feet

    (downhill). Uphill transport is approx. half of downhill distance.


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Horse Logging

  • Animal weights: 1,500–2,000 lbs

  • 800 – 1500 lbs payloads

  • < 25% downhill slope

  • 500 ft. max. skidding distance

  • Low productivity (2-3 MBF/day)

  • Approx. average skidding cost: $50/MBF (all ground-based systems)

  • Niche applications


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Rigid-Track Skidders (Crawler Tractors)

  • Uniform ground contact only on even surfaces

  • Rear or elevated drive wheel

  • Loaded weight distribution (level surface): 80/20

  • Equipment weight: 30 – 50 K lbs

  • 70 – 200 horsepower

  • < 40% downhill slope

  • 600 ft. max. skidding distance


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Rigid-Track Skidders (Crawler Tractor)

  • Clearcut and partial cut applications

  • Equipment versatility

  • Average productivity (clearcut with favorable conditions):

    20 MBF/day


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Flexible-Track Skidders (High Speed or LGP Track Skidder)

  • FMC transferred rights to KMC

  • Uniform ground contact on uneven surfaces

  • Front drive wheel

  • Independent torsion suspension

  • Loaded weight distribution (level surface: 60/40

  • Equipment weight: 30 – 40 K lbs

  • Average of 200 horsepower

  • Faster travel speed than crawler tractor

  • < 50% downhill slope

  • 800 ft. max. skidding distance


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Flexible-Track Skidders (High Speed or LGP Track Skidder)

  • Clearcut and partial cut applications

  • Low ground pressure applications

  • Higher equipment purchase cost and maintenance cost

  • Average productivity similar to crawler tractor


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Rubber Tire Skidder

  • All-wheel drive

  • Articulated steering (hinged in the center for steering)

  • Loaded weight distribution (level surface): 80/20

  • Equipment weight: 20 – 35 K lbs

  • 100 – 200 horsepower

  • Travel speed similar to flexible track skidder

  • < 30% downhill slope

  • 600 ft. max. skidding distance


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Rubber Tire Skidder

  • Line Skidders


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Rubber Tire Skidder

  • Grapple Skidders (log or bunching)

  • Often matched with a feller- buncher in a whole tree skidding system


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Rubber Tire Skidder

  • Lower payload capacity

  • Lower equipment purchase cost

  • Clearcut and partial cut applications

  • Potential for higher damage in thinnings than track skidder


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Rubber Tire Skidder

  • Wide Tire Skidders

    (average width of 32” vs. 43”-50”)

  • Better “flotation” on low-strength soils

  • Lower tire sinkage & rolling resistance

  • Traction problems on wet steep slopes with logging slash


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Excavator Forwarder (Shovel Logging or Hoe Chucking)

  • Modified hydraulic log loader

  • < 20% downhill (non self-leveling)

  • 400 ft. max. swing distance

  • High productivity (e.g.80 MBF/day)

  • Low ground impact in favorable operating conditions

  • Clearcut operations preferred

  • Serpentine or bunching patterns of operation


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Excavator Forwarder (Shovel Logging or Hoe Chucking)

Serpentine Forwarding Pattern Bunching Pattern with a Skidder Swing


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Excavator Forwarder (Shovel Logging or Hoe Chucking)

Hydraulic Log Loader with Winches

  • Steep slope cable yarding

  • Preferred yarding distances

    <400 ft. (max. 800 ft.)

  • Equipment versatility

  • Short cable yarding distance applications


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Clambunk Skidders

  • Articulated chasis

  • Integral grapple arm and

    Inverted bunk grapple

  • Bogie wheels: Tandem axles driven by a single differential (lower ground pressure than single axles); often used with half-tracks for better traction


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Clambunk Skidders

  • Matched with a feller-buncher and whole tree skidding system

  • High payloads (15 tons)

  • 1500 ft. max. skidding distance

  • <30% downhill slope

  • Clearcut operations – natural or plantation forests

  • Consider road impacts


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Forwarders

  • Articulated chasis

  • Hydraulic loading grapple

  • Bogie wheels

  • 5 to 19 ton payload range

  • Short logs


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Forwarders

  • Matched with a single-grip harvester and a CTL system

  • 2000 ft. max. skidding distance

  • < 30% ground slope

  • Thinning and fuels reduction applications


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Ground-Based Primary Transport

The actual equipment performance, productivity and costs, and soil impacts depends on site-specific conditions…..

….Logging mechanics consideration of factors including grade resistance (or assistance), skidding resistance, rolling resistance, soil strength and traction


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