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Ground-Based Primary Transport . TOPICS: Conventional ground skidding equipment Mechanical felling, tree processing & forwarding equipment & systems Management alternatives for soil compaction Operational planning & principles in designing skid trail systems.

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ground based primary transport

Ground-Based Primary Transport

TOPICS:

Conventional ground skidding equipment

Mechanical felling, tree processing & forwarding equipment & systems

Management alternatives for soil compaction

Operational planning & principles in designing skid trail systems

ground based primary transport2

Ground-Based Primary Transport

COURSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

Harvesting process terminology;

Capabilities & limitations of equipment &

systems in a range of different silviculture

systems

Select/match ground-based equipment/

systems to different operating environments – considering equipment limitations, economics, environmental impact & social factors

ground based primary transport3

Ground-Based Primary Transport

ASSIGNMENT

(Due Monday, Oct. 11 @ 11:00 AM

Review SLC Video #850 (32 minutes) on

Soil Compaction on Forest Lands

Review SLC Video #903 (27 minutes) on

Designated Skid Trails

Submit a written summary of five alternatives for managing soil compaction

ground based primary transport4

Ground-Based Primary Transport

CONVENTIONAL GROUND SKIDDING ALTERNATIVES:

Animals

Track Skidders

- Rigid Track

- Flexible Track

Rubber Tire Skidders

- Line skidders

- Grapple skidders

Excavator Forwarder (shovel logging or hoe chucking)

Clambunk Skidders

Forwarders

ground based primary transport5
Ground-Based Primary Transport

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS (ALL EQUIPMENT/SYSTEMS):

  • Lower productivity & lower logging costs than cable systems
  • Soil disturbance/compaction is a more significant concern with ground-based logging systems
  • Several excellent planning and management alternatives are available for controlling soil disturbance/compaction
  • Some equipment is best matched with thinning; others for clearcutting; others for both
  • Downhill transport is preferred
  • Terrain limits are generally: Downhill <35% Uphill < 20%

Sidehill <20%

  • Economic maximum transport distances range from 500 to 2000 feet

(downhill). Uphill transport is approx. half of downhill distance.

horse logging
Horse Logging
  • Animal weights: 1,500–2,000 lbs
  • 800 – 1500 lbs payloads
  • < 25% downhill slope
  • 500 ft. max. skidding distance
  • Low productivity (2-3 MBF/day)
  • Approx. average skidding cost: $50/MBF (all ground-based systems)
  • Niche applications
rigid track skidders crawler tractors
Rigid-Track Skidders (Crawler Tractors)
  • Uniform ground contact only on even surfaces
  • Rear or elevated drive wheel
  • Loaded weight distribution (level surface): 80/20
  • Equipment weight: 30 – 50 K lbs
  • 70 – 200 horsepower
  • < 40% downhill slope
  • 600 ft. max. skidding distance
rigid track skidders crawler tractor
Rigid-Track Skidders (Crawler Tractor)
  • Clearcut and partial cut applications
  • Equipment versatility
  • Average productivity (clearcut with favorable conditions):

20 MBF/day

flexible track skidders high speed or lgp track skidder
Flexible-Track Skidders (High Speed or LGP Track Skidder)
  • FMC transferred rights to KMC
  • Uniform ground contact on uneven surfaces
  • Front drive wheel
  • Independent torsion suspension
  • Loaded weight distribution (level surface: 60/40
  • Equipment weight: 30 – 40 K lbs
  • Average of 200 horsepower
  • Faster travel speed than crawler tractor
  • < 50% downhill slope
  • 800 ft. max. skidding distance
flexible track skidders high speed or lgp track skidder13
Flexible-Track Skidders (High Speed or LGP Track Skidder)
  • Clearcut and partial cut applications
  • Low ground pressure applications
  • Higher equipment purchase cost and maintenance cost
  • Average productivity similar to crawler tractor
rubber tire skidder
Rubber Tire Skidder
  • All-wheel drive
  • Articulated steering (hinged in the center for steering)
  • Loaded weight distribution (level surface): 80/20
  • Equipment weight: 20 – 35 K lbs
  • 100 – 200 horsepower
  • Travel speed similar to flexible track skidder
  • < 30% downhill slope
  • 600 ft. max. skidding distance
rubber tire skidder15
Rubber Tire Skidder
  • Line Skidders
rubber tire skidder16
Rubber Tire Skidder
  • Grapple Skidders (log or bunching)
  • Often matched with a feller- buncher in a whole tree skidding system
rubber tire skidder17
Rubber Tire Skidder
  • Lower payload capacity
  • Lower equipment purchase cost
  • Clearcut and partial cut applications
  • Potential for higher damage in thinnings than track skidder
rubber tire skidder18
Rubber Tire Skidder
  • Wide Tire Skidders

(average width of 32” vs. 43”-50”)

  • Better “flotation” on low-strength soils
  • Lower tire sinkage & rolling resistance
  • Traction problems on wet steep slopes with logging slash
excavator forwarder shovel logging or hoe chucking
Excavator Forwarder (Shovel Logging or Hoe Chucking)
  • Modified hydraulic log loader
  • < 20% downhill (non self-leveling)
  • 400 ft. max. swing distance
  • High productivity (e.g.80 MBF/day)
  • Low ground impact in favorable operating conditions
  • Clearcut operations preferred
  • Serpentine or bunching patterns of operation
excavator forwarder shovel logging or hoe chucking20
Excavator Forwarder (Shovel Logging or Hoe Chucking)

Serpentine Forwarding Pattern Bunching Pattern with a Skidder Swing

excavator forwarder shovel logging or hoe chucking21
Excavator Forwarder (Shovel Logging or Hoe Chucking)

Hydraulic Log Loader with Winches

  • Steep slope cable yarding
  • Preferred yarding distances

<400 ft. (max. 800 ft.)

  • Equipment versatility
  • Short cable yarding distance applications
clambunk skidders
Clambunk Skidders
  • Articulated chasis
  • Integral grapple arm and

Inverted bunk grapple

  • Bogie wheels: Tandem axles driven by a single differential (lower ground pressure than single axles); often used with half-tracks for better traction
clambunk skidders23
Clambunk Skidders
  • Matched with a feller-buncher and whole tree skidding system
  • High payloads (15 tons)
  • 1500 ft. max. skidding distance
  • <30% downhill slope
  • Clearcut operations – natural or plantation forests
  • Consider road impacts
forwarders
Forwarders
  • Articulated chasis
  • Hydraulic loading grapple
  • Bogie wheels
  • 5 to 19 ton payload range
  • Short logs
forwarders25
Forwarders
  • Matched with a single-grip harvester and a CTL system
  • 2000 ft. max. skidding distance
  • < 30% ground slope
  • Thinning and fuels reduction applications
ground based primary transport26

Ground-Based Primary Transport

The actual equipment performance, productivity and costs, and soil impacts depends on site-specific conditions…..

….Logging mechanics consideration of factors including grade resistance (or assistance), skidding resistance, rolling resistance, soil strength and traction

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